Association of University Teachers
The Association of University Teachers was the trade union and professional association that represented academic and academic-related staff at pre-1992 universities in the United Kingdom. The final general secretary of AUT was Sally Hunt. AUT had branches in a number of post-1992 universities and in university colleges, although the main union representing academic staff in these institutes was the National Association of Teachers in Further and Higher Education. On 2 December 2005 the results of a membership ballot on a merger of NATFHE was announced; the merger was supported by 95.7 % of NATFHE members who voted. The two unions amalgamated on 1 June 2006, after a transitional year, full operational unity was achieved in June 2007; the new union is called the College Union. In 1909, Douglas Laurie, a young zoology lecturer at Liverpool University called a meeting "To consider a proposal to form an Association for bringing together the members of the Junior Staff more into touch with one another and with the life of the University" At this time an increasing number of non-professorial staff were being employed.
These Junior Staff or Assistant Lecturers were poorly paid, did the same duties as professors and had few promotion prospects. In addition they had no representation on the bodies governing the Universities. Although the society formed at Liverpool was formally a "dining and discussion society" from an early stage it was a new pressure group. At first its aims were local and in 1910 it won a campaign over representation on the faculties but on learning that similar groups had been formed or were in the process of formation they invited representatives of the junior staff from Bristol, Birmingham and Manchester for a dinner. In 1913 the junior staff at the Victoria University of Manchester presented a request for improvements in pay and grading to their University Council; this included a suggestion that the starting pay should be increased. The Council replied that while it agreed that there should be an increase, at the current time there was insufficient money to pay for this. By 1917 inflation had eroded the value of salaries and Douglas Laurie called a meeting on 15 December 1917 to draw up a memorandum to present to the Board of Education.
As an after thought he invited representatives of Assistant Lecturers from all Universities. The meeting was attended by delegates from 15 institutions; the issues raised by the memorandum drafted at the meeting included: pay. A motion was passed to a new association with the name "The Association of University Lecturers"; the name caused some dissent but a split was prevented. However the Scottish Lecturers went their own way and formed a separate Association in 1922 which merged with AUT in 1949 but retained some of its autonomy; the issue of pensions brought the idea of professional unity to the fore. The pension scheme for lecturers was to be left out of the new Teachers pension fund formed by the Teachers' Act 1918; as pension funds affect staff at levels of their career this created pressure the Association to be one which included professors as well. At a conference in Bristol 27–28 June 1919 professorial delegates were present; the name of the new Association was left. The draft rules circulated at the conference read "The name of the society shall be...".
This was to be repeated nearly a century when delegates to the 2005 AUT council were presented with a draft rulebook for the merger with NATFHE which stated: "The name of the union shall be ". Speaking from the chair Laurie pointed out that "the idea which brought the Association into being was of a trade union character, but expressed the hope that, when material conditions had been satisfactorily improved, educational matters would form the essential points on which discussion would take place". In the end it was agreed that the new association's objectives would be"the advancement of University Education and Research and the promotion of common action among University teachers in connection therewith" with membership open to professors; the name Association of University Teachers was voted for nem con and Douglas Laurie was elected as the first President. It is interesting to speculate how the Association would have developed if professors had been excluded from membership and it was set up on a basis of representing the junior staff.
The Association's structure was a federation of Local Associations which elected delegates to a Central Council. The Council delegates elected an Executive Committee; the Council itself met twice a year. In March 2004, AUT members took industrial action over the proposed new pay structures offered by the Universities and Colleges Employers Association; the original proposals from UCEA would have meant large reductions in income due to smaller annual increments. The action involved a one-day national strike and one-day strikes in each of the four countries of the UK, followed by an assessment boycott that threatened to derail examinations that summer; the industrial action lasted 25 days before UCEA agreed to many of the union's demands. The agreement included the so-called Memorandum of Understanding which provided certain safeguards on
University of Dundee
The University of Dundee is a public research university in Dundee, Scotland. Founded in 1881 the institution was, for most of its early existence, a constituent college of the University of St Andrews alongside United College and St Mary's College located in the town of St Andrews itself. Following significant expansion, the University of Dundee gained independent university status in 1967 while retaining much of its ancient heritage and governance structure; the main campus of the university is located in Dundee's West End which contains many of the university's teaching and research facilities. The university has additional facilities at Ninewells Hospital, containing its school of medicine; the annual income of the institution for 2017–18 was £246.2 million of which £74 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £255.2 million. It is ranked within the top 300 universities in the world and within the top 40 in the UK by national university rankings; the University of Dundee has its roots in the earlier University college based in Dundee and the University of St Andrews.
