For the Massachusetts politician, see William EverettWilliam Blake Everett was a comic book writer-artist best known for creating Namor the Sub-Mariner as well as co-creating Zombie and Daredevil with writer Stan Lee for Marvel Comics. He was a descendant of the poet William Blake and of Richard Everett, founder of Dedham, Massachusetts. William Everett was born May 1917 in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Everett, a fabulist who spun fanciful stories of his youth, claimed at various points to have graduated from high school in Arizona, or instead to have joined the U. S. Merchant Marine at ages ranging from 15 to 17, among other tales. In actuality, he was born at the Cambridge Hospital and raised in nearby Watertown, with his parents Robert Maxwell Everett and Elaine Grace Brown Everett, his sister Elizabeth, born in 1915, his 300-year-old New England family included Everett, Massachusetts' namesake, Edward Everett, who after serving as president of Harvard University became governor of Massachusetts and, in 1852, the U.
S. Secretary of State, it includes Edward's son, Massachusetts Congressman William Everett. Everett's father ran a successful trucking business, when Everett was young the family bought a large summer home in Kennebunkport, Maine. Both parents supported the artist talents of their son, whose reading tastes ran to the classics rather than pulp novels or comic strips, included work by Samuel Taylor Coleridge and Jack London, he would find artistic influence in such commercial magazine artists as Mead Schaeffer, Dean Cornwell, Floyd MacMillan Davis. At 12, in 1929, Everett contracted tuberculosis, was pulled from sixth grade to go with his mother and his sister to Arizona, to recuperate for four months, they returned to Massachusetts, but a recurrence of the disease sent the trio back West, first to Prescott, Arizona and to Wickenburg, 60 miles away. There, taking his first drink, Everett began the path to teenage alcoholism. Nonetheless, he became well enough by 16 to return home with his mother and sister to the Boston area, where his father, unscathed by the Great Depression, had a large house in West Newton.
His alcoholism and natural rebelliousness caused his parents to remove him from high school at age 16, in his second year, enroll him in 1934 at Boston's Vesper George School of Art. His inability to focus, led him to drop out in 1935, after a year-and-a-half of the program; that same year, his father died of acute appendicitis, the family, though remaining well-off, moved to an apartment back in Cambridge. Everett knew his father "always wanted me to be a cartoonist, he died before he saw that come true. But, in back of the whole thing." Everett soon became a professional artist on the advertising staff of the Boston newspaper The Herald-Traveler for $12 a week. Soon afterward, he left to become a draftsman for the civil engineering firm The Brooks System, in Newton, Massachusetts. From there he pursued work in Phoenix and Los Angeles, California without success, he returned east to New York City, where he again did newspaper advertising art, for the New York Herald-Tribune. He next became art editor for Teck Publications' Radio News magazine assistant art director under Herm Bollin in Chicago, Illinois.
Fired for being, as Everett described, "too cocky", he returned to New York where he sought employment as an art director. With no luck at this and desperate for work, he ran into an old Teck colleague, Walter Holze, now working in the new field of comic books; as Everett recalled in the late 1960s, "He asked me. I said,'Sure!!' At that point I was starving. I wasn't interested in the comics business. Freelancing for Centaur Publications, Everett "sold my first page for $2 – writing, penciling and all.'Skyrocket Steele' was my first strip." Soon he was getting $10 and $14 a page, a respectable sum during this late-1930s period near the beginning of what historians and fans call the Golden Age of comic books. Everett co-created the superhero Amazing-Man at Centaur, working with company art director Lloyd Jacquet, drew the first five issues. Everett and other creators followed Jacquet to his new company Funnies, Inc. one of the first comic-book "packagers" that would create comics on demand for publishers.
