Accademia delle Arti del Disegno
The Accademia delle Arti del Disegno, or "Academy of the Arts of Drawing", is an academy of artists in Florence, Italy. The Accademia e Compagnia delle Arti del Disegno, or "academy and company of the arts of drawing", was founded on 13 January 1563 by Cosimo I de' Medici, under the influence of Giorgio Vasari, it was made up of two parts: the Company was a kind of guild for all working artists, while the Academy was for more eminent artistic personalities of Cosimo’s court, supervised artistic production in Tuscany. It was called the Accademia delle Arti del Disegno. Artists including Michelangelo Buonarroti, Lazzaro Donati, Francesco da Sangallo, Agnolo Bronzino, Benvenuto Cellini, Giorgio Vasari, Bartolomeo Ammannati, Giambologna were members. Most members of the Accademia were male, its declared purposes are the promotion and diffusion of the arts, the protection and conservation of cultural heritage worldwide. It organises conferences, book presentations and exhibitions, elects noted artists from all over the world to honorary membership.
The president is Luigi Zangheri. The first Accademia delle Arti del Disegno was founded by Cosimo I de' Medici on 13 January 1563, under the influence of Giorgio Vasari, it was named the Accademia e Compagnia delle Arti del Disegno, or "academy and company of the arts of drawing", was made up of two parts: the Company was a kind of guild for all working artists, while the Academy was for more eminent artistic personalities of Cosimo’s court, supervised artistic production in Tuscany. It was called the Accademia delle Arti del Disegno. At first, the Academy met in the cloisters of the Santissima Annunziata. In 1784 Pietro Leopoldo, Grand Duke of Tuscany, combined all the schools of drawing in Florence into one institution, the new Accademia di Belle Arti di Firenze, or academy of fine arts; the Accademia delle Arti del Disegno was thus suppressed and transformed in the collegio dei professori dell'Accademia. In the re-organisation following the Unification of Italy, the Collegio dei Professori dell'Accademia delle Arti del Disegno was again separated from the Regia Accademia di Belle Arti di Firenze in 1873.
Sculpture and painting became separate classes under a new statute of 1953. Since 1971 the Accademia has occupied Palazzo dell'Arte dei Beccai, in via Orsanmichele; the current statute of the organisation was published by decree of the President of the Republic of Italy, is dated 17 May 1978. Since the statute of 1978 the Accademia delle Arti del Disegno has been divided into five classes: painting, architecture, history of art and humanities and sciences. There are four classes of membership: emeritus, ordinary and honorary. Notable members of the Accademia include Hans Erni and Anselm Kiefer in painting; the Accademia awards the title of Accademico d'Onore, or honorary member, to those it considers notable in culture and the arts. It lists 138 such honorary members. Among them are Andrea Branzi, Daniel Buren, Fernando Caruncho, Andrea Claudio Galluzzo, Herman Hertzberger, Michael Hirst, Jasper Johns, Gina Lollobrigida, Pierre Rosenberg, Edoardo Vesentini, Alessandro Vezzosi, Louis Waldman and the Pritzker Prize winners Robert Venturi and Renzo Piano.
