The Rufus Buck Gang was an outlaw multi-racial gang whose members were part African American and part Creek Indian. They operated in the Indian Territory of the Arkansas-Oklahoma area from 1895 to 1896. Formed by Rufus Buck, the gang consisted of Lewis Davis, Sam Sampson, Maoma July, Lucky Davis; the gang began building up a small stockpile of weapons while staying in Oklahoma. After killing U. S. deputy marshal John Garrett on July 30, 1895, the gang began holding up various stores and ranches in the Fort Smith area during the next two weeks. In one incident, a salesman named Callahan – after being robbed – was offered a chance to escape if he could outrun the gang; when the elderly Callahan escaped, the gang killed his assistant in frustration. At least two women victims who were raped by the gang died of their injuries. July 30, 1895: Killing of US Deputy Marshal John Garrett July 31, 1895: Coming across a white man and his daughter in a wagon, the gang held the man at gunpoint and took the girl.
They killed a black boy and beat Ben Callahan until they mistakenly believed he was dead took Callahan's boots and saddle.\ Robbing of country stores of West and J. Norrberg at Orket, Oklahoma Murder of two white women and a 14-year-old girl August 4: Rape of a Mrs Hassan near Sapulpa, Oklahoma Hassan and two of three other female victims of the gang—a Miss Ayres and an Indian girl near Sapulpa—also died. While the Creek wanted to hold the gang for trial the men were brought before "Hanging" Judge Isaac Parker, he twice sentenced them to death, the first sentence not being carried out due to an unsuccessful appeal to the Supreme Court. They were hanged on July 1896 at 1 pm at Fort Smith. A modified account of the gang's crimes is the basis for the novel Winding Stair by Douglas C. Jones; the Buck gang, "Hanging Judge" Isaac Parker, half-black, half-Indian outlaw Cherokee Bill, the socio-political environment at the death of Indian Territory are the subjects of the 2011 historical novel I Dreamt I Was in Heaven - The Rampage of the Rufus Buck Gang by Leonce Gaiter.
Brooks-McFarland Feud Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture - Buck Gang Annual report of the Department of the Interior, Volume 2 1896.p.158 http://www.jcs-group.com/oldwest/outlaws/rufus.html
The Witte Museum was established in 1926 and is located in Brackenridge Park in San Antonio, Texas. It is dedicated to telling the stories of Texas, from prehistory to the present; the permanent collection features historic artifacts and photographs, Texas art, dinosaur bones, cave drawings, Texas wildlife dioramas, in addition to nationally acclaimed traveling exhibits. Artwork in the collection includes sculpture by San Antonio-born Bonnie MacLeary; the Witte Museum is named after San Antonio businessman Alfred G. Witte, who bequeathed $65,000 to the city for construction of a museum of art and natural history to be built in memory of his parents; the first Director of the Witte Museum was Ellen Schulz Quillin. The catalyst for the Museum was an extensive collection of natural history specimens owned by Henry Philemon Attwater, which San Antonio public schoolteacher Ellen Schulz purchased for the city of San Antonio for $5,000; when the growing collection grew too large for the high school where it was housed and her supporters appealed to the city council for funds to build a new museum.
With those funds and a $65,000 bequest from Alfred G. Witte, a new building was constructed. Established under the auspices of The San Antonio Museum Association, it was known as the Witte Memorial Museum until 1984, when the name was simplified to the Witte Museum. In addition to natural and historic artifacts, the Witte collection included paintings, sculptures and other works of art. In 1970, museum director Jack McGregor proposed establishing a separate art museum. In 1972, with the support of several key museum trustees, the San Antonio Museum Association acquired the former Anheuser-Busch brewery, which would be renovated and remodeled; the San Antonio Museum of Art opened to the public on March 1, 1981. The Witte Museum Texas Art Collection focuses on works created by artists living and working in Texas as well as work by artists representing its history and culture. 1930s: The Witte Museum's support of archeological research in the canyons of Big Bend and the Lower Pecos area resulted in important research findings and a growing collection of artifacts and led to the building of new galleries to house them, as well as a Reptile Garden, the vision of founder Ellen Schultz Quillin.