Everett recalled I left Centaur with another chap whose name was Max. Lloyd... had an idea that he wanted to start his own art service – to start a small organization to supply artwork and editorial material to publishers.... He asked me to join him, he asked Carl Burgos. So we were the nucleus.... I don't know how to explain it; that was the agreement. The artists, including myself, at Funnies, worked on a freelance basis." At Funnies, Inc. Everett created the Sub-Mariner for an aborted project, Motion Picture Funnies Weekly #1, a planned promotional comic to be given away in movie theaters; when plans changed, Everett used his character instead for Funnies, Inc.'s first client, pulp magazine publisher Martin Goodman. The original eight-page story was expanded by four pages for Marvel Comics #1, the first publication of what Goodman would call Timely Comics, the 1940s precursor of Marvel Comics. Everett's anti-hero proved a sudden success becoming one of Timely's top three characters, along with Carl Burgos' android superhero the Human Torch and Jack Kirby and Joe Simon's Captain America.
Everett soon introduced such supporting characters as New York City policewoman Betty Dean, a steady companion and occasional love-interest
Richard Joseph "Dick" Giordano was an American comics artist and editor whose career included introducing Charlton Comics' "Action Heroes" stable of superheroes and serving as executive editor of DC Comics. Dick Giordano, an only child, was born in New York City on July 20, 1932, in the borough of Manhattan to Josephine and Graziano "Jack" Giordano, he attended the School of Industrial Art. Beginning as a freelance artist at Charlton Comics in 1952, Giordano contributed artwork to dozens of the company's comics, including such Western titles as Annie Oakley, Billy the Kid, Wyatt Earp, the war comic Fightin' Army, scores of covers. Giordano's artwork from Charlton's Strange Suspense Stories was used as inspiration for artist Roy Lichtenstein's 1965/1966 Brushstroke series, including Brushstroke, Big Painting No. 6, Little Big Painting and Yellow and Green Brushstrokes. By the mid-1960s a Charlton veteran, Giordano rose to executive editor, succeeding Pat Masulli, by 1965; as an editor, he made his first mark in the industry, overseeing Charlton's revamping of its few existing superheroes and having his artists and writers create new such characters for what he called the company's "Action Hero" line.
Many of these artists included new talent Giordano brought on board, including Jim Aparo, Dennis O'Neil, Steve Skeates. DC Comics vice president Irwin Donenfeld hired Giordano as an editor in April 1968, at the suggestion of Steve Ditko, with Giordano bringing over to DC some of the creators he had nurtured at Charlton. Giordano was given several titles such as Teen Titans and Young Love, but none of DC's major series, he launched the horror comics series The Witching Hour in March 1969. and the Western series All-Star Western vol. 2 in September 1970. He continued to freelance for DC as a inker; as an artist, Giordano was best known as an inker. His inking was associated with the pencils of Neal Adams, for their run in the early 1970s on the titles Batman and Green Lantern/Green Arrow. Comics historian Les Daniels observed that "The influential Adams style moved comics closer to illustration than cartooning, he brought a menacing mood to Batman's adventures, augmented by Dick Giordano's dark, brooding inks."
By 1971, frustrated by what he felt was a lack of editorial opportunities, Giordano had left DC to partner with fellow artist Neal Adams for their Continuity Associates studios, which served as an art packager for comic book publishers, including such companies as Giordano's former employer Charlton Comics, Marvel Comics, the one-shot Big Apple Comix. Several comics artists began their careers at Continuity and many were mentored by Giordano during their time there, he had a brief run as penciler of the Wonder Woman series which included a two-issue story in issues #202–203 written by science-fiction author Samuel R. Delany. Giordano drew several backup stories in Action Comics featuring the Human Target character as well as the martial arts feature "Sons of the Tiger" in Marvel's black-and-white comics magazine The Deadly Hands of Kung Fu, he was a frequent artist on Batman and Detective Comics and he and writer Denny O'Neil created the Batman supporting character Leslie Thompkins in the story "There Is No Hope in Crime Alley" in Detective Comics #457.
Giordano inked the large-format, first DC/Marvel intercompany crossover, Superman vs. the Amazing Spider-Man, over the pencils of Ross Andru. Giordano inked Adams on the one-shot Superman vs. Muhammad Ali in 1978. Throughout the late 1970s and the early 1980s, Ross Andru and Giordano were DC's primary cover artists, providing cover artwork for the Superman titles as well as covers for many of the other comics in the DC line at that time. In 1980, DC publisher Jenette Kahn brought Giordano back to DC; the editor of the Batman titles, Giordano was named the company's new managing editor in 1981, promoted to vice president/executive editor in 1983, a position he held until 1993. DC Comics writer and executive Paul Levitz observed in 2010 that "Giordano held the respect of talent as one of their own, kept their affection with his reassuring calm and warmth."Giordano provided art for several anniversary issues of key DC titles. He and television writer Alan Brennert crafted the story "To Kill a Legend" in Detective Comics #500.