Past Accademici d'Onore include Giulio Andreotti, Alberto Ronchey, the Nobel Prize winner Rita Levi-Montalcini and Jørn Utzon. Jacopo Cavallucci. Notizie intorno alla Regia Accademia delle Arti del Disegno di Firenze. Firenze: Tipografia del Vocabolario. Luigi Biagi. L'Accademia di Belle Arti di Firenze. Firenze: Le Monnier. Zygmunt Wazbinski. L'Accademia medicea del Disegno a Firenze nel Cinquecento. Firenze: Olschki. Armando Nocentini. Cenni storici sull'Accademia delle Arti del Disegno). Firenze: Olschki. Paola Barocchi, I Fondatori dell'Accademia del Disegno. FIrenze: Olschki. Luigi Zangheri, Francesco Adorno. Gli statuti dell'Accademia delle Arti del Disegno.. Firenze: Olschki. Karen Edis-Barzman; the Florentine Academy and the Early Modern State. The Discipline of Disegno.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Enrico Sartoni, Da Michelangelo alla Contemporaneità. Storia di un primato mondiale 450 anni dell'Accademia delle Arti del Disegno. Firenze: Regione Toscana
Accademia dei Lincei
The Accademia dei Lincei is an Italian science academy, located at the Palazzo Corsini on the Via della Lungara in Rome, Italy. Founded in the Papal States in 1603 by Federico Cesi, the academy was named after the lynx, an animal whose sharp vision symbolizes the observational prowess that science requires. Galileo Galilei was the intellectual centre of the academy and adopted "Galileo Galilei Linceo" as his signature. "The Lincei did not long survive the death in 1630 of Cesi, its founder and patron", "disappeared in 1651". During the nineteenth century, it was revived, first in the Vatican and in the nation of Italy, thus the Pontifical Academy of Science, founded in 1847, claims this heritage as the Accademia Pontificia dei Nuovi Lincei, descending from the first two incarnations of the Academy. A lynx-eyed academy of the 1870s became the national academy of Italy, encompassing both literature and science among its concerns; the first Accademia dei Lincei was founded in 1603 by Federico Cesi, an aristocrat from Umbria, passionately interested in natural history – botany.
Cesi's father disapproved of the research career. His mother, Olimpia Orsini, supported him both morally; the Academy struggled due to this disapproval, but after the death of Frederico's father he had enough money to allow the academy to flourish. The academy, hosted in Palazzo Cesi-Armellini near Saint Peter, replaced the first scientific community Giambattista della Porta's Academia Secretorum Naturae in Naples, closed by the Inquisition. Cesi founded the Accademia dei Lincei with three friends: the Dutch physician Johannes van Heeck and two fellow Umbrians, mathematician Francesco Stelluti and polymath Anastasio de Filiis. At the time of the Accademia's founding Cesi was only 18, the others only 8 years older. Cesi and his friends aimed to understand all of the natural sciences; the literary and antiquarian emphasis set the "Lincei" apart from the host of sixteenth and seventeenth century Italian Academies. Cesi envisioned a program of free experiment, respectful of tradition, yet unfettered by blind obedience to authority that of Aristotle and Ptolemy, whose theories the new science called into question.
While a private association, the Academy became a semi-public establishment during the Napoleonic domination of Rome. This shift allowed local scientific elite to carve out a place for themselves in larger scientific networks. However, as a semi-public establishment, the Academy's focus was directed by Napoleonic politics; this focus directed the member's efforts towards stimulating industry, turning public opinion in favor of the French regime and secularizing the country. The name "Lincei" came from Giambattista della Porta's book "Magia Naturalis," which had an illustration of the fabled cat on the cover and the words "...with lynx like eyes, examining those things which manifest themselves, so that having observed them, he may zealously use them". Accademia dei Lincei's symbols were both an eagle; the academy's motto, chosen by Cesi, was: "Take care of small things if you want to obtain the greatest results". According to T. O'Conor Sloane, their other motto was Sagacius ista; when Cesi visited Naples, he met with many scientists in fields of interest to him including the botanist, Fabio Colonna, the natural history writer, Ferrante Imperato, the polymath della Porta.
Della Porta was impressed with Cesi, dedicated three works to the Linceans including a treatise on distillation called De Distillatione, a book on curvilinear geometry called Elementa Curvilinea, The Transformations of the Atmosphere. Della Porta encouraged Cesi to continue with his endeavours. Giambattista della Porta joined Cesi's academy in 1610. While in Naples, Cesi met with Nardo Antonio Recchi to negotiate the acquisition of a collection of material describing Aztec plants and animals written by Francisco Hernández de Toledo; this collection of material would become the Tesoro Messicano. The goal was anything less than the assembly of modern science reflected on the method of observation: the church of knowledge; the Academy was to possess in each quarter of the global communes with adequate endowments to retain membership. These communes were complete with libraries, museums, printing presses, botanical gardens. Members wrote letters around their observations; the Lyncæis denounced marriage as a mollis and effeminata requies.
