An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i
Metamorfoz is the renowned Turkish pop singer Tarkan's sixth Turkish language and seventh studio album, released on 25 December 2007 in Turkey. The album was published in Asia. Seven of the songs were written by Tarkan, while three others are collaborations with composer Ozan Çolakoğlu; the style and genre of the album is a brand new style, according to the official website, that would surprise fans and critics alike. The album evoked mixed reviews in the Turkish media, according to some journalists this is his worst album, while others think that these reviews are part of a negative campaign, aiming to discredit Tarkan. Despite the bad criticism he had received, Metamorfoz sold 300,000 copies in the first week of its release, according to the Turkish music industry, gaining diamond certification. Metamorfoz was released in Europe on February 1, 2008, by Urban, in a few countries like Germany and Austria; the European release is an enhanced CD. In 2008 Tarkan remix album with Tiësto and other Turkish DJs and released Metamorfoz Remixes with 13 new remixes from the original album.
Album was published in Europe, Japan, North America, South America, Australia. Tarkan's last Turkish language album was Dudu, in 2003, his first English language work, Come Closer did not bring satisfactory results when compared to the sales of his previous albums. It did not reach gold sales, according to the list published by MÜ-YAP. After the failure of Come Closer Tarkan decided to release a new, Turkish album and in the beginning of 2007 he declared that he was working on new songs. However, release dates were continuously being postponed; the Turkish daily Hürriyet reported that the album would be released around Ramadan Fest, the three-day celebration after the Islamic fasting month of Ramadan. It was rumoured. Tarkan denied this in an interview given at the Atatürk International Airport in Istanbul, declaring that release was delayed and the Sezen Aksu song was taken off the track list. Metamorfoz was released in Turkey on December 25, 2007, one day after its announced release date, while it came out on February 1, 2008 in Europe.
Seven of the songs were written by Tarkan, three are collaborations with producer-composer Ozan Çolakoğlu. Metamorfoz means metamorphosis, change in English; the title indicates. The cover pictures Tarkan with unusually short hair, in a shiny grey suit, an image unfamiliar to his fans, which justifies the title of the album; the cover features the title in Braille dots for the visually impaired. In the first edition of the cover the Braille title was printed wrong and read Tarkaf instead of Tarkan, it was soon corrected and the cover reprinted. The style of the album is a mix of heavy electropop with rock. Oriental percussion and strings sounds are given a minor role compared to his previous albums; some journalists compared the style to that of Justin Timberlake and Britney Spears songs Toxic and Piece of Me, "mixed with some oriental sauce to make it slide easier". From the songs Vay Anam Vay, Dilli Düdük, Arada Bir, Hop Hop, Çat Kapı and Dedikodu are faster dance songs, Bam Teli and Gün gibi are somewhat slower, while İstanbul Ağlıyor and Pare Pare are slow ballads.
The story of the songs were told by Tarkan himself in an interview for the magazine Yeni Aktüel. As told by Tarkan, Vay Anam Vay was born, he wrote it in two hours and together with Çolakoğlu they found it so good that they decided to adjust the other songs to its style, removing nonconforming songs from the track list. Thus the album's "metamorphic" style was determined by Vay Anam Vay. Dilli Düdük was written one and a half years ago, when Tarkan went through a difficult period in his life. "I wrote it. In the same period one of my colleagues became a victim of such unfair attacks, as well; this time I got angry. I wrote this song for those who break people's heart without thinking first, who make a mountain out of a molehill with their words." Çat Kapı explains the singer's helplessness towards love, a feeling he has experienced multiple times. He makes a decision not to fall in love again, but he cannot resist the feeling; the song Hop Hop has political tones. It describes how the states exploit the citizens for their own purposes, how today's political systems are good for nothing, since the world is full of violence, human rights are many times oppressed, we are a subject to global warming and governments do little to save us.