Giordano was one of the artists on the double-sized Justice League of America #200 as well as Wonder Woman #300 He was promoted to Vice-President/Executive Editor in 1984, with Kahn and Levitz, oversaw the relaunch of all of DC's major characters with the Crisis on Infinite Earths limited series in 1985. This was followed by Frank Miller's Batman: The Dark Knight Returns and Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons' Watchmen in 1986. Giordano inked several major projects during this time such as George Pérez's pencils on Crisis on Infinite Earths and John Byrne's pencils on The Man of Steel and Action Comics, though during this period he always employed assistants for inking backgrounds, filling in large black areas, making final erasures. From 1983 to 1987, Giordano wrote a monthly column published in DC titles called "Meanwhile..." which much like Marvel's "Bullpen Bulletins" featured news and information about the company and its creators. Unlike "Bullpen Bulletins,", characterized by an ironic, over-hyped tone, Giordano's columns "... were written in a sober friendly voice, like a friend of your father's you liked and didn't mind sitting down to listen to."
Giordano closed each "Meanwhile..." column with the characteristic words, "Thank you and good afternoon." The Vertigo imprint was launched in early 1993 built upon the success several titles edited by Karen Berger including Sw
Howard Victor Chaykin is an American comic book artist and writer. Chaykin’s influences include his one-time employer and mentor, Gil Kane, the mid-20th century illustrators Robert Fawcett and Al Parker. Howard Chaykin was born in Newark, New Jersey, to Rosalind Pave and Norman Drucker, who soon separated. Chaykin was raised by his grandparents in Staten Island, New York City, until his mother married Leon Chaykin in 1953 and the family moved to East Flatbush and to 370 Saratoga Avenue, Brooklyn. At 14, Chaykin moved with his now divorced mother to the Kew Gardens section of Queens, he said in 2000 he was raised on welfare after his parents separated and that his absent biological father was declared dead, although Chaykin, as an adult, located him alive. Chaykin's "nutty and cruel" adoptive father, whom Chaykin until the 1990s believed was his natural father, encouraged Chaykin's interest in drawing and bought him sketchbooks, he was introduced to comics by his cousin. He graduated from Jamaica High School at 16, in 1967, in mid-1968 worked at Zenith Press.
He attended Columbia College in Chicago that fall, but left school and returned to New York the following year. Chaykin said that after high school, "I hitchhiked around the country" before becoming, at 19, a "gofer" for the New York City-based comic book artist Gil Kane, whom he would name as his greatest influence. Chaykin's earliest work with comic books was under the tutelage of Gil Kane, whom he would call his mentor. I'd heard on the grapevine that Gil's assistant had dropped dead of a heart attack at 23. I gave Gil a call, he said,'Yeah, I can use you.' So I went to work for him.... He was doing Blackmark, I did a bad job pasting up the dialog and putting in.... It was a great apprenticeship. I learned a lot from watching Gil work. In 1970, he began publishing his art in comics and science-fiction fanzines, sometimes under the pseudonym Eric Pave. Leaving Kane, he began working as an assistant to comics artist Wally Wood in the studio he shared with Syd Shores and Jack Abel in Valley Stream, Long Island.
He worked there for a "couple of months", in 1971 published his first professional comics work, for the adult-theme Western feature Shattuck in the military newspaper the Overseas Weekly, one of Wood's clients. He "ghosted some stuff" for Gray Morrow: "I penciled a Man-Thing story he did, I penciled a thing for National Lampoon called "Michael Rockefeller and the Jungles of New Guinea." He apprenticed under Neal Adams, working with the artist at Adams' home in The Bronx. This led to his first work at DC Comics, one of the two largest comics companies: Neal showed me to Murray Boltinoff and Julius Schwartz. Murray gave me a one-page filler. I got some work from Dorothy Woolfolk, who edited the love comics, it was all just dreadful stuff, but you stumble along, you learn. A problem for me was that by the time I became a professional, I lost any interest whatsoever in superhero comics. I'm not a horror guy, I didn't know what the hell to do! What I wanted to draw is guys with guns, guys with swords, women with big tits, and, the extent of my interest in comics at the time.