Membership was banned to monks. Members were ordered to "penetrate into the interior of things in order to know the causes and operations of nature, as it is said the lynx does, which sees not only what is outside, but what is hidden within."Galileo was inducted to the exclusive Academy on April 25, 1611, became its intellectual center. Galileo felt honoured by his association with the Academy for he adopted Galileo Galilei Linceo as his signature; the Academy supported him during his disputes with the Roman Inquisition. Among the Academy's early publications in the fields of astronomy and botany were Galileo's "Letters on Sunspots" and "The Assayer", the Tesoro Messicano describing the flora and drugs of the New World, which took decades of labor, down to 1651. With this publicati
The Ateneo Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti is an institution for the promulgation of science, literature and culture in all forms, in the exclusive interest of promoting social solidarity, located in Venice, northern Italy. The Ateneo Veneto is made up of three-hundred members resident in the city and in the province of Venice, elected by the Assembly, responsible for appointing the Chairman and the Academic Council. Honorary, Non-Resident and Foreign Members, elected by the Assembly participate in the life of the Ateneo; the Ateneo Veneto was formed on 12 January 1812 through the merger of the Società Veneta di Medicina, the Accademia dei Filareti, the Accademia Veneta Letteraria pursuant to a decree of Napoleon I dated 25 December 1810. The first chairman was Leopoldo Cicognara, it was the Ateneo Veneto that saw the first stirrings of Venetian liberalism, with speeches by Daniele Manin, President of the short-lived Republic of San Marco from 1848 to 1849, by Niccolò Tommaseo. Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries the Ateneo Veneto acted as a forum for debates on crucial matters for the city in the fields of culture, art, medicine, politics and law.
Such free discussions on major issues have continued to characterize the Ateneo Veneto, testifying to its civic and cultural commitment. The building hosted a confraternity, the Scuola Grande di San Fantin known as the Scuola di San Girolamo or Scuola di Santa Maria e di San Girolamo, as stated in the official documents of the Venetian Republic, more referred to as "di San Fantin" or "dei picai". During the sixteenth century a number of great architects and sculptors of the Baroque and Mannerist schools embarked upon a major reconstruction of the Scuola; the church on the ground-floor is now the conference-hall. The albergo, on the first floor, is a reading-room: around 1664 the albergo piccolo was added, as was the new sacristy on the ground floor. On the top floor is the library which contains around 40,000 volumes, some of them of inestimable historic and artistic value; the art-collection, with works by Tintoretto, Palma il Giovane, Antonio Zanchi, Francesco Fontebasso, Pietro Longhi and Alessandro Vittoria, is extremely valuable.
The Ateneo Veneto, a non-profit organization, institution of science and arts, is committed to making full use of its historical and artistic heritage and to the pursuit of cultural activities and social initiatives. It will continue to expand its services, including recreational activities connected with the above-mentioned initiatives, using the Internet and multi-media facilities. Official website
Royal Academy of Italy
The Royal Academy of Italy was a short-lived Italian academy of the Fascist period. It was created on 7 January 1926 by royal decree, but was not inaugurated until 28 October 1929, it was dissolved in 1943 with the fall of Mussolini, was suppressed on 28 September 1944. All of its functions and assets, including the Villa Farnesina, were passed to the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei; until 25 April 1945 it continued some activity in the Villa Carlotta on Lake Como near Tremezzo in Lombardy. The declared purpose of the academy was "to promote and coordinate Italian intellectual activity in the sciences, the humanities, the arts, to preserve the integrity of the national spirit, according to the genius and tradition of the race, to encourage their diffusion "; the Academy was modelled upon the prestigious French Academy. The Academy selected sixty Italians chosen for their scientific and artistic achievements; those sixty members were divided into four groups of fifteen, representing the physical sciences, moral sciences and letters.
