A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools can provide both lower secondary education and upper secondary education, but these can be provided in separate schools, as in the American middle and high school system. Secondary schools follow on from primary schools and lead into vocational and tertiary education. Attendance is compulsory in most countries for students between the ages of 11 and 16; the organisations and terminology are more or less unique in each country. Within the English speaking world, there are three used systems to describe the age of the child; the first is the'equivalent ages' countries that base their education systems on the'English model' use one of two methods to identify the year group, while countries that base their systems on the'American K-12 model' refer to their year groups as'grades'. This terminology extends into research literature. Below is a convenient comparison.
The building needs to accommodate: Curriculum content Teaching methods Costs Education within the political framework Use of school building Constraints imposed by the site Design philosophyEach country will have a different education system and priorities. Schools need to accommodate students, storage and electrical systems, support staff, ancillary staff and administration; the number of rooms required can be determined from the predicted roll of the school and the area needed. According to standards used in the United Kingdom, a general classroom for 30 students needs to be 55 m², or more generously 62 m². A general art room for 30 students needs to be 83 m ². A drama studio or a specialist science laboratory for 30 needs to be 90 m². Examples are given on, and 1,850 place secondary school. The building providing the education has to fulfil the needs of: The students, the teachers, the non-teaching support staff, the administrators and the community, it has to meet general government building guidelines, health requirements, minimal functional requirements for classrooms and showers, electricity and services and storage of textbooks and basic teaching aids.
An optimum secondary school will meet the minimum conditions and will have: adequately sized classrooms. Government accountants having read the advice publish minimum guidelines on schools; these enable environmental establishing building costs. Future design plans are audited to ensure. Government ministries continue to press for cost standards to be reduced; the UK government published this downwardly revised space formula in 2014. It said the floor area should be 1050m² + 6.3m²/pupil place for 11- to 16-year-olds + 7m²/pupil place for post-16s. The external finishes were to be downgraded to meet a build cost of £1113/m². A secondary school locally may be called high senior high school. In some countries there are two phases to secondary education and, here the junior high school, intermediate school, lower secondary school, or middle school occurs between the primary school and high school. Names for secondary schools by countryArgentina: secundaria or polimodal, escuela secundaria Australia: high school, secondary college Austria: Gymnasium, Hauptschule, Höhere Bundeslehranstalt, Höhere Technische Lehranstalt Azerbaijan: orta məktəb Bahamas, The: junior high, senior high Belgium: lagere school/école primaire, secundair onderwijs/école secondaire, humaniora/humanités Bolivia: educación primaria superior and educación secundaria and Herzegovina: srednja škola, gimnazija Brazil: ensino médio, segundo grau Brunei: sekolah menengah, a few maktab Bulgaria: cредно образование Canada: High school, junior high or middle school, secondary school, école secondaire, collegiate institute, polyvalente Chile: enseñanza media China: zhong xue, consisting of chu zhong from grades 7 to 9 and gao zhong from grades 10 to 12 Colombia: bachillerato, segunda enseñanza Croatia: srednja škola, gimnazija Cyprus: Γυμνάσιο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο Czech Republic: střední škola, gymnázium, střední odborné učiliště Denmark: gymnasium Dominican Republic: nivel medio, bachillerato Egypt: Thanawya Amma, Estonia: upper secondary school, Lyceum Finland: lukio gymnasium France: collège, lycée Germany: Gymnasium, Realschule, Fachoberschule Greece: Γυμνάσιο, Γενικό Λύκειο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο, Hong Kong: Secondary school Hungary: gimnázium, k
Salt Lake City
Salt Lake City is the capital and the most populous municipality of the U. S. state of Utah. With an estimated population of 190,884 in 2014, the city is the core of the Salt Lake City metropolitan area, which has a population of 1,153,340. Salt Lake City is further situated within a larger metropolis known as the Salt Lake City–Ogden–Provo Combined Statistical Area, a corridor of contiguous urban and suburban development stretched along a 120-mile segment of the Wasatch Front, comprising a population of 2,423,912, it is one of only two major urban areas in the Great Basin. The world headquarters of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is located in Salt Lake City; the city was founded in 1847 by followers of the church, led by Brigham Young, who were seeking to escape persecution that they had experienced while living farther east. The Mormon pioneers, as they would come to be known, at first encountered an arid, inhospitable valley that they extensively irrigated and cultivated, thereby establishing the foundation to sustain the area's present population.