The Reptile Garden not only provided a source of revenue for the Museum but provided income to South Texas ranchers and laborers who sold their rattlesnakes and rat snakes to the museums for $0.10-$0.15 per pound. The two log cabins on the property were constructed by participants in President Roosevelt's National Youth Administration program and are used to teach students about pioneer life. 1940s: Two historic San Antonio houses were moved from their original locations to the Witte Museum campus. The oldest and one of the largest public circus collections, it includes artifacts, programs and photographs, as well as sheet music, professional journals and published manuscripts. Current President and CEO Marise McDermott has overseen a number of expansion projects since assuming the leadership role in 2004: The H-E-B Science Treehouse was transformed into the H-E-B Body Adventure, providing youth with the first interactive health experience in the US. Naylor Morton Research and Collections Center opened, displaying more than 300,000 artifacts and providing space for scholars and students to view the growing collection.
In 2012, the Robert J. and Helen C. Kleberg South Texas Heritage Center opened to the public as a permanent home for the museum's South Texas collections and public programs, combined with the latest museum technology; the collections are links to the area's heritage and include saddles, basketry, branding irons, historical clothing, land grants and firearms. In 2014, the museum began a $100 million renovation of more than 174,000 square feet of space to include the Naylor Family Dinosaur Gallery and Dinosaur Lab. Led by Founder and President Patrick Gallagher, the design team of Gallagher & Associates created exhibit graphics, video animations, updated dioramas, touch screens and interactive displays, numerous sound installations; this project had a goal of LEED certification, which it attained through designs which are environmentally friendly and sustainable. Valero Energy contributed $4 million toward the expansion, which funded the glass-enclosed Valero Great Hall, an entry and lobby space featuring replicas of an Acrocanthosaurus atokensis, a Tyrannosaurus rex, a
The Amos G. Winter House is a historic house on Winter's Hill in Maine. Built in the mid-1890s, it is a elegant example of Colonial Revival architecture in a remote inland community; the house was designed by Francis and Freelan Stanley, multi-talented twins best known for development of the Stanley Steamer, the house's original heating system was designed around a railroad engine boiler. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1976; the Winter House is set on a hill north of the small village center of Kingfield and just south of the West Branch Carrabasset River. The hill affords fine views of the Western Maine Mountains, it is a square wood-frame structure, with a hip roof and a stone foundation. Its front facade is symmetrical, with rounded two-story bays flanking the center entrance, sheltered by a portico supported by groups of fluted columns, with a dentillated cornice beneath its hip roof; the entrance itself is flanked by sidelight windows and topped by a half-oval fanlight window, with pilasters matching the columns where the portico joins the wall.
The rounded bays have curved three-part windows, with narrow sashes flanking large picture windows. Three hip-roof dormers pierce the front roof line; the main block of the house is flanked on either side by lower wings. The interior has retained much of its original decorative work despite a variety of adaptive reuses of the building over time; the house was built for a local grain merchant and owner of a general store. Winter was friends with the Stanley twins, who were Kingfield natives. Among the innovations the Stanleys put in the building were a steam-driven heating system whose centerpiece was a railroad engine boiler. A steam-driven elevator was planned but not installed; the house was occupied by the Winters until 1950, was adapted for use first as a doctor's office and clinic, as a restaurant and inn. It has since been converted to multiunit residential use. National Register of Historic Places listings in Franklin County, Maine
Frank-Walter Steinmeier OMRI GColIH GCM is a German politician serving as President of Germany since 19 March 2017. He was Minister for Foreign Affairs from 2005 to 2009 and again from 2013 to 2017, Vice-Chancellor of Germany from 2007 to 2009, he was chairman-in-office of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe in 2016. Steinmeier is a member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany, holds a doctorate in law and was a career civil servant, he was a close aide of Gerhard Schröder when Schröder was Prime Minister of Lower Saxony during most of the 1990s, served as Schröder's chief of staff from 1996. When Schröder became Chancellor of Germany in 1998, Steinmeier was appointed Under-Secretary of State in the German Chancellery with the responsibility for the intelligence services. From 1999 to 2005 he served as Chief of Staff of the Chancellery. Following the 2005 federal election, Steinmeier became Foreign Minister in the first grand coalition government of Angela Merkel, from 2007 he additionally held the office of vice chancellor.