Politically the Academy served to unify and strengthen the Fascist regime's hold on intellectual activity in Italy, as the Academy demanded that all its members swear loyalty to Fascism and Italy. The Academy was effective at drawing in the intellectual and cultural elites, was effective at rewarding real talent rather than just loyalty to the regime, it absorbed other independent institutions, notably the prestigious and venerable scientific Accademia dei Lincei in 1939. The members were well paid, earning 3,000 lire per month at a time when average per capita income in Italy was 3,079 per year; the members were automatically granted first class travel on Italy's national railways and were entitled to wear uniforms designed for the members and to be addressed as "Your Excellency". Each were allowed to compete for the four annual Mussolini prizes which were awarded to Academy members who demonstrated outstanding work in their respective fields; the Academy sponsored lectures, meetings and publications.
In 1934, the Academy appointed a commission to create a dictionary of the Italian language in which all Italianized foreign words were to be removed. After the collapse of the Fascist regime in 1943 and the installation of the puppet Fascist regime in the Italian Social Republic, a new version of the Academy was reopened until the remnant Fascist state was defeated in 1945; the six presidents of the Academy were: Tommaso Tittoni, politician, 1929–1930 The Marchese Marconi, inventor of radio telegraphy, 1930–1937 Gabriele D'Annunzio and politician, 1937–1938 Luigi Federzoni, politician, 1938–1943 Giovanni Gentile, philosopher, 1943–1944 Giotto Dainelli Dolfi and geographer, from 1944. There were sixty members in all. An initial list of thirty names was compiled by Tittoni and Francesco Giunta, was approved by the council of ministers on 13 March 1929, they were: Antonio Beltramelli, Pietro Bonfante, Filippo Bottazzi, Armando Brasini, Pietro Canonica, Francesco Coppola, Giotto Dainelli Dolfi, Salvatore Di Giacomo, Enrico Fermi, Carlo Formichi, Umberto Giordano, Alessandro Luzio, Antonio Mancini, Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, Pietro Mascagni, Francesco Orestano, Alfredo Panzini, Nicola Parravano, Marcello Piacentini, Luigi Pirandello, Pietro Romualdo Pirotta, Ettore Romagnoli, Romano Romanelli, Giulio Aristide Sartorio, Francesco Severi, Bonaldo Stringher, Alfredo Trombetti, Giancarlo Vallauri, Gioacchino Volpe and Adolfo Wildt.
Cannistraro, Philip V. Historical Dictionary of Fascist Italy, Connecticut- London: Greenwood Press, p. 657, ISBN 0-313-21317-8. Cagiano De Azevedo, Paola. Reale Accademia d’Italia. Inventario dell’archivio, Pubblicazioni degli Archivi di Stato - Strumenti, CLXVII, Roma: Ministero per i Beni Culturali e Ambientali - Dipartimento per i Beni Archivistici e Librari - Direzione Generale per gli Archivi, pp. lxxxiv+492, ISBN 88-7125-264-0, archived from the original on 2012-09-07 available from the Ministero per i Beni Culturali e Ambientali - Dipartimento per i Beni Archivistici e Librari - Direzione Generale per gli Archivi. The complete inventory of the Reale Accademia d'Italia, which incorporated the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei between 1939 and 1944; this page contains material translated from its equivalent in Italian Wikipedia accessed 5/20/2011
Accademia degli Arcadi
The Accademia degli Arcadi or Accademia dell'Arcadia, "Academy of Arcadia" or "Academy of the Arcadians", was an Italian literary academy founded in Rome in 1690. The full Italian official name was Pontificia Accademia degli Arcadi; the beginnings of the Accademia degli Arcadi date to February 1656, when a literary circle formed under the patronage of Queen Christina of Sweden, who had abdicated the Swedish crown in 1654, converted to Catholicism, taken up her residence in Rome, where she spent much of the rest of her life. There she became a significant patron of music and opera, with composers including Alessandro Scarlatti, Alessandro Stradella and Arcangelo Corelli dedicating works to her. After her death in 1689, the academy was established in her memory and elected her as its symbolic head; the Academy lasted for the next two hundred years, remaining a leading cultural institution into the 20th century. The Accademia degi Arcadi was so called because its principal intention was to reform the diction of Italian poetry, which the founders believed had become corrupt through over-indulgence in the ornamentation of the baroque style, under the inspiration of pastoral literature, the conventions of which imagined the life of shepherds supposed to have lived in Arcadia in the golden age, divinely inspired in poetry by the Muses, Apollo and Pan.