The "one-page filler", titled "Strange Neighbor", was inventoried and published in the Boltinoff-edited Secrets of Sinister House #17. His other earliest known DC work was penciling and inking the three-page story "Not Old Enough!" in Young Romance #185, penciling the eight-page supernatural story "Eye of the Beholder" in Forbidden Tales of Dark Mansion #7 and the one-page "Enter the Portals of Weird War" in Weird War Tales #9. At one point Chaykin lived in the same Queens apartment building as artists Allen Milgrom, Walter Simonson and Bernie Wrightson. Simonson recalls, "We'd get together at 3 a.m. They'd come up and we'd have popcorn and sit around and talk about whatever a 26, 27 and 20-year-old guys talk about. Our art, TV, you name it. I pretty much knew at the time,'These are the good ole days.'" Chaykin's first major work was for DC Comics drawing the 23-page "The Price of Pain Ease" — writer Denny O'Neil's adaptation of author Fritz Leiber's characters Fafhrd and the Gray Mouser — in Sword of Sorcery #1.
Although the title was well received, it lasted only five issues before cancellation. Chaykin drew the character Ironwolf in the science fiction anthology title Weird Worlds for DC, did the pencils and ink for a 12-page Batman story written by Archie Goodwin and published in Detective Comics #441 in 1974. Moving to Marvel Comics, he began work as co-artist with Neal Adams on the first Killraven story, seen in Amazing Adventures #18 in 1973. After this, Chaykin was given various adventure strips to draw for Marvel, including his own creation, Dominic Fortune, now in the pages of Marvel Preview. In 1978, he wrote and drew his Cody Starbuck creation for the anthology title Star Reach, one of the first independent titles of the 1970s; these strips saw him explore more adult themes as best he could within the restrictions imposed on him by editors and the Comics Code Authority. The same year, he produced for Schanes a six-plate portfolio showcasing his character. In 1976, Chaykin landed the job of drawing the Marvel Comics adaptation of the first Star Wars film, written by Roy Thomas.
Chaykin left after 10 issues to work in more adult and experimental comics, to do paperback book covers. In late 1978, Walt Simonson, Val Mayerik, Jim Starlin formed Upsta
Michael William Kaluta, sometimes credited as Mike Kaluta or Michael Wm. Kaluta, is an American comics artist and writer best known for his acclaimed 1970s adaptation of the pulp magazine hero, The Shadow with writer Dennis O'Neil. Born in Guatemala to U. S. citizens, Kaluta studied at the Richmond Professional Institute. Kaluta's early work included a three-page adventure story, "The Battle of Shiraz", in Charlton Comics Flash Gordon #18 and an adaptation of Edgar Rice Burroughs's Venus novels for DC Comics. Kaluta's influences and style are drawn from pulp illustrations of the 1930s and the turn of the century poster work of Alphonse Mucha – his signature motif is elaborate decorative panel designs – rather than the comic books of the Silver Age. Kaluta has worked with the superhero genre although one of his early contributions for DC was a "World of Krypton" backup story in Superman #240, his first cover for a comic book was House of Mystery #200. Associated during the 1970s with Bernie Wrightson and Jeffrey Jones, he contributed illustrations to Ted White's Fantastic and Amazing.