In 2008, he served as acting chairman of his party. He was the SPD's candidate for chancellor in the 2009 federal election, but his party lost the election and he left the federal cabinet to become leader of the opposition. Following the 2013 federal election he again became Minister for Foreign Affairs in Merkel's second grand coalition. In November 2016 he was announced as the candidate of the governing coalition consisting of his own party and the CDU/CSU for President of Germany, thus became the presumptive elect as the coalition held a large majority in the Federal Convention, he was elected as president by the Federal Convention on 12 February 2017, winning 74 percent of the vote. Steinmeier belongs to the right wing of the SPD, known as moderates; as chief of staff he was a principal architect of Agenda 2010, the Schröder government's controversial reforms of the welfare state. His lenient policies towards countries such as Russia and China have earned him criticism both in Germany and internationally, he has been criticized for prioritizing German business interests over human rights.
Steinmeier was born in West Germany. Although his full name is Frank-Walter, to those who know him well, he goes by the name Frank, his father, a carpenter, was affiliated with the Church of Lippe. His mother, born in Breslau, came as a refugee from a Lutheran part of Silesia during the flight and expulsion of Germans after World War II. Following his Abitur, Steinmeier served his military service from 1974 until 1976, studied Law and Political Science at the Justus Liebig University Giessen, where Brigitte Zypries was a fellow student. In 1982, he passed his first exam, 1986, he passed his second state examination in Law. Steinmeier worked as a scientific assistant to the professor of Public Law and Political Science at Giessen University, until he obtained his doctorate of Law in 1991, his dissertation explored the role of the state in the prevention of homelessness. Steinmeier has one daughter. On 24 August 2010, he donated a kidney to his wife, Elke Büdenbender. In 2015, Steinmeier served as best man at the wedding of Rüdiger Grube and Cornelia Poletto in Hamburg.
Steinmeier enjoys jazz, is an avid football fan. Steinmeier is a Reformed Protestant and an active member of the Reformed Bethlehem congregation in Berlin-Neukölln, he was baptized as a youth. Steinmeier became an adviser in 1991 for Law of Communication media and media guidelines in the State Chancellery of Lower Saxony in Hanover. In 1993, he became director of the Personal Office for the prime minister of Lower Saxony, Gerhard Schröder. In 1996, he became the Undersecretary of State and director of the State Chancellery of Lower Saxony. Steinmeier was appointed in November 1998 as undersecretary of state at the office of the chancellor following Schröder's election victory, he replaced Bodo Hombach as the head of the office of the chancellor in 1999. During this period Steinmeier was one of the advisors to Schröder, he was crucial in securing a red-green majority in parliament for Schröder's contentious "Agenda 2010" of economic reforms. Because of his effective management beyond the spotlight of politics, he was nicknamed Die Graue Effizienz —a pun on Graue Eminenz, the German for éminence grise.
Under Schröder, Steinmeier was responsible for co-ordinating Germany's intelligence services. In 2003, he supported Schröder in his controversial decision to forge a coalition with Russia and France against the U. S.-led war against Iraq. Meanwhile, he approved the decision to install a German intelligence officer in the Qatar-based office of General Tommy Franks, the American commander of the U. S. invasion in Iraq, who passed on to the United States information being gathered in Baghdad by two German intelligence officers operating there. In 2004, Steinmeier participated in diplomatic negotiations settling on compensation payments with Libya for victims of the 1986 terrorist bombing of the LaBelle disco in Berlin. A major controversy during Steinmeier's term as chief of staff was the imprisonment of a German-born Turk, Murat Kurnaz, in Guantánamo Bay from 2002 until August 2006. Steinmeier denied during a parliamentary inquiry in March 2007. Instead, he claimed that Berlin had feared Kurnaz was a threat and should go to Turkey, not Germany, if released.