Tarkan explained in the interview that the song examines these problems and encourages people to unite, no matter what color our skin is or what religion we follow. Tarkan made the following comment on Pare Pare in Yeni Aktüel:Gün Gibi is the confession of a man in love, thanking love, it is "the happy song of the nightingale that found his rose". İstanbul Ağliyor was written for those, who have experienced the pain of separation and loneliness, so that they know they are not alone. Arada Bir is a self-evaluating song, a confession that shows how Tarkan had experienced so-called "double relationships", which - according to him - are part of mankind's nature: at first everyone only cares for their own self, searches their own truth, but in the end if we are able to understand we were wrong, we can restore balance in the relationship. Bam Teli is about the psychological games involved in human relationships
Turkey the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Bulgaria to its northwest. Istanbul is the largest city. 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority. At various points in its history, the region has been inhabited by diverse civilizations including the Assyrians, Thracians, Phrygians and Armenians. Hellenization continued into the Byzantine era; the Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, their victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 symbolizes the start and foundation of Turkey. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish principalities. Beginning in the late 13th-century, the Ottomans started uniting these Turkish principalities.
After Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman expansion continued under Selim I. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent the Ottoman Empire encompassed much of Southeast Europe, West Asia and North Africa and became a world power. In the following centuries the state entered a period of decline with a gradual loss of territories and wars. In an effort to consolidate the weakening social and political foundations of the empire, Mahmut II started a period of modernisation in the early 19th century, bringing reforms in all areas of the state including the military and bureaucracy along with the emancipation of all citizens. In 1913, a coup d'état put the country under the control of the Three Pashas. During World War I, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian and Pontic Greek subjects. Following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states; the Turkish War of Independence, initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues against occupying Allied Powers, resulted in the abolition of monarchy in 1922 and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president.
Atatürk enacted numerous reforms, many of which incorporated various aspects of Western thought and customs into the new form of Turkish government. The Kurdish–Turkish conflict, an armed conflict between the Republic of Turkey and Kurdish insurgents, has been active since 1984 in the southeast of the country. Various Kurdish groups demand separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan or to have autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds in Turkey. Turkey is a charter member of the UN, an early member of NATO, the IMF and the World Bank, a founding member of the OECD, OSCE, BSEC, OIC and G-20. After becoming one of the first members of the Council of Europe in 1949, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005 which have been stopped by the EU in 2017 due to "Turkey's path toward autocratic rule". Turkey's economy and diplomatic initiatives led to its recognition as a regional power while its location has given it geopolitical and strategic importance throughout history.
Turkey is a secular, unitary parliamentary republic which adopted a presidential system with a referendum in 2017. Turkey's current administration headed by president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of the AKP has enacted measures to increase the influence of Islam, undermine Kemalist policies and freedom of the press; the English name of Turkey means "land of the Turks". Middle English usage of Turkye is evidenced in an early work by Chaucer called The Book of the Duchess; the phrase land of Torke is used in the 15th-century Digby Mysteries. Usages can be found in the Dunbar poems, the 16th century Manipulus Vocabulorum and Francis Bacon's Sylva Sylvarum; the modern spelling "Turkey" dates back to at least 1719. The Turkish name Türkiye was adopted in 1923 under the influence of European usage; the Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world. Various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic period until the Hellenistic period.
Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family. In fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated; the European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has been inhabited since at least forty thousand years ago, is known to have been in the Neolithic era by about 6000 BC. Göbekli Tepe is the site of the oldest known man-made religious structure, a temple dating to circa 10,000 BC, while Çatalhöyük is a large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately
10 (Tarkan album)
10 is the tenth studio album by Turkish singer Tarkan. It was released on 15 June 2017 by HITT Production and distributed by DMC. Tarkan's tenth studio album, 10, is a Turkish pop album, it contains 14 songs in total. The album 330,000 copies in 20 days and earned the singer 32 million
Performing arts are a form of art in which artists use their voices, bodies or inanimate objects to convey artistic expression. It is different from visual arts, when artists use paint, canvas or various materials to create physical or static art objects. Performing arts include a range of disciplines. Theatre, music and object manipulation, other kinds of performances are present in all human cultures; the history of music and dance date to pre-historic times whereas circus skills date to at least Ancient Egypt. Many performing arts are performed professionally. Performance can be in purpose built buildings, such as theatres and opera houses, on open air stages at festivals, on stages in tents such as circuses and on the street. Live performances before an audience are a form of entertainment; the development of audio and video recording has allowed for private consumption of the performing arts. The performing arts aim to express one's emotions and feelings. Artists who participate in performing arts in front of an audience are called performers.