Salt Lake City's street grid system is based on the north-south east-west grid plan developed by early church leaders, with the Salt Lake Temple constructed at the grid's starting point. Due to its proximity to the Great Salt Lake, the city was named Great Salt Lake City. In 1868, the 17th Utah Territorial Legislature dropped the word "Great" from the city's name. Immigration of international members of the church, mining booms, the construction of the first transcontinental railroad brought economic growth, the city was nicknamed the Crossroads of the West, it was traversed by the Lincoln Highway, the first transcontinental highway, in 1913. Two major cross-country freeways, I-15 and I-80, now intersect in the city. Salt Lake City has developed a strong outdoor recreation tourist industry based on skiing, the city hosted the 2002 Winter Olympics, it is the industrial banking center of the United States. Before settlement by members of the LDS Church, the Shoshone and Paiute had dwelt in the Salt Lake Valley for thousands of years.
At the time of Salt Lake City's founding, the valley was within the territory of the Northwestern Shoshone. One local Shoshone tribe, the Western Goshute tribe, referred to the Great Salt Lake as Pi'a-pa, meaning "big water", or Ti'tsa-pa, meaning "bad water"; the land was treated by the United States as public domain. The first American explorer in the Salt Lake area was Jim Bridger in 1825, although others had been in Utah earlier, some as far north as the nearby Utah Valley. US Army officer John C. Frémont surveyed the Great Salt Lake and the Salt Lake Valley in 1843 and 1845; the Donner Party, a group of ill-fated pioneers, had traveled through the Great Salt Lake Valley in August 1846. The valley's first permanent settlements date to the arrival of the Latter-day Saints in July 1847, they had traveled beyond the boundaries of the United States into Mexican Territory seeking a secluded area to safely practice their religion away from the violence and the persecution they experienced in the Eastern United States.
Upon arrival at the Salt Lake Valley, president of the church Brigham Young is recorded as stating, "This is the right place, drive on." Brigham Young claimed to have seen the area in a vision prior to the wagon train's arrival. They found. Four days after arriving in the Salt Lake Valley, Brigham Young designated the building site for the Salt Lake Temple; the Salt Lake Temple, constructed on the block called Temple Square, took 40 years to complete. Construction started in 1853, the temple was dedicated on April 6, 1893; the temple serves as its centerpiece. In fact, the southeast corner of Temple Square is the initial point of reference for the Salt Lake meridian, for all addresses in the Salt Lake Valley; the pioneers organized a state called State of Deseret, petitioned for its recognition in 1849. The United States Congress rebuffed the settlers in 1850 and established the Utah Territory, vastly reducing its size, designated Fillmore as its capital city. Great Salt Lake City replaced Fillmore as the territorial capital in 1856, the name was shortened to Salt Lake City.
The city's population continued to swell with an influx of converts to the LDS Church and Gold Rush gold seekers, making it one of the most populous cities in the American Old West. Explorer and author Richard Francis Burton traveled by coach in the summer of 1860 to document life in Great Salt Lake City, he was granted unprecedented access during his three-week visit, including audiences with Brigham Young and other contemporaries of Joseph Smith. The records of his visit include sketches of early city buildings, a description of local geography and agriculture, commentary on its politics and social order, essays and sermons from Young, Isaac Morley, George Washington Bradley and other leaders, snippets of everyday life such as newspaper clippings and the menu from a high-society ball. Disputes with the federal government ensued over the church's practice of polygamy. A climax occurred in 1857 when President James Buchanan declared the area in rebellion after Brigham Young refused to step down as governor, beginning the Utah War.
A division of the United States Army, comman
University of Utah
The University of Utah is a public research university in Salt Lake City, United States. As the state's flagship university, the university offers more than 100 undergraduate majors and more than 92 graduate degree programs; the university is classified among "R-1: Doctoral Universities – Highest Research Activity" with "selective" admissions. Graduate studies include the S. J. Quinney College of Law and the School of Medicine, Utah's first medical school; as of Fall 2015, there are 23,909 undergraduate students and 7,764 graduate students, for an enrollment total of 31,673. The university was established in 1850 as the University of Deseret by the General Assembly of the provisional State of Deseret, making it Utah's oldest institution of higher education, it received its current name in 1892, four years before Utah attained statehood, moved to its current location in 1900. The university ranks among the top 50 U. S. universities by total research expenditures with over $518 million spent in 2015.
