Monica Vitti is an Italian actress best known for her starring roles in films directed by Michelangelo Antonioni during the early 1960s. After working with Antonioni, Vitti changed focus and began making comedies, working with director Mario Monicelli on many films, she has appeared opposite Marcello Mastroianni, Richard Harris, Terence Stamp, Michael Caine, Dirk Bogarde. Vitti won five David di Donatello Awards for Best Actress, seven Italian Golden Globes for Best Actress, the Career Golden Globe, the Venice Film Festival Career Golden Lion Award. Born Maria Luisa Ceciarelli in Rome, she acted in amateur productions as a teenager trained as an actor at Rome's National Academy of Dramatic Arts and at Pittman's College, where she played a teen in a charity performance of Dario Niccodemi's La nemica, she toured Germany with an Italian acting troupe and her first stage appearance in Rome was for a production of Niccolò Machiavelli's La Mandragola. Vitti's first film role was in Edoardo Anton's Ridere Ridere Ridere, but her first noted performance was at the age of 26, in Mario Amendola's Le dritte.
In 1957 she joined Michelangelo Antonioni's Teatro Nuovo di Milano. She played a leading role in his internationally praised and award winning film L'avventura, as a detached and cool protagonist drifting into a relationship with the lover of her missing girlfriend. Giving a screen presence, described as "stunning", she is credited with helping Antonioni raise money for the production and sticking with him through daunting location shooting. L'avventura made Vitti an international star and one of Italy's most famous actresses of the 20th century, her image appeared on an Italian postage stamp commemorating the film. Vitti received critical praise for starring roles in the Antonioni films La Notte, L'Eclisse and Il Deserto Rosso, which are cited with L'avventura as a series. After her relationship with Antonioni ended, the two did not work together again until Il mistero di Oberwald. Vitti made only two English language films; the first was Modesty Blaise, a mod James Bond spy spoof with Terence Stamp and Dirk Bogarde, which had only mixed success and received harsh critical reviews.
Her other English film was An Almost Perfect Affair, directed by Michael Ritchie and co-starring Keith Carradine, set during the Cannes Film Festival. In 1970 Vitti starred with Marcello Mastroianni in Ettore Scola's successful romantic comedy Dramma della gelosia. In 1973, she made Polvere di stelle, directed by Alberto Sordi, for which she won the 1974 David di Donatello award for Best Actress. In 1974, she starred in Luis Buñuel's innovative Le Fantôme de la liberté; this is considered her last great film. In the 1970s and early 1980s, Vitti appeared in Italian films which did not gain international distribution. Il mistero di Oberwald, the last collaboration between Vitti and Antonioni, is not as well known as L'Avventura. After that movie, Vitti did not do as much screen work. In 1989, Vitti tried writing and directing, created Scandalo Segreto, which she starred in; the film was not a success and she retired from cinema. By 1986 Vitti had returned to the theatre as an teacher. During the 1990s she did television work and directing.
In 1993 Vitti was awarded the Festival Tribute at the Créteil International Women's Film Festival, in France. Michelangelo Antonioni and Vitti met in the late 1950s, their relationship grew stronger after L'Avventura was made, because it had shaped both their careers. However, by the late 1960s, they did not make any movies together, making the relationship strained until it ended. In a interview, Vitti stated that Antonioni ended their relationship, they made the film Il mistero di Oberwald together in 1981. In 1995 Vitti married Roberto Russo, with whom she has lived since 1975. In 2011, it was learned that Alzheimer's disease had "removed her from the public gaze for the last 15 years." In 2018, her husband confirmed she is still living with a caretaker. Nastro d'Argento: 3 occasions David di Donatello: 5 occasions Golden Grail: 4 occasions Silver Bear for an outstanding single achievement at the 34th Berlin International Film Festival
Johann Sebastian Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach was a German composer and musician of the Baroque period. He is known for instrumental compositions such as the Art of Fugue, the Brandenburg Concertos, the Goldberg Variations as well as for vocal music such as the St Matthew Passion and the Mass in B minor. Since the 19th-century Bach Revival he has been regarded as one of the greatest composers of all time; the Bach family counted several composers when Johann Sebastian was born as the last child of a city musician in Eisenach. After becoming an orphan at age 10, he lived for five years with his eldest brother Johann Christoph Bach, after which he continued his musical development in Lüneburg. From 1703 he was back in Thuringia, working as a musician for Protestant churches in Arnstadt and Mühlhausen and, for longer stretches of time, at courts in Weimar—where he expanded his repertoire for the organ—and Köthen—where he was engaged with chamber music. From 1723 he was employed as Thomaskantor in Leipzig, he composed music for the principal Lutheran churches of the city, for its university's student ensemble Collegium Musicum.