Kaluta co-created Eve in Secrets of Sinister House #6, a horror comics "host" character turned into a supporting character in The Sandman. He and writer Dennis O'Neil produced a comics adaptation of The Shadow for DC in 1973–1974. Comics historian Les Daniels noted that "Kaluta's style is an homage to Graves Gladney, master of the pulp magazine covers of the 1930s." Kaluta left the series after drawing five of the first six issues. Kaluta was one of the four comic book artists/fine illustrator/painters who formed the artists' commune The Studio in a loft in Manhattan's Chelsea district from 1975 to 1979. Aside from many comic books and covers Kaluta has done a wide variety of book illustrations. Kaluta drew the cover for the Madame Xanadu one-shot in 1981, DC's second direct sales only comic, he and writer Elaine Lee crafted Marvel Graphic Novel #13 "Starstruck: The Luckless, the Abandoned and Forsaked" which led to an ongoing series which ran for six issues. Kaluta and O'Neil reunited on The Shadow: 1941 – Hitler's Astrologer graphic novel published in 1988.
In 2006, Kaluta was one of the artists on the 1001 Nights of Snowfall graphic novel written by Bill Willingham. In 1984 he drew the illustrations for and directed the music video of "Don't Answer Me" by The Alan Parsons Project, which became one of the most requested videos of the year on the cable video channel MTV. Among music fans, Kaluta is known as the cover artist of Glenn Danzig's instrumental album Black Aria and for the interior illustration of Danzig's fourth album, the latter of which appeared in 1994 and 1995 as a pendant sold at Danzig concerts, on Danzig T-shirts and sweaters produced in the same period. Kaluta created the CD covers and interior booklet illustrations for Nativity in Black I and II, tribute albums to the music of Black Sabbath. Kaluta drew the cover art for the Bobby Pickett album The Original Monster Mash when it was reissued in 1973. Kaluta has worked for role-playing game companies such as White Wolf Publishing, he has done artwork for collectible card games companies, including a comic book for Wizards of the Coast's Magic: The Gathering and illustrating cards on Last Unicorn Games' Heresy: Kingdom Come.
In the early 1990s, he was active in Compuserve's Macintosh Gaming Forum, in the flight simulator enthusiast group which called itself VFA-13 Shadow Riders. He contributed a number of designs for airplane nose flight suit unit patches. Kaluta's work has won him a good deal of recognition, including the Shazam Award for Outstanding New Talent in 1971, the Inkpot Award in 1977, the 2003 Spectrum Award for Grand Master. Conan #22 The Shadow #1–2 The Shadow: In the Coils of Leviathan #1–4 Starstruck #1–4 Chaos War: Chaos King Conan the Barbarian #167 Conan the King King Conan #20–27, 31 Fearsome Four, miniseries, #1 Epic Illustrated #17, 21, 24, 25–26, 28 The Shadow 1941: Hitler's Astrologer, graphic novel Thor vol. 2 #57 Memorial #1–6 Rocketeer Adventure Magazine #1–2 Michael Wm. Kaluta Sketchbook 180 pages, Kitchen Sink Press, May 1998, ISBN 978-0878161157 Echoes Drawing of Michael Wm Kaluta 112 pages, Vanguard Productions, March 2007, ISBN 978-1887591133 Wings of Twilight: The Art of Michael Kaluta 80 pages, NBM Publishing, March 2001, ISBN 978-1561632763 The Michael Kaluta Treasury Glimmer Graphics, December 1988, ISBN 978-0962142109 Michael Wm. Kaluta: Sketchbook Series Volume 1 48 pages, IDW Publishing, April 2012, ISBN 978-1613771365 Volume 2 48 pages, IDW Publishing, August 2012, ISBN 978-1613773550 Volume 3 48 pages, IDW Publishing, December 2012, ISBN 978-1613775363 Volume 4 48 pages, IDW Publishing, May 2013, ISBN 978-1613776384 Michael Wm. Kaluta: The Big Book 304 pages, IDW Publishing, January 2014, ISBN 978-1613776827 Official website Michael Kaluta at the Comic Book DB Michael Kaluta at Mike's Amazing World of Comics "Michael Kaluta".