22 Rhodes Scholars, four Nobel Prize winners, two Turing Award winners, eight MacArthur Fellows, various Pulitzer Prize winners, two astronauts, Gates Cambridge Scholars, Churchill Scholars have been affiliated with the university as students, researchers, or faculty members in its history. In addition, the university's Honors College has been reviewed among 50 leading national Honors Colleges in the U. S; the university has been ranked the 12th most ideologically diverse university in the country. The university's athletic teams, the Utes, participate in NCAA Division I athletics as a member of the Pac-12 Conference, its football team has received national attention for winning the 2005 Fiesta Bowl and the 2009 Sugar Bowl. Soon after the Mormon Pioneers arrived in the Salt Lake valley in 1847, Brigham Young began organizing a Board of Regents to establish a university; the university was established on February 28, 1850, as the University of Deseret by the General Assembly of the provisional State of Deseret, Orson Spencer was appointed as the first chancellor of the university.
Early classes were held in private homes. The university closed in 1853 due to lack of funds and lack of feeder schools. Following years of intermittent classes in the Salt Lake City Council House, the university began to be re-established in 1867 under the direction of David O. Calder, followed by John R. Park in 1869; the university moved out of the council house into the Union Academy building in 1876 and into Union Square in 1884. In 1892, the school's name was changed to the University of Utah, John R. Park began arranging to obtain land belonging to the U. S. Army's Fort Douglas on the east bench of the Salt Lake Valley, where the university moved permanently in 1900. Additional Fort Douglas land has been granted to the university over the years, the fort was closed on October 26, 1991. Upon his death in 1900, Dr. John R. Park bequeathed his entire fortune to the university; the university grew in the early 20th century but was involved in an academic freedom controversy in 1915 when Joseph T. Kingsbury recommended that five faculty members be dismissed after a graduation speaker made a speech critical of Utah governor William Spry.
One third of the faculty resigned in protest of these dismissals. Some felt that the dismissals were a result of the LDS Church's influence on the university, while others felt that they reflected a more general pattern of repressing religious and political expression that might be deemed offensive; the controversy was resolved when Kingsbury resigned in 1916, but university operations were again interrupted by World War I, The Great Depression and World War II. Student enrollment dropped to a low of 3,418 during the last year of World War II, but A. Ray Olpin made substantial additions to campus following the war, enrollment reached 12,000 by the time he retired in 1964. Growth continued in the following decades as the university developed into a research center for fields such as computer science and medicine. During the 2002 Winter Olympics, the university hosted the Olympic Village, a housing complex for the Olympic and Paralympic athletes, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies. Prior to the events, the university received a facelift that included extensive renovations to the Rice-Eccles Stadium, a light rail track leading to downtown Salt Lake City, a new student center known as the Heritage Center, an array of new student housing, what is now a 180-room campus hotel and conference center.
The University of Utah Asia Campus opened as an international branch campus in the Incheon Global Campus in Songdo, South Korea in 2014. Three other European and American universities are participating; the Asia Campus was funded by the South Korean government. Campus takes up 1,534 acres, including the Health Sciences complex, Research Park, Fort Douglas, it is located on the east bench of the Salt Lake Valley, close to the Wasatch Range and 2 miles east of downtown Salt Lake City. Most courses take place on the west side of campus, known as lower campus due to its lower elevation. Presidents Circle is a loop of buildings named after past university presidents with a courtyard in the center. Major libraries on lower campus include the J. Willard Marriott Library and the S. J. Quinney Law Library; the primary student activity center is the A. Ray Olpin University Union, campus fitness centers include the Health, Physical Education, Recreation Complex and the Nielsen Fieldhouse. Lower campus is home to most public venues, such as the Rice-Eccles Stadium, the Jon M. Huntsman Center, the Utah Museum of Fine Arts, a museum with rot
Charter schools in the United States
Charter schools in the United States are primary or secondary education institutions that do not charge fees to pupils who take state-mandated exams. These charter schools are subject to fewer rules and statutes than traditional state schools, but receive less public funding than public schools a fixed amount per pupil. There are both non-profit and for-profit charter schools, only non-profit charters can receive donations from private sources; as of 2016-2017 there were an estimated 6,900 public charter schools in 42 states and the District of Columbia with 3.1 million students, a sixfold increase in enrollment over the past 15 years. In 2015 alone, more than 400 new charter schools opened while 270 schools closed due to low enrollment, lack of finances or low performance. Waiting lists grew from an average of 233 in 2009 to 277 in 2012, with places allocated by a lottery, they educate the majority of children in New Orleans Public Schools. Some charter schools provide a specialized curriculum.