During the 19th century, the growing population of Dundee increased demand for the establishment of an institution of higher education in the city and several organisations were established to promote this end, including a University Club in the city. There was a significant movement with the intention of moving the entire university to Dundee or the establishment of a college along similar lines to the present United College. Agreement was reached that what was needed was expansion of the sciences and professions, rather than the arts at St Andrews. In the early 1870s, construction began on the North British Railway's Tay Bridge which cut journey times between Dundee and St Andrews enormously and allowed for a third option between the status quo and complete movement: the creation of what was foreseen as a "University of Dundee and St Andrews", situated between two campuses, each with their own particular specialities. A donation of £120,000 for the creation of an institution of higher education in Dundee was made by Miss Mary Ann Baxter of Balgavies, a notable lady of the city and heir to the fortune of William Baxter of Balgavies.
In this endeavour, she was assisted by her relative, Dr John Boyd Baxter, an alumnus of St Andrews and Procurator Fiscal of Forfarshire who contributed nearly £20,000. In order to craft the institution and its principles, it was to be established first as an independent university college, with a view from its inception towards incorporation into the University of St Andrews. In 1881, the ideals of the proposed new college were laid down, suggesting the establishment of an institute for "promoting the education of persons of both sexes and the study of Science and the Fine Arts". No religious oaths were to be required of members; that year, "University College, Dundee" was established as an academic institution and the first principal, William Peterson, was elected in late 1882. When opened in 1883, it comprised five faculties: Maths and Natural Philosophy, Chemistry and Drawing, English Language and Literature and Modern History, Philosophy; the University College had no power to award degrees and for some years students were prepared for external examinations of the University of London.
The policy of no discrimination between the sexes, insisted upon by Mary Ann Baxter, meant that the new college recruited several able female students. Their number included the social reformer Mary Lily Walker and Margaret Fairlie who in 1940 became Scotland's first female professor. Another early female graduate, Dr Ruth Wilson Young, became professor of surgery at Lady Hardinge Medical College in Delhi and became its principal. Following discussions around various forms of incorporation and association, students were able to matriculate through the University of St Andrews from 1885; the full incorporation was completed in 1897 when University College became part of the University of St Andrews. This move was of notable benefit to both, enabling the University of St Andrews to support a medical school. Medical students could choose to undertake preclinical studies either in Dundee or St Andrews after which all students would undertake their clinical studies at Dundee. Law and other professional subjects were taught at University College.
By 1904 University College had a roll of 208, making up 40 per cent of the roll of the University generally. By session 1909-10 234 students were studying at University College. Among the notable students at this time were Robert Watson-Watt, the radar pioneer. University College's development in the early twentieth century has been described as "slow and fitful" and the interwar period saw no new building projects, leaving large parts of the college housed in buildings which were not fit for purpose. Kenneth Baxter has claimed that World War I had a major impact on University College and stated that the conflict presented it with "a storm of challenges unlike anything it had faced" up to that point. Baxter contends that the War impacted the College with key consequen
Middlesex University London is a public university in Hendon, north-west London, England. It is a member of the Million + working group; the name of the University is taken from its location within the historic county boundaries of Middlesex. The university's history can be traced back to 1878 when its founding institute, St Katherine's College, was established in Tottenham as a teacher training college for women. Having merged with several other institutes, the university was consolidated in its current form in 1992. More than 140 nationalities are represented at the university's Hendon campus alone; the university has campuses in Malta and Mauritius as well as a number of local offices across the globe. In 2012, the university re-structured its academic schools to faculties to align them more with the needs of the industry. Courses are delivered by the Faculty of Science and Technology, Faculty of Professional and Social Sciences, the Faculty of the Arts and Creative Industries. Middlesex University was awarded Silver in the Teaching Excellence Framework 2017 for the quality of its teaching and outcomes for students, was judged to have ‘consistently exceeded the rigorous national quality requirements’ for UK higher education.
For 140 years, Middlesex University has been based in North London. The university grew out of mergers between different schools and colleges in the area beginning in 1878 when St. Katherine's College, a female teacher training college, was created in Tottenham, it was joined by Hornsey College of Art, founded in 1882, Ponders End Technical Institute, founded in 1901, Hendon Technical Institute, opened in 1939. In 1973 these colleges and further institutions around North London formed Middlesex Polytechnic. In 1992 Middlesex University was established from Middlesex Polytechnic by Royal Assent as part of the Further and Higher Education Act. More institutions joined at this time. From the 1990s, the university began to develop its international presence with their first overseas regional office in Kuala Lumpur. In 1995, a network of regional offices opened across Europe. In 2005, Middlesex opened its first overseas campus in Dubai followed by a campuses in Mauritius in 2009 and Malta in 2013; the university has partnerships with other educational institutions around the world.