Pen & Paper RPG database. Archived from the original on December 25, 2008. Retrieved 2013-11-15; the Michael Kaluta Checklist Glimmer Graphics Michael Kaluta at the Unofficial Handbook of Marvel Comics Creators
Russell Heath, Jr. was an American artist best known for his comic book work his DC Comics war stories and his 1960s art for Playboy magazine's "Little Annie Fanny" feature. He has produced commercial art, two pieces of which, depicting Roman and Revolutionary War battle scenes for toy soldier sets, became familiar pieces of Americana after gracing the back covers of countless comic books from the early 1960s to early 1970s. Heath's drawings of fighter jets in DC Comics' All-American Men of War #89 served as the basis for pop artist Roy Lichtenstein's best-known oil paintings. Heath was inducted into the Will Eisner Comic Book Hall of Fame in 2009. Raised in New Jersey as an only child, Russ Heath at an early age became interested in drawing. "My father used to be a cowboy, so as a little kid I was influenced by Western artists of the time. Will James was one, an artist-writer—I had most of his books. Charlie Russell was my favorite because his work was authentic, because he drew what he lived..."
Self-taught, Heath began freelancing for comics during summers while he was in high school, both penciled and inked at least two installments of the naval feature "Hammerhead Hawley", in Holyoke Publishing's Captain Aero Comics vol. 2, #2 and vol. 3, #12. Heath was in Montclair, New Jersey's Montclair High School class of 1945, it is unclear. I made it, but the Air Force called me and in I went." He served stateside for nine months, drawing cartoons for his camp newspaper, but due to a clerical error, he said, he was on neither the military payroll nor any official duty roster for a significant portion of his time. A 2011 article in his hometown newspaper said that, "After a short stint in the military, Heath came back to Montclair, graduated from high school, got married and started a family." While spending several weeks arranging appointments with artists for an assistant's job, Heath was hired as an office "gofer" for the large Manhattan advertising agency Benton & Bowles, earning $35 weekly.
He continued looking for work as an artist on his lunch hour, in 1947, landed a $75-a-week staff position at Timely Comics, the 1940s predecessor of Marvel Comics. Working in the Timely offices, like some of the other staffers, soon found it more efficient to work at home, he and his new wife had been living at his parents' home and continued to do so for two more years, while saving money for their own house. By the mid-1960s, they had children and were divorced; the artist said in 2004 he believed his first work for Timely was a Western story featuring the Two-Gun Kid. Historians have tentatively identified his first work as either a Kid Colt story in the omnibus series Wild Western #4. Heath's first superhero story is tentatively identified as the seven-page Witness story, "Fate Fixed a Fight," in Captain America Comics #71. Heath drew several Western stories for such Timely comics as Wild Western, All Western Winners, Arizona Kid, Black Rider, Western Outlaws, Reno Browne, Hollywood's Greatest Cowgirl.
As Timely evolved into Marvel's 1950s iteration, known as Atlas Comics, Heath expanded into other genres. He drew the December 1950 premiere of the two-issue superhero series Marvel Boy, as well as scattered science fiction anthology stories. Heath produced combat stories both for the wide line of Timely war titles and the first issue of EC Comics' celebrated Frontline Combat, he contributed to Mad #14, illustrating Harvey Kurtzman's parody of Plastic Man. Heath did the first of many decades' worth of war work for DC Comics, with Our Army at War #23 and Star Spangled War Stories #22, both cover-dated June 1954. Other 1950s work includes an issue of 3-D Comics from St. John Publications and "The Return of the Human Torch" in Young Men #24, the flagship of Atlas' ill-fated effort to revive superheroes, which had fallen out of fashion in the post-war U. S. Heath co-created with writer-editor Robert Kanigher the feature "The Haunted Tank" in G. I. Combat #87. Heath stated in a 1999 interview that "I didn't like "The Haunted Tank" as much...