Examples of these include actors, dancers, circus artists and singers. Performing arts are supported by workers in related fields, such as songwriting and stagecraft. A performer who excels in acting and dancing is referred to as a triple threat. Well-known examples of historical triple threat artists include Gene Kelly, Fred Astaire, Judy Garland. Performers adapt their appearance, such as with costumes and stage makeup, stage lighting, sound. Performing arts may include dance, opera and musical theatre, illusion, spoken word, circus arts, performance art. There is a specialized form of fine art, in which the artists perform their work live to an audience; this is called performance art. Most performance art involves some form of plastic art in the creation of props. Dance was referred to as a plastic art during the Modern dance era. Theatre is the branch of performing arts. Any one or more of these elements is performing arts. In addition to the standard narrative dialogue style of plays. Theater takes such forms as plays, opera, illusion, classical Indian dance, mummers' plays, improvisational theatre, stand-up comedy and non-conventional or contemporary forms like postmodern theatre, postdramatic theatre, or performance art.
In the context of performing arts, dance refers to human movement rhythmic and to music, used as a form of audience entertainment in a performance setting. Definitions of what constitutes dance are dependent on social, aesthetic artistic and moral constraints and range from functional movement to codified, virtuoso techniques such as ballet. There is one another modern form of dance that emerged in 19th- 20th century with the name of Free-Dance style; this form of dance was structured to create a harmonious personality which included features such as physical and spiritual freedom. Isadora Duncan was the first female dancer who argued about “woman of future” and developed novel vector of choreography using Nietzsche’s idea of “supreme mind in free mind”. Dance is a powerful impulse, but the art of dance is that impulse channeled by skillful performers into something that becomes intensely expressive and that may delight spectators who feel no wish to dance themselves; these two concepts of the art of dance—dance as a powerful impulse and dance as a skillfully choreographed art practiced by a professional few—are the two most important connecting ideas running through any consideration of the subject.
In dance, the connection between the two concepts is stronger than in some other arts, neither can exist without the other. Choreography is the art of making dances, the person who practices this art is called a choreographer. Music is an art form which combines pitch and dynamic in order to create sound, it can be performed using a variety of instruments and styles and is divided into genres such as folk, hip hop and rock, etc. As an art form, music can occur in live or recorded formats, can be planned or improvised; as music is a protean art, it co-ordinates with words for songs as physical movements do in dance. Moreover, it has a capability of shaping human behaviors. Starting in the 6th century BC, the Classical period of performing art began in Greece, ushered in by the tragic poets such as Sophocles; these poets wrote plays. The Hellenistic period began the widespread use of comedy. However, by the 6th century AD, Western performing arts had been ended, as the Dark Ages began. Between the 9th century and 14th century, performing art in the West was limited to religious historical enactments and morality plays, organized by the Church in celebration of holy days and other important events.
In the 15th century performing arts, along with the arts in general, saw a revival as the Renaissance began in Italy and spread throughout Europe plays, some of which incorporated dance, which were performed and Domenico da Piacenza credited with the first use of the term ballo instead of danza for his baletti or balli. The term became Ballet; the first Ballet per se is thought to be Balthasar de Beaujoyeulx's Ballet Comique de la Reine. By the mid-16th century Commedia Dell'arte became popular in Europe, introducing the use of improvisation; this period introduced the Elizabethan
The cello or violoncello is a string instrument. It is played by bowing or plucking its four strings, which are tuned in perfect fifths an octave lower than the viola: from low to high, C2, G2, D3 and A3, it is the bass member of the violin family, which includes the violin and the double bass, which doubles the bass line an octave lower than the cello in much of the orchestral repertoire. After the double bass, it is the second-largest and second lowest bowed string instrument in the modern symphony orchestra; the cello is used as a solo instrument, as well as in chamber music ensembles, string orchestras, as a member of the string section of symphony orchestras, most modern Chinese orchestras, some types of rock bands. Music for the cello is written in the bass clef, but both tenor clef and treble clef are used for higher-range parts, both in orchestral/chamber music parts and in solo cello works. A person who plays the cello is called a violoncellist. In a small classical ensemble, such as a string quartet, the cello plays the bass part, the lowest-pitched musical line of the piece.