From 1726 he published some of his organ music. In Leipzig, as had happened in some of his earlier positions, he had a difficult relation with his employer, a situation, little remedied when he was granted the title of court composer by King Augustus III of Poland in 1736. In the last decades of his life he extended many of his earlier compositions, he died of complications after eye surgery in 1750 at the age of 65. Bach enriched established German styles through his mastery of counterpoint and motivic organisation, his adaptation of rhythms and textures from abroad from Italy and France. Bach's compositions include hundreds of both sacred and secular, he composed Latin church music, Passions and motets. He adopted Lutheran hymns, not only in his larger vocal works, but for instance in his four-part chorales and his sacred songs, he wrote extensively for other keyboard instruments. He composed concertos, for instance for violin and for harpsichord, suites, as chamber music as well as for orchestra.
Many of his works employ the genres of fugue. Throughout the 18th century Bach was renowned as an organist, while his keyboard music, such as The Well-Tempered Clavier, was appreciated for its didactic qualities; the 19th century saw the publication of some major Bach biographies, by the end of that century all of his known music had been printed. Dissemination of scholarship on the composer continued through periodicals and websites devoted to him, other publications such as the Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis and new critical editions of his compositions, his music was further popularised through a multitude of arrangements, including for instance the Air on the G String, of recordings, for instance three different box sets with complete performances of the composer's works marking the 250th anniversary of his death. Bach was born in the duchy of Saxe-Eisenach, into a great musical family, his father, Johann Ambrosius Bach, was the director of the town musicians, all of his uncles were professional musicians.
His father taught him to play the violin and harpsichord, his brother Johann Christoph Bach taught him the clavichord and exposed him to much contemporary music. At his own initiative, Bach attended St. Michael's School in Lüneburg for two years. After graduating he held several musical posts across Germany: he served as Kapellmeister to Leopold, Prince of Anhalt-Köthen, as Thomaskantor in Leipzig, a position of music director at the main Lutheran churches and educator at the Thomasschule, he received the title of "Royal Court Composer" from Augustus III in 1736. Bach's health and vision declined in 1749, he died on 28 July 1750. Johann Sebastian Bach was born in Eisenach, the capital of the duchy of Saxe-Eisenach, in present-day Germany, on 21 March 1685 O. S.. He was the son of Johann Ambrosius Bach, the director of the town musicians, Maria Elisabeth Lämmerhirt, he was the eighth and youngest child of Johann Ambrosius, who taught him violin and basic music theory. His uncles were all professional musicians, whose posts included church organists, court chamber musicians, composers.
One uncle, Johann Christoph Bach, introduced him to the organ, an older second cousin, Johann Ludwig Bach, was a well-known composer and violinist. Bach's mother died in 1694, his father died eight months later; the 10-year-old Bach moved in with his eldest brother, Johann Christoph Bach, the organist at St. Michael's Church in Ohrdruf, Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. There he studied and copied music, including his own brother's, despite being forbidden to do so because scores were so valuable and private, blank ledger paper of that type was costly, he received valuable teaching from his brother. J. C. Bach exposed him to the works of great composers of the day, including South German composers such as Johann Pachelbel and Johann Jakob Froberger. During this time, he was taught theology, Greek and Italian at the local gymnasium. By 3 April 1700, Bach and his schoolfriend Georg Erdmann—who was two years Bach's elder—were enrolled in the prestigious St. Michael's School in Lüneburg, some two weeks' travel north of Ohrdruf
Love and Anger (film)
Amore e rabbia is a 1969 Italian-French anthology film that includes five films directed by five Italian directors and one French director. It premiered at the 19th Berlin International Film Festival in 1969; the film is composed of episodes that deal with some of the themes present in Jesus' parables and anecdotes of the canonical gospels. These issues, are reproduced in the present from their directors. A man is suffering from road, badly injured. Passers do not deign to look at him, continue walking on their way; the episode is taken from Jesus' parable of the Good Samaritan. A bishop about to die. Before he dies, the man has a vision of God; the bishop realizes that he spent his life not properly respecting the gospel, but now it is too late. A beautiful smiling guy's walking on the streets of a city; the boy is the goodness and innocence of youth, soon cut short by human wickedness. Indeed, while the merry boy is walking, the episode shows the evil done by man during the Second World War. At the end of the story, the boy is struck by lightning from the sky and dies, guilty of having been in his life a happy person and a good neighbor.