Charter schools are attended by choice. They may be founded by teachers, parents, or activists although state-authorized charters are established by non-profit groups, universities, or government entities. School districts may permit corporations to manage multiple charter schools; the first charter school law was in Minnesota in 1991. They sometimes face opposition from local boards, state education agencies, unions. Public-school advocates assert; the charter school idea in the United States was originated in 1974 by Ray Budde, a professor at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. Albert Shanker, President of the American Federation of Teachers, embraced the concept in 1988, when he called for the reform of the public schools by establishing "charter schools" or "schools of choice." Gloria Ladson-Billings called him "the first person to publicly propose charter schools." At the time, a few schools existed that were not called charter schools but embodied some of their principles, such as H-B Woodlawn.
As conceived, the ideal model of a charter school was as a and financially autonomous public school that would operate much like a private business—free from many state laws and district regulations, accountable more for student outcomes rather than for processes or inputs. Minnesota was the first state to pass a charter school law in 1991. California was second, in 1992; as of 2015, 43 states and the District of Columbia have charter school laws, according to the Center for Education Reform. As of 2012 an authorizer other than a local school board has granted over 60 percent of charters across the country. Between 2009 and 2012, the percent of charter schools implementing performance-based compensation increased from 19 percent to 37 percent, while the proportion, unionized decreased from 12 percent to 7 percent; the most popular educational focus is college preparation, while 8 percent focus on Science, Technology and Mathematics. Another 16 percent emphasize Core Knowledge. Blended Learning and Virtual/Online learning are in use.
When compared to traditional public schools, charters serve a more disadvantaged student population, including more low-income and minority students. Sixty-one percent of charter schools serve a student population where over 60 percent qualify for the federal Free or Reduced Lunch Program. Charter schools receive an average 36 percent less revenue per student than traditional public schools, receive no facilities funds; the number of charters providing a longer school day grew from 23 percent in 2009 to 48 percent in 2012. The rules and structure of charter schools depend on state authorizing legislation and differ from state to state. A charter school is authorized to function once it has received a charter, a statutorily defined performance contract detailing the school's mission, goals, students served, methods of assessment, ways to measure success; the length of time for which charters are granted varies, but most are granted for 3–5 years. Charter schools operate as autonomous public schools through waivers from many of the procedural requirements of district public schools.
These waivers do not mean a school is exempt from the same educational standards set by the state or district. Charter advocates believe this autonomy can be critically important for creating an environment where operators can focus on a strong academic program. Many schools develop a school culture that maximizes student motivation by emphasizing high expectations, academic rigor and relationships with caring adults. Affirming students minority students in urban school districts, whose school performance is affected by social phenomena including stereotype threat, acting white, non-dominant cultural capital, a "code of the street" may require the charter to create a balanced school culture to meet peoples' needs in each unique context. Most teachers, by a 68 percent to 21 percent margin, say schools would be better for students if principals and teachers had more control and flexibility about work rules and school duties. Charter schools are accountable for student achievement by their sponsor—a local school board, state education agency, university, or other entity—to produce positive academic results and adhere to the charter contract.
While this accountability is one of the key arguments in favor of charters, evidence gathered by the United States Department of Education sug
State schools are primary or secondary schools mandated for or offered to all children without charge, funded in whole or in part by taxation. While such schools are to be found in every country, there are significant variations in their structure and educational programs. State education encompasses primary and secondary education, as well as post-secondary educational institutions such as universities and technical schools that are funded and overseen by government rather than by private entities; the position before there were government-funded schools varied: in many instances there was an established educational system which served a significant, albeit elite, sector of the population. The introduction of government-organised schools was in some cases able to build upon this established system, both systems have continued to exist, sometimes in a parallel and complementary relationship and other times less harmoniously. State education is inclusive, both in its treatment of students and in that enfranchisement for the government of public education is as broad as for government generally.
It is organised and operated to be a deliberate model of the civil community in which it functions. Although provided to groups of students in classrooms in a central school, it may be provided in-home, employing visiting teachers, and/or supervising teachers, it can be provided in non-school, non-home settings, such as shopping mall space. State education is available to all. In most countries, it is compulsory for children to attend school up to a certain age, but the option of attending private school is open to many. In the case of private schooling, schools operate independently of the state and defray their costs by charging parents tuition fees; the funding for state schools, on the other hand, is provided by tax revenues, so that individuals who do not attend school help to ensure that society is educated. In poverty stricken societies, authorities are lax on compulsory school attendance because child labour is exploited, it is these same children whose income-securing labour cannot be forfeited to allow for school attendance.