In an orchestra of the Baroque era and Classical period, the cello plays the bass part doubled an octave lower by the double basses. In Baroque-era music, the cello is used to play the basso continuo bassline along with a keyboard instrument or a fretted, plucked stringed instrument. In such a Baroque performance, the cello player might be joined or replaced by other bass instruments, playing bassoon, double bass, viol or other low-register instruments; the name cello is derived from the ending of the Italian violoncello, which means "little violone". Violone was a large-sized member of the violin family; the term "violone" today refers to the lowest-pitched instrument of the viols, a family of stringed instruments that went out of fashion around the end of the 17th century in most countries except England and France, where they survived another half-century before the louder violin family came into greater favour in that country as well. In modern symphony orchestras, it is the second largest stringed instrument.
Thus, the name "violoncello" contained both the augmentative "-one" and the diminutive "-cello". By the turn of the 20th century, it had become common to shorten the name to'cello, with the apostrophe indicating the missing stem, it is now customary to use "cello" without apostrophe as the full designation. Viol is derived from the root viola, derived from Medieval Latin vitula, meaning stringed instrument. Cellos are tuned in fifths, starting with C2, followed by G2, D3, A3, it is tuned in the same intervals as the viola. Unlike the violin or viola but similar to the double bass, the cello has an endpin that rests on the floor to support the instrument's weight; the cello is most associated with European classical music, has been described as the closest sounding instrument to the human voice. The instrument is a part of the standard orchestra, as part of the string section, is the bass voice of the string quartet, as well as being part of many other chamber groups. Among the most well-known Baroque works for the cello are Johann Sebastian Bach's six unaccompanied Suites.
The cello figures as a member of the basso continuo group in chamber works by Francesca Caccini, Barbara Strozzi with pieces such as Il primo libro di madrigali, per 2–5 voci e basso continuo, op. 1 and Elisabeth Jacquet de La Guerre who wrote six sonatas for violin and basso continuo. From the Classical era, the two concertos by Joseph Haydn in C major and D major stand out, as do the five sonatas for cello and pianoforte of Ludwig van Beethoven, which span the important three periods of his compositional evolution. A Divertimento for Piano, Clarinet and Cello is among the surviving works by Duchess Anna Amalia of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. A review of compositions for cello in the Romantic era must include the German composer Fanny Mendelssohn who wrote the Fantasy in G minor for cello and piano and a Capriccio in A-flat for cello. Other well-known works of the era include the Robert Schumann Concerto, the Antonín Dvořák Concerto as well as the two sonatas and the Double Concerto by Johannes Brahms.