The Academy chose as its emblem the pipe of Pan with its seven unequal reeds. The fourteen founders selected as the first Custode di Arcadia or president of the academy, Giovanni Mario Crescimbeni, the author of a history of Italian poetry and of various literary works; the Arcadians resolved to return to the fields of truth, always singing of subjects of pastoral simplicity and drawing their inspiration from Greco-Roman bucolic poetry. The ideal parameters for the artistic work were a sense of measure and beauty. Common to all the poets was the desire to oppose the poetry of the Marinists, return to classic poetry, embracing the recent rationalist influence of Descartes. Norms and rituals of the academy took their cue from classic and pastoral mythology, as in the custom of assuming'pastoral' names; the fourteen founder members included the poet Vincenzo Leonio. The first solemn gathering of the Arcadians was held on the Janiculum hill, in a wood belonging to the Reformed Minorites, on 5 October 1690.
In 1692, the meetings were transferred to the gardens of Duke Orsini on the Esquiline hill. The generosity of John V of Portugal, one of its members under the name of Arete Melleo, enabled the society to secure on the Janiculum a site known as the Bosco Parrasio or. Here they held their meetings in summer days, in winter moving to the Teatro degli Arcadi in the Palazzo Salviati. In 1696 the Accademia admitted seven musicians including Giovanni Bononcini. While the academy was still on the Palatine, its Statuto or Constitution was drawn up; this constitution was modelled on the ancient Roman laws of the'Twelve Tables', was engraved on marble. Differing tendencies soon asserted themselves, following the ideas of the two founders: that of Gravina stood in the tradition of Homer and Dante, while that of Crescimbeni was more influenced by Petrarch; because of these differences Gravina left to found the Accademia dei Quirini in 1711. Despite this loss, Arcadia retained its vigour in the following years, created colonies in many cities of Italy.
Many noblemen and artists held membership of it to be an honour, soon it numbered 1,300. Much of what they produced, was either mediocre or pretentious, although the Academy did receive some endorsement for its attack on the redundant Rococo style dominant in art and literature; the celebrated opera librettist Pietro Metastasio although he had his own differences with Arcadia, was a student of Gravina's, a leading light of the academy's second generation. His works, of which the best remembered might be Il Re Pastore because of its setting by Mozart, may represent the closest thing to a justification of its program that Arcadia achieved. In 1795, the academy admitted the Italian Diodata Saluzzo Roero, as one of its first female members, but in the 17th century the poet Maria Antonia Scalera Stellini was elected a member. A violent anti-Arcadian reaction soon developed, starting from the early 19th century, Arcadianism began to be regarded as a late and unconvincing expression of the ancien régime.