Only after Merkel's election was Kurnaz released and brought back to
The Common Army as it was designated by the Imperial and Royal Military Administration, was the largest part of the Austro-Hungarian land forces from 1867 to 1914, the other two elements being the Imperial-Royal Landwehr and the Royal Hungarian Landwehr. However, it was known as the Army by the Emperor and in peacetime laws, after 1918, colloquially called the k.u.k. Armee. Established on 15 March 1867 and disbanded on 31 October 1918 when its Hungarian troops left, the Common Army formed the main element of the "armed power" of the new double monarchy, to which the Imperial and Royal Navy belonged. In the First World War all land and sea forces of the monarchy were subordinated to the Armeeoberkommando set up in 1914; until 1889 the armed forces bore the title "k.k.", as they had done before 1867. Only on the express wish of the Kingdom of Hungary was the designation "k.u.k." and "cs. és kir." introduced in order to make the distinction clearer between the new Austrian army, the k.k. Landwehr, the new Hungarian force, the m. kir.
Honvédség. The navy did not use "k.u.k." as because there were few other naval forces apart from the main navy. After the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 15 March 1867 the army and navy were no longer institutions of a single state, but of the new double monarchy, composed of two countries on an equal footing: the Empire of Austria and the no longer subordinate Kingdom of Hungary. From that point on, Emperor Franz Joseph - hitherto the "Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, etc." - bore the title Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary. Overall command still lay with the monarch who communicated with the army through the newly established Military Chancellery of His Majesty the Emperor and King; the Imperial and Royal War Ministry was responsible for the administration and maintenance of the Army structure. Its Chief of the General Staff had the right to address the monarch directly; the Austrian act of 11 April 1889, which superseded the defence act of 1868, amended in 1882, stated in section 2 that: The armed forces are divided into the Army, the Navy, the Landwehr and the Landsturm.
In section 14 the annual recruiting quota for the Army and Navy was set at 103,000. The recruiting target for Austrian Landwehr army raised for territorial defence was 10,000 men; the quotas were to be adjusted to meet requirements every ten years by political agreement between Austria and Hungary and by associated laws. The Austrian Landwehr and the Hungarian Honvéd were not subordinate to the Minister of War, but to the Imperial and Royal Minister for Defence and his Royal Hungarian counterpart, unofficially called the Honvédminister. In all matters of joint concern, including the Common Army, there was a fixed cost-sharing between the two parts of the Empire. From 1867 onwards, Hungary bore 30% of the total cost; this figure was increased in the Compromise negotiations in 1888 to 31.4% and in 1907 to 36.4%. The total cost of the Army and Navy in 1912 was around 670 million krones; that was less than 3.5% of the entire national income, in 1906 it was only 2.5%. In Russia and Germany the cost in 1912 was about 5% of the net national product.
Austria-Hungary remained the great power with the lowest expenditure on its armed forces. In the long period of peace during the final decades of the 19th century, the army and navy were neglected. Military expenditure was not popular in either the Austrian Reichsrat or Hungarian Parlament, at least for their common forces; the much-needed modernization of the army was delayed again. This was to cause problems with mobilization in 1914.. Hungarian politicians demanded a separate Hungarian army; the monarch agreed a compromise in the 1867 accord: the two halves of the empire should be allowed their own territorial forces in addition to the common army. Hungary began to establish the Royal Hungarian Landwehr called the Honvéd in German, but Emperor and King Franz Joseph I focused on the unity of the Army and Navy enshrined in the Compromise, reinforced this in 1903 after further attempts by Hungary in his army order of Chlopy: True to their oath, all My armed forces are progressing down the path of serious fulfillment of their duty, imbued with that spirit of unity and harmony, which each national character respects and before which all opposition melts, by exploiting the individual attributes of each people for the sake of the greater whole..
Jointly and united, as it is, must My army remain. In 1898, when Archduke and heir to the throne, Franz Ferdinand, was entrusted by the Emperor with an analysis of the armed forces of the monarchy, the overdue need to rejuvenate its rather elderly General Staff became apparent to him; the 76-year-old Emperor agr