Compositions from the late-19th and early 20th century include three cello sonatas by Dame Ethel Smyth, Edward Elgar's Cello Concerto in E minor, Claude Debussy's Sonata for Cello and Piano, unaccompanied cello sonatas by Zoltán Kodály and Paul Hindemith. Pieces including cello were written by American Music Cente founder Marion Bauer and Ruth Crawford Seeger. Polish composer Grażyna Bacewicz was writing for cello in the mid 20th century with Concerto No. 1 for Cello and Orchestra, Concerto No. 2 for Cello and Orchestra and in 1964 composed her Quartet for four cellos. The cello's versatility made it popular with many male composers in this era as well, such as Sergei Prokofiev, Dmitri Shostakovich, Benjamin Britten, György Ligeti, Witold Lutoslawski and Henri Dutilleux. Well-known cellists include Jacqueline du Pre, Raya Garbousova, Zara Nelsova, Hildur Gudna
The ney, is an end-blown flute that figures prominently in Middle Eastern music. In some of these musical traditions, it is the only wind instrument used; the ney has been played continuously for 4,500–5,000 years, making it one of the oldest musical instruments still in use. The Persian ney consists of a hollow cylinder with finger-holes. Sometimes a brass, horn, or plastic mouthpiece is placed at the top to protect the wood from damage, to provide a sharper and more durable edge to blow at; the ney consists of a piece of hollow cane or giant reed with five or six finger holes and one thumb hole. Modern neys may be made instead of plastic tubing; the pitch of the ney varies depending on the finger arrangement. A skilled ney player, called neyzen, can reach more than three octaves, though it is more common to have several "helper" neys to cover different pitch ranges or to facilitate playing technically difficult passages in other dastgahs or maqams. In Romanian, the word nai is applied to a curved pan flute while an end-blown flute resembling the Arab ney is referred to as caval.
The typical Persian ney has six holes, one of, on the back. Arabic and Turkish neys have seven holes, six in front and one thumb-hole in the back; the interval between the holes is a semitone, although microtones are achieved via partial hole-covering, changes of embouchure, or positioning and blowing angle. Microtonal inflection is crucial to various traditions of taqsim. Neys are constructed in various keys. In the Arab system, there are seven common ranges: the longest and lowest-pitched is the Rast, equivalent to C in the Western equal temperament system, followed by the Dukah in D, the Busalik in E, the Jaharka in F, the Nawa in G, the Hussayni in A, the Ajam in B, with the Dukah Ney being the most common. Advanced players will own a set of several neys in various keys, although it is possible to play chromatically on any instrument. A slight exception to this rule is found in the extreme lowest range of the instrument, where the fingering becomes quite complex and the transition from the first octave to the second is rather awkward.
Gargy-tuyduk this is a long reed flute whose origin, according to legend, is connected with Alexander of Macedonia, a similar instrument existed in ancient Egypt. Kargı in Turkish means reed; the sound of the gargy-tuyduk has much in common with the two-voiced kargyra. During the playing of the gargy-tuyduk the melody is heard, while the lower droning sound is audible; the allay epic songs have been described by the Turkologist N. Baskakov who divides them into three main types: a) Kutilep kayla, in which the second sound is a light drone. B) Sygyrtzip kayla, with a second whistling sound like the sound of a flute. C) Kargyrlap kayla, in which the second sound can be defined as hissing; the sound of the Turkmen gargy-tuyduk is most like the Altay Kargyrkip kayla. The garg-tuyduk can have six finger holes and a length of 780 mm or five finger holes and a length of 550 mm; the range of the garg-tuyduk includes three registers: 1) The lowest register – "non-working" – is not used during the playing of a melody.
2) The same as on the "non-working" register but an octave higher. 3) High register from mi of the second octave to ti. The Pamiri nay is a transverse flute made of wood or, in Eastern Badakhshan, eagle bone. Although the name is similar to the Arabic end-blown nay, it might well be that this side-blown flute is more related to Chinese flutes such as the dizi through a Mongol link, it is used for solo melodies as well as for vocal accompaniment. One of the main uses of the nay is for the most original form of the traditional performance ‘falaki’; these are brief melodic sessions which can express complaints against destiny, the injustice of heaven or exile to distant places, sentiments such as the sorrow of a mother separated from her daughter, the sorrow of a lover torn from her/his beloved, etc. Turkish ney Tsuur Kawala, a similar instrument used in Arabic music Persian traditional music Arabic Music Music of Iran Washint Dilli Ney Choor NAI Effat, Mahmoud. Beginner's Guide to the Nay. Translated by Jon Friesen.
Pitchphork Music. ISBN 0-9770192-0-9. Marwan Hassan. Kawala & Nay: Die Ur-Flöten der Menschheit: Bauen, pflegen und spielen. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Nay". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. About Persian Ney