After the end of the French Revolution, the Academy strove to renew itself in accord with the spirit of the times, without sacrificing its traditional system of sylvan associations and pastoral names. The Academy no longer represented a literary school, but a general interest in the classics, figures like Dante came to be honoured by its members. Furthermore, the Academy's field of endeavour was enlarged to include many branches of study, including history and archaeology; the new Arcadian revival was marked by the foundation of the Giornale Arcadico. In 1925 the Academy was renamed to become the Arcadia – Accademia Letteraria Italiana, a historical institute; the Accademia degi Arcadi counted among its members some of the principal literary men and women of the time, including Menzini, Metastasio, Guidi, Clotilde Tambroni and others. The famous composer George Frideric Handel is known to have attended the meetings and symposia of the Arcadians when studying in Italy, under the patronage of Ruspoli, a leading member of the Acad
Accademia della Crusca
The Accademia della Crusca abbreviated as La Crusca, is an Italian society for scholars and Italian linguists and philologists established in Florence. It is the most important research institution on the Italian language as well as the oldest linguistic academy in the world; the Accademia was founded in Florence in 1583. It has been characterized by its efforts to maintain the purity of the Italian language. Crusca means "bran" in Italian, which conveys the metaphor that its work is similar to winnowing as it is well explained by the emblem of the Accademia della Crusca that depicts a sifter, straining out corrupt words and structures; the academy motto is "Il più bel fior ne coglie", a famous verse of the Italian poet Francesco Petrarca. In 1612, the Accademia published the first edition of its Dictionary, the Vocabolario degli Accademici della Crusca, which served as the model for similar works in French, Spanish and English; the academy is a member of the European Federation of National Linguistic Institutes.
The founders were called the brigata dei Crusconi and constituted a circle composed of poets, men of letters, lawyers. The members assembled on pleasant and convivial occasions, during which cruscate — discourses in a merry and playful style, which have neither a beginning nor an end — were recited; the Crusconi used humour and irony to distance itself from the pedantry of the Accademia Fiorentina, protected by Grand Duke Cosimo I de' Medici, to contrast itself with the severe and classic style of that body. This battle was fought without compromising the primary intention of the group, literary, expounded in high quality literary disputes; the founders of the Accademia della Crusca are traditionally identified as Giovanni Battista Deti, Antonio Francesco Grazzini, Bernardo Canigiani, Bernardo Zanchini, Bastiano de’ Rossi. Under his leadership, at the beginning of 1583, the Accademia took on a new form, directing itself to demonstrate and to conserve the beauty of the Florentine vulgar tongue, modelled upon the authors of the Trecento.
One of the earliest scholars to influence the work of the Crusca was Agnolo Monosini. He contributed to the 1612 edition of Vocabolario degli Accademici della Crusca with regard to the influence of Greek, which, he maintained, made a significant contribution to the Fiorentine idiom of the period; the Accademia thus abandoned the jocular character of its earlier meetings in order to take up the normative role it would assume from on. The title of the Accademia came to be interpreted in a new way: the academicians of the Crusca would now work to distinguish the good and pure part of the language from the bad and impure part. From this is derived the symbolism of the Crusca: its logo shows a frullone or sifter with the Petrarchan motto Il più bel fior ne coglie; the members of the Accademia were given nicknames associated with corn and flour, seats in the form of breadbaskets with backs in the shape of bread shovel were used for their meetings. In 1636, Cardinal Richelieu created the Académie française on the model of the Accademia della Crusca.
The linguistic purism of the Accademia found opposition in Cesare Beccaria and the Verri brothers, who through their journal Il Caffè systematically attacked the Accademia's archaisms as pedantic, denouncing the Accademia while invoking for contrast no less than the likes of Galileo and Newton and modern intellectual cosmopolitanism itself. However, since Galileo published his scientific works in his native Florentine Italian, as opposed to the Latin, customary for academic works of the time, it has been argued that he implicitly supported the Accademia's purpose; the Accademia's activities carried on with both high- and low- points until 1783, when Pietro Leopoldo quit and, with several other academicians, created the second Accademia Fiorentina. In 1808, the third Accademia Fiorentina was founded and, by a decree of 19 January 1811, signed by Napoleon, the Crusca was re-established with its own status of autonomy and previous aims. In the 20th century, the decree of 11 March 1923 changed its purpose.