I liked less because there was always the same four characters – J. E. B. Stuart plus his three buddies – the same story every issue: He'd be talking to this ghost and over again. I couldn't believe kids kept wanting to look at it." With Kanigher, Heath co-created and drew the first issues of DC's Sea Devils, about a team of scuba-diving adventurers. DC Comics writer and executive Paul Levitz described Heath in 2010 as " master of texture and lighting and meticulous levels of detail. Given the chance he'd draw every barnacle on a sunken pirate ship." Several of Kanigher's characters were combined into a single feature titled "The Losers". Their first appearance as a group was with the Haunted Tank crew in G. I. Combat #138 drawn by Heath. Various Heath drawings of fighter jets in DC Comics' All
A film called a movie, motion picture, moving picture, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images. This optical illusion causes the audience to perceive continuous motion between separate objects viewed in rapid succession; the process of filmmaking is both an industry. A film is created by photographing actual scenes with a motion-picture camera, by photographing drawings or miniature models using traditional animation techniques, by means of CGI and computer animation, or by a combination of some or all of these techniques, other visual effects; the word "cinema", short for cinematography, is used to refer to filmmaking and the film industry, to the art of filmmaking itself. The contemporary definition of cinema is the art of simulating experiences to communicate ideas, perceptions, beauty or atmosphere by the means of recorded or programmed moving images along with other sensory stimulations. Films were recorded onto plastic film through a photochemical process and shown through a movie projector onto a large screen.
Contemporary films are now fully digital through the entire process of production and exhibition, while films recorded in a photochemical form traditionally included an analogous optical soundtrack. Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures, they reflect those cultures. Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment, a powerful medium for educating—or indoctrinating—citizens; the visual basis of film gives it a universal power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions through the use of dubbing or subtitles to translate the dialog into other languages; the individual images that make up a film are called frames. In the projection of traditional celluloid films, a rotating shutter causes intervals of darkness as each frame, in turn, is moved into position to be projected, but the viewer does not notice the interruptions because of an effect known as persistence of vision, whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after its source disappears.
The perception of motion is due to a psychological effect called the phi phenomenon. The name "film" originates from the fact that photographic film has been the medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for an individual motion-picture, including picture, picture show, moving picture and flick; the most common term in the United States is movie. Common terms for the field in general include the big screen, the silver screen, the movies, cinema. In early years, the word sheet was sometimes used instead of screen. Preceding film in origin by thousands of years, early plays and dances had elements common to film: scripts, costumes, direction, audiences and scores. Much terminology used in film theory and criticism apply, such as mise en scène. Owing to the lack of any technology for doing so, the moving images and sounds could not be recorded for replaying as with film; the magic lantern created by Christiaan Huygens in the 1650s, could be used to project animation, achieved by various types of mechanical slides.
Two glass slides, one with the stationary part of the picture and the other with the part, to move, would be placed one on top of the other and projected together the moving slide would be hand-operated, either directly or by means of a lever or other mechanism. Chromotrope slides, which produced eye-dazzling displays of continuously cycling abstract geometrical patterns and colors, were operated by means of a small crank and pulley wheel that rotated a glass disc. In the mid-19th century, inventions such as Joseph Plateau's phenakistoscope and the zoetrope demonstrated that a designed sequence of drawings, showing phases of the changing appearance of objects in motion, would appear to show the objects moving if they were displayed one after the other at a sufficiently rapid rate; these devices relied on the phenomenon of persistence of vision to make the display appear continuous though the observer's view was blocked as each drawing rotated into the location where its predecessor had just been glimpsed.
Each sequence was limited to a small number of drawings twelve, so it could only show endlessly repeating cyclical motions. By the late 1880s, the last major device of this type, the praxinoscope, had been elaborated into a form that employed a long coiled band containing hundreds of images painted on glass and used the elements of a magic lantern to project them onto a screen; the use of sequences of photographs in such devices was limited to a few experiments with subjects photographed in a series of poses because the available emulsions were not sensitive enough to allow the short exposures needed to photograph subjects that were moving. The sensitivity was improved and in the late 1870s, Eadweard Muybridge created the first animated image sequences photographed in real-time. A row of cameras was used, each, in turn, capturing one image on a photographic glass plate, so the total number of images in each sequence was limited by the number of cameras, about two dozen at most. Muybridge used his system to analyze the movements of a wi
James F. Steranko is an American graphic artist, comic book writer/artist, comics historian, magician and film production illustrator, his most famous comic book work was with the 1960s superspy feature "Nick Fury, Agent of S. H. I. E. L. D." in Marvel Comics' Strange Tales and in the subsequent eponymous series. Steranko earned lasting acclaim for his innovations in sequential art during the Silver Age of Comic Books his infusion of surrealism, pop art, graphic design into the medium, his work has been published in many countries and his influence on the field has remained strong since his comics heyday. He went on to create book covers, become a comics historian who published a pioneering two-volume history of the birth and early years of comic books, to create conceptual art and character designs for films including Raiders of the Lost Ark and Bram Stoker's Dracula, he was inducted into the comic-book industry's Will Eisner Comic Book Hall of Fame in 2006. Steranko was born in Pennsylvania. According to Steranko's authorized biography, his grandparents emigrated from Ukraine to settle in the anthracite coal-mining region of eastern Pennsylvania.