The term "public education" when applied to state schools is not synonymous with the term "publicly funded education". Government may make a public policy decision that it wants to have some financial resources distributed in support of, it may want to have some control over, the provision of private education. Grants-in-aid of private schools and vouchers systems provide examples of publicly funded private education. Conversely, a state school may rely on private funding such as high fees or private donations and still be considered state by virtue of governmental ownership and control. State primary and secondary education involves the following: compulsory student attendance. In some countries, private associations or churches can operate schools according to their own principles, as long as they comply with certain state requirements; when these specific requirements are met in the area of the school curriculum, the schools will qualify to receive state funding. They are treated financially and for accreditation purposes as part of the state education system though they make decisions about hiring and school policy, which the state might not make itself.
Government schools are free to attend for Australian citizens and permanent residents, whereas independent schools charge attendance fees. They can be divided into two categories: selective schools; the open schools accept all students from their government-defined catchment areas. Government schools educate 65% of Australian students, with 34% in Catholic and independent schools. Regardless of whether a school is part of the Government or independent systems, they are required to adhere to the same curriculum frameworks of their state or territory; the curriculum framework however provides for some flexibility in the syllabus, so that subjects such as religious education can be taught. Most school students wear uniforms. Public or Government funded; these schools teach students from Year 1 to 10, with examinations for students in years 5, 8, 10. All public schools follow the National Board Curriculum. Many children girls, drop out of school after completing the 5th Year in remote areas. In larger cities such as Dhaka, this is uncommon.
Many good public schools conduct an entrance exam, although most public schools in the villages and small towns do not. Public schools are the only option for parents and children in rural areas, but there are large numbers of private schools in Dhaka and Chittagong. Many Bangladeshi private schools teach their students in English and follow curricula from overseas, but in public schools lessons are taught in Bengali. Per the Canadian constitution, public-school education in Canada is a provincial responsibility and, as such, there are many variations among the provinces. Junior kindergarten exists as an official program in only Ontario and Quebec while kindergarten is available in every province, but provincial funding and the level of ho
Driver's education, driver education, driving education, driver's ed, or driving tuition or driving lessons is a formal class or program that prepares a new driver to obtain a learner's permit or driver's license. The formal class program may prepare existing license holders for an overseas license conversion or medical assessment driving test or refresher course, it may take place in a vehicle, online, or a combination of the above. Topics of instruction include laws and vehicle operation. Instruction will warn of dangerous conditions in driving such as road conditions, driver impairments, hazardous weather. Instructional videos may be shown, demonstrating proper driving strategies and the consequences for not observing the rules. Education is intended to supplement the knowledge obtained from government-printed driving handbooks or manuals and prepares students for tests to obtain a driver's license or learner's permit. In-car instruction places a student in a vehicle with an instructor. A car fitted with dual controls, which has pedals or other controls on the passenger side, may be used.
Driver training began as a business in the United Kingdom in 1909-1910. The British School of Motoring was founded in 1910 in South London by Hugh Stanley Roberts, it offered hands-on training and courses in driving skills and repair. It offered vehicles to drivers who wished to practice. In the United States, Amos Neyhart, a professor at Penn State University, started the first high school driver's ed course in 1934 at a high school in State College, Pennsylvania; the more correct and original designation is driver education, without the possessive, as with teacher education, or driving education as with nursing education. However over time the possessive version has become dominant. Driver's education is intended to supplement the knowledge obtained from government-printed driving handbooks or manuals and prepares students for tests to obtain a driver's license or learner's permit. In-car instruction places a student in a vehicle with an instructor. A car fitted with dual controls, which has pedals or other controls on the passenger side, may be used.
In the United States, driver's education is offered to students who are sixteen years old or will be by the end of the course. Each state has its own laws regarding the licensing of teenagers. With the growing US population, traffic accidents are becoming more common than before. In Germany, space is at a premium while traffic is able to flow efficiently and with less accidents; the way in which people are taught driving fundamentals plays a huge role in the safety and efficiency of traffic. Within the United States, students may have access to online training, classroom training, or parent-taught courses. While these classes may provide a lot of information to the student, their effectivity may only be limited to one area of knowledge. In Germany, students are given a hybrid of these classes, they have much more exposure throughout their school to real-world scenarios and classroom curriculum. Fundamentals of driving are reinforced in these classes, including the importance of turn-signal usage, keeping a safe distance behind others, maintaining situational awareness.