The compilation of the Vocabolario, hitherto the duty of the Crusca, was removed from it and passed to a private society of scholars. In 1955, Bruno Migliorini and others began discussion of the return of the work of preparing the Vocabolario to the Crusca. In 2007, the website E-leo compiling 3,000 drawings and writings of Leonardo da Vinci was launched, with the linguistic help of the Accademia della Crusca to decipher some of the inventor's scribblings. In August 2011, the existence of the Accademia was threatened when Giulio Tremonti and Silvio Berlusconi introduced a proposition to eradicate all public-funded entities with less than 70 members. In August 2015, the Accademia's website was defaced by a hacker linked to ISIS. In February 2016, the Accademia approved the submission of an 8-year old for a new Italian word, Petaloso. Luciano Agostiniani, Florence Gabriella Alfieri, Catania Ilaria Bonomi, Milan Michele Cortelazzo, Padua Paolo D'Achille, Rome Vittorio Formentin, Padua Giuseppe Frasso, Milan Rita Librandi, Naples Alberto Nocentini, Florence Alessandro Pancheri, Pescara Leonardo Maria Savoia, Florence Mirko Tavoni, Pisa Pietro Trifone, Rome John Kinder, Perth (in I
Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia
The Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia is one of the oldest musical institutions in the world, founded by the papal bull Ratione congruit, issued by Sixtus V in 1585, which invoked two saints prominent in Western musical history: Gregory the Great, for whom the Gregorian chant is named, Saint Cecilia, the patron saint of music. Since 2005 it has been headquartered at the Renzo Piano designed Parco della Musica in Rome, it was founded as a "congregation", or "confraternity", over the centuries has grown from a forum for local musicians and composers to an internationally acclaimed academy active in music scholarship, music education and performance. The list of alumni of the associated conservatory includes many noted performers; the first seat of the Congregation from 1585–1622 was the church of Santa Maria ad Martires, better known as the Pantheon. Successive relocations were to the church of San Paolino alla Colonna, Santa Cecilia in Trastevere, San Nicola dei Cesarini, Chiesa della Maddalena, San Carlo ai Catinari in 1685.
During the first century of existence, the Congregation was the workshop of a number of prominent musicians and composers of the day, including Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina. The institution in that period was in rivalry with the other important musical organization of Papal Rome of the day, the Sistine Choir. Rivalry centred on the rights to control access to the musical profession, to train musicians, to publish music; the rivalry never ended and can be said to have lasted through the entire existence of the Papal States, that is, until 1870, when the "temporal power of the Church" was ended by military action of the new nation state of Italy. The early 18th century is considered to have been a glorious time for the Accademia. Among names associated with the organization during that period are Arcangelo Corelli and Domenico Scarlatti, Niccolò Jommelli. In 1716, Pope Clement XI decreed that all musicians practising their profession in Rome were required to become members of the Congregation.
The Accademia suspended operations during the revolutionary period of the Napoleonic Wars but opened again in 1822 a few years after the Restoration brought about by the Congress of Vienna. The years between that reopening and the end of the Papal States in 1870 were ones of great change; the organization opened its membership to hitherto excluded categories, such as dancers, music historians, musical instrument makers, music publishers. In 1838, the Congregation of Santa Cecilia was proclaimed an Academy and a Papal Academy; the list of active and honorary members of the Accademia during that period is formidable and includes Cherubini, Donizetti, Paganini, Liszt, Berlioz and Meyerbeer. Among the crowned heads of Europe who were honorary members was Queen Victoria. After the unification of Italy, the Accademia reestablished itself with the formation of a permanent symphony orchestra and choir, beginning in 1895, it went from being the seat of a Liceo musicale—a music "high school"—to being a full-blown conservatory.
The most recent innovation has been the digitisation and cataloguing of centuries of musical documents—including an important collection of traditional music in the ethnomusicological archives—and their preservation and eventual display in the Accademia's multimedia library and archive available to the public online. The Accademia maintains a musical instruments museum. Musical Instruments Museum homepage Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia Multimedia Library and Archive