The university has now consolidated its many London campuses into one Hendon campus where it now accommodates all its London-based teaching. Timeline 1878 – St Katherine's College opens in Tottenham 1882 – Hornsey College of Art founded 1901 – Ponders End Technical Institute begins 1939 – Hendon Technical Institute opens 1947 – Trent Park College of Education opens 1962 – New College of Speech and Drama opens 1962 – Ponders End Technical Institute is renamed Enfield College of Technology by the Ministry of Education. 1964 – St Katherine's College unites with Berridge House to form The College of All Saints 1973 – Middlesex Polytechnic formed 1974 – Trent Park College of Education and New College of Speech and Drama join Middlesex Polytechnic 1978 – The College of All Saints closes, with the buildings transferred to Middlesex Polytechnic 1991 – David Melville becomes the first Vice-Chancellor 1992 – Middlesex University formed. 200 redundancies to make £10m of savings 2012 – Trent Park campus closed and programmes relocated to flagship campus in Hendon.
2013 – Closure of Archway campus and transfer of programmes to Hendon. All UK teaching at Hendon. Third international campus opens in Malta 2015 – Professor Tim Blackman becomes the Vice-Chancellor 2016 – Inauguration of the new hall of residence "Unite Olympic Way" at London Campus with 700 new rooms for Middlesex University students. 2016 – Inauguration of the new building "Forum North". "Forum North" houses Art & Design, Media & Performing Arts and Science & Technology facilities in an impressive eco-friendly buildi
Higher education is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education. Delivered at universities, colleges, seminaries and institutes of technology, higher education is available through certain college-level institutions, including vocational schools, trade schools, other career colleges that award academic degrees or professional certifications. Tertiary education at non-degree level is sometimes referred to as further education or continuing education as distinct from higher education; the right of access to higher education is mentioned in a number of international human rights instruments. The UN International Covenant on Economic and Cultural Rights of 1966 declares, in Article 13, that "higher education shall be made accessible to all, on the basis of capacity, by every appropriate means, in particular by the progressive introduction of free education". In Europe, Article 2 of the First Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights, adopted in 1950, obliges all signatory parties to guarantee the right to education.
In the days when few pupils progressed beyond primary education or basic education, the term "higher education" was used to refer to secondary education, which can create some confusion. This is the origin of the term high school for various schools for children between the ages of 14 and 18 or 11 and 18. Higher education includes teaching, exacting applied work, social services activities of universities. Within the realm of teaching, it includes both the undergraduate level, beyond that, graduate-level; the latter level of education is referred to as graduate school in North America. In addition to the skills that are specific to any particular degree, potential employers in any profession are looking for evidence of critical thinking and analytical reasoning skills, teamworking skills, information literacy, ethical judgment, decision-making skills, fluency in speaking and writing, problem solving skills, a wide knowledge of liberal arts and sciences. Since World War II, developed and many developing countries have increased the participation of the age group who studies higher education from the elite rate, of up to 15 per cent, to the mass rate of 16 to 50 per cent.
In many developed countries, participation in higher education has continued to increase towards universal or, what Trow called, open access, where over half of the relevant age group participate in higher education. Higher education is important to national economies, both as an industry, in its own right, as a source of trained and educated personnel for the rest of the economy. College educated workers have commanded a measurable wage premium and are much less to become unemployed than less educated workers. However, the admission of so many students of only average ability to higher education requires a decline in academic standards, facilitated by grade inflation; the supply of graduates in many fields of study is exceeding the demand for their skills, which aggravates graduate unemployment, underemployment and educational inflation. The U. S. system of higher education was influenced by the Humboldtian model of higher education. Wilhelm von Humboldt's educational model goes beyond vocational training.
In a letter to the Prussian king, he wrote: There are undeniably certain kinds of knowledge that must be of a general nature and, more a certain cultivation of the mind and character that nobody can afford to be without. People cannot be good craftworkers, soldiers or businessmen unless, regardless of their occupation, they are good, upstanding and – according to their condition – well-informed human beings and citizens. If this basis is laid through schooling, vocational skills are acquired on, a person is always free to move from one occupation to another, as so happens in life; the philosopher Julian Nida-Rümelin criticized discrepancies between Humboldt's ideals and the contemporary European education policy, which narrowly understands education as a preparation for the labor market, argued that we need to decide between McKinsey and Humboldt. Demonstrated ability in reading and writing, as measured in the United States by the SAT or similar tests such as the ACT, have replaced colleges' individual entrance exams, is required for admission to higher education.
There is some question as to whether advanced mathematical skills or talent are in fact necessary for fields such as history, philosophy, or art. The general higher education and training that takes place in a university, college, or Institute of technology includes significant theoretical and abstract elements, as well as applied aspects. In contrast, the vocational higher education and training that takes place at vocational universities and schools concentrates on practical applications, with little theory. In addition, professional-level education is always included within Higher Education, in graduate schools since many postgraduate academic disciplines are both vocationally and theoretically/research oriented, such as in the law, pharmacy and veterinary medicine. A basic requirement for entry into these graduate-level programs is always a bachelor's degree, although alternative means of obtaining entry into such programs may be available at some universiti