Steranko's father, one of nine siblings, began working in the mines at age 10, as an adult became a tinsmith. Steranko said his father and uncles "would bootleg coal – they would go up into a mountain and open up a shaft." One of three children, all boys, Steranko spent his early childhood during the American Great Depression living in a three-room house with a tar-paper roof and outhouse toilet facilities. He slept on a couch in the nominal living room. Steranko's father and five uncles showed musical inclination, performing in a band that played on Reading radio in the 1930s, Steranko has said. Steranko recalled beginning school at age 4. "Because my father had tuberculosis, I began third grade at what was called an'open-window' school, a facility across the city that had a healthy program for kids with special problems. I was bused to school for four years dropped into standard junior high." There, being smaller and younger than his classmates, he found himself a target for bullies and young gang-members until he studied boxing and self-defense at the local YMCA and began to fight back.
His youngest brother was born when Steranko was 14, "severing the minimal interaction between me and my parents."Steranko had begun drawing while young and flattening envelopes from the mail to use as sketch paper. Despite his father's denigration of Steranko's artistic talent, the boy's ambition to become an architect, Steranko paid for his art supplies by collecting discarded soda bottles for the bottle deposit and bundled old newspapers to sell to scrap-paper dealers, he studied the Sunday comic strip art of Milton Caniff, Alex Raymond, Hal Foster, Chester Gould, as well as the characters of Walt Disney and Superman, provided in "boxes of comics" brought to him by an uncle. Radio programs, Saturday movie matinées and serials, other popular culture influenced him. Steranko in 1978 described some influences and their impact on his creative philosophy: Early influences were Chester Gould's Dick Tracy, Hal Foster, Frank Robbins' Johnny Hazard. I still think. Fans seem to have a lot less opinion of Robbins for some reason, just because they're more enamored of lines.
Fans seem to think the better it is. The opposite is true; the fewer lines you can put into a drawing the quicker it reads, the simpler it is. Toth is one of the few guys who can simplify an illustration to a minimum of lines with a maximum of impact. By his account, Steranko learned stage magic using paraphernalia from his father's stage magician act, in his teens spent several summers working with circuses and carnivals, working his way up to sideshow performer as a fire-eater and in acts involving a bed of nails and sleight-of-hand. At school, he competed on the gymnastics team, on the rings and parallel bars, took up boxing and, under swordmaster Dan Phillips in New York City, fencing. At 17, Steranko and another teenage boy were arrested for a string of burglaries and car thefts in Pennsylvania. Up through his early 20s, Steranko performed as an illusionist, escape artist, close-up magician in nightclubs, musician, having played in drum and bugle corps in his teens before forming his own bands during the early days of rock and roll.
Steranko, whose first band, in 1956, was called The Lancers, did not perform under his own name, claiming he used pseudonyms to help protect himself from enemies. He claims to have put the first go-go girls onstage; the seminal rock and roll group Bill Haley and his Comets was based in nearby Philadelphia and Steranko, who played a Jazzmaster guitar performed in the same local venues, sometimes on the same bill, became friendly with Haley guitarist Frank Beecher, who became a musical influence. By the late 1960s, Steranko was a member of a New York City magicians' group, the Witchdoctor's Club. Comics historian Mark Evanier notes that the influential comic-book creator Jack Kirby, who "based some of his characters... on people in his life or in the news", was "inspired" to create the escape artist character Mister Miracle "by an earlier career of writer-artist Jim Steranko". During the day, Steranko made his living as an artist for a printing company in his hometown of Reading and drawing pamphlets and flyers for local dance clubs and the like.
He moved on after five years to jo