It is argued that more efficient and safer traffic flow can be achieved by increasing the length of driver's education classes in the United States, to involve more hands-on training and a strengthening of driving principles. An online driving education is one of the most affordable and convenient ways to acquire driving education. Many driver's education courses are available online, it is up to the relevant government authority to accept any such programs as meeting their requirements. Online drivers ed may be taken as a substitute for classroom courses in 13 states; some car insurance agencies offer discounts to those students who have completed a driver's education program. Online programs allow parents to administer the behind the wheel driving instruction. Many studies have started looking at the relationship between online activity among the young adults, driving licence holding Successful completion of a driver education course is required by many agencies before young drivers receive their driver license or learner's permit.
In some countries students taking driver's education have the opportunity to receive a waiver for successful course completion which allows them to receive a learner's permit or driver's license without taking some of the tests. Some car clubs conduct driver education programs focused on how to handle a car under high-speed driving conditions rather than on learning the rules of the road; these programs take place at road racing courses and include both classroom instruction and vehicle-based instruction. Students drive with an experienced instructor until they are "signed off". At this point they can continue improving their skills without an instructor. Driver education programs involve multiple cars together on a racetrack, but they are not considered racing because they are not timed, winners are not declared, drivers must wait to pass until the driver being passed gives permission with a hand signal; these programs require approved racing helmets and rollover protection for convertibles.
Some require long pants for fire safety. However, they do not require full roll cages, five or six-point seat belts, fire extinguishers, fire-resistant racing suits, or other safety features seen in racing and more. Blind spot Driver's license Driving Schools Association of the Americas Impact Teen Drivers Nettleship v Weston Drivotrainer
Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics
Science, Technology and Mathematics Science, Math and Technology, is a term used to group together these academic disciplines. This term is used when addressing education policy and curriculum choices in schools to improve competitiveness in science and technology development, it has implications for national security concerns and immigration policy. The acronym came into common use shortly after an interagency meeting on science education held at the US National Science Foundation chaired by the NSF director Rita Colwell. A director from the Office of Science division of Workforce Development for Teachers and Scientists, Peter Faletra, suggested the change from the older acronym SMET to STEM. Colwell, expressing some dislike for the older acronym, responded by suggesting NSF institute the change. However, the acronym STEM predates NSF and traces its origin to Charles Vela, the founder and director of the Center for the Advancement of Hispanics in Science and Engineering Education. In the early 1990's CAHSEE started a summer program for talented under-represented students in the Washington, DC area called the STEM Institute.
Based on the program's recognized success and his expertise in STEM education, Charles Vela was asked to serve on numerous NSF and Congressional panels in science and engineering education. One of the first NSF projects to use the acronym was STEMTEC, the Science, Technology and Math Teacher Education Collaborative at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, founded in 1998. STM eSTEM STEMIE. ISTEM. STEMLE. STEMS^2. METALS, introduced by Su Su at Teachers College, Columbia University. STREM. STREM. STREAM. STEAM STEAM. STEMM AMSEE THAMES MINT In the United States, the acronym began to be used in education and immigration debates in initiatives to begin to address the perceived lack of qualified candidates for high-tech jobs, it addresses concern that the subjects are taught in isolation, instead of as an integrated curriculum. Maintaining a citizenry, well versed in the STEM fields is a key portion of the public education agenda of the United States; the acronym has been used in the immigration debate regarding access to United States work visas for immigrants who are skilled in these fields.
It has become commonplace in education discussions as a reference to the shortage of skilled workers and inadequate education in these areas. The term tends not to refer to the non-professional and less visible sectors of the fields, such as electronics assembly line work. Many organizations in the United States follow the guidelines of the National Science Foundation on what constitutes a STEM field; the NSF uses a broader definition of STEM subjects that includes subjects in the fields of chemistry and information technology science, geosciences, life sciences, mathematical sciences and astronomy, social sciences, STEM education and learning research. Eligibility for scholarship programs such as the CSM STEM Scholars Program use the NSF definition; the NSF is the only American federal agency whose mission includes support for all fields of fundamental science and engineering, except for medical sciences. Its disciplinary program areas include scholarships, fellowships in fields such as biological sciences and information science and engineering and human resources, environmental research and education, international science and engineering and physical sciences, social and economic sciences, cyberinfrastructure, polar programs.
Although many organizations in the United States follow the guidelines of the National Science Foundation on what constitutes a STEM field, the United States Department of Homeland Security has its own functional definition used for immigration policy. In 2012, DHS or ICE announced an expanded list of STEM designated-degree programs that qualify eligible graduates on student visas