A woman and a man're arguing with each other. They represent democracy and the people's revolution that can not get along, although their ideas are similar. A group of young guys occupies a university. Young people are fighters student revolution of the Sixties, now that they have in hand the building, the guys begin to argue among themselves, bringing new ideas and changes. However, they talk nonsense, not changing anything in society. Discutiamo, discutiamo directed by Marco Bellocchio and Elda Tattoli Marco Bellocchio as LecturerAgonia directed by Bernardo Bertolucci Julian Beck as Dying Man Jim Anderson Judith Malina Giulio Cesare Castello as Priest Adriano Aprà as Clerk Fernaldo Di Giammatteo Petra Vogt Romano Costa as Clerk Milena Vukotic as NurseL'Amore directed by Jean-Luc Godard Christine Guého Nino Castelnuovo Catherine Jourdan Paolo PozzesiL'indifferenza directed by Carlo Lizzani Tom BakerLa sequenza del fiore di carta directed by Pier Paolo Pasolini Ninetto Davoli as Riccetto Rochelle Barbini as The little girl Aldo Puglisi as Dio Love and Anger on IMDb
Arabian Nights (1974 film)
Arabian Nights is a 1974 Italian film directed by Pier Paolo Pasolini. Its original Italian title is Il fiore delle mille e una notte, which means "The Flower of the One Thousand and One Nights"; the film is an adaptation of the ancient Persian anthology The Book of One Thousand and One Nights, better known as The Arabian Nights. It is the last of Pasolini's "Trilogy of Life", which began with The Decameron and continued with The Canterbury Tales; the lead was played by young Franco Merli, discovered for this film by Pasolini. The film contains abundant nudity and slapstick humor, it preserves the eroticism and the story within a story structure of Arabian Nights and has been called "perhaps the best and the most intelligent" of Arabian Nights film adaptations. The main story concerns an innocent young man, Nur-e-Din, who comes to fall in love with a slave girl, who selected him as her master. After a foolish error of his causes her to be abducted, he travels in search of her. Meanwhile, Zumurrud manages to escape and, disguised as a man, comes to a far-away kingdom where she becomes king.
Various other travellers recount their own tragic and romantic experiences, including a young man who becomes enraptured by a mysterious woman on his wedding day, a man, determined to free a woman from a demon. Interwoven are Nur-e-Din's continuous search for his adventures. In the end he is reunited with Zumurrud; the film comprises 16 scenes: Lady of the Moons Zumurrud’s story Nur-e-din’s search Crowned King Dream Aziz and Aziza Love is my Master Weep as you made her weep Garden The Painter’s story Demon’s revenge Transformation Yunan’s story Chamber in the sand Dream revealed Nur-e-din and Zumurrud Ninetto Davoli as Aziz Franco Citti as The Demon Franco Merli as Nur Ed Din Tessa Bouché as Aziza Ines Pellegrini as Zumurrud Margareth Clementi as Aziz's mother Luigina Rocchi as Budur Alberto Argentino as Prince Shahzmah Francesco Paolo Governale as Prince Tagi Salvatore Sapienza as Prince Yunan Zeudi Biasolo as Zeudi Barbara Grandi Elisabetta Genovese as Munis Gioacchino Castellini Abadit Ghidei as Princess Dunya Fessazion Gherentiel as Berhame Filming took place in Isfahan, the deserts of Eritrea and Yemen as well as in Nepal.
The sound track was composed by Ennio Morricone. The film was entered into the 1974 Cannes Film Festival. Arabian Nights on IMDb Arabian Nights at Rotten Tomatoes Arabian Nights at AllMovie "Pasolini's Splendid Infidelities: Un/Faithful Film Versions of The Thousand and One Nights" by Michael James Lundell. Adaptation: The Journal of Literature On Screen Studies. Arabian Nights: Brave Old World an essay by Colin MacCabe at the Criterion Collection
Federico Fellini, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI was an Italian film director and screenwriter. Known for his distinct style that blends fantasy and baroque images with earthiness, he is recognized as one of the greatest and most influential filmmakers of all time, his films have ranked, in polls such as Cahiers du cinéma and Sight & Sound, as some of the greatest films of all time. Sight & Sound lists his 1963 film 8½ as the 10th-greatest film of all time. In a career spanning fifty years, Fellini won the Palme d'Or for La Dolce Vita, was nominated for twelve Academy Awards, won four in the category of Best Foreign Language Film, the most for any director in the history of the Academy. At the 65th Annual Academy Awards in Los Angeles, he received an honorary award for Lifetime Achievement. Besides La Dolce Vita and 8½, his other well-known films include La Strada, Nights of Cabiria, Juliet of the Spirits, Satyricon and Fellini's Casanova. Fellini was born on 20 January 1920, to middle-class parents in Rimini a small town on the Adriatic Sea.
His father, Urbano Fellini, born to a family of Romagnol peasants and small landholders from Gambettola, moved to Rome in 1915 as a baker apprenticed to the Pantanella pasta factory. His mother, Ida Barbiani, came from a bourgeiois Catholic family of Roman merchants. Despite her family's vehement disapproval, she had eloped with Urbano in 1917 to live at his parents' home in Gambettola. A civil marriage followed in 1918 with the religious ceremony held at Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome a year later; the couple settled in Rimini where Urbano became wholesale vendor. Fellini had two siblings: Riccardo, a documentary director for RAI Television, Maria Maddalena. In 1924, Fellini started primary school in an institute run by the nuns of San Vincenzo in Rimini, attending the Carlo Tonni public school two years later. An attentive student, he spent his leisure time drawing, staging puppet shows, reading Il corriere dei piccoli, the popular children's magazine that reproduced traditional American cartoons by Winsor McCay, George McManus and Frederick Burr Opper.
In 1926, he discovered the world of Grand Guignol, the circus with Pierino the Clown, the movies. Guido Brignone’s Maciste all’Inferno, the first film he saw, would mark him in ways linked to Dante and the cinema throughout his entire career. Enrolled at the Ginnasio Giulio Cesare in 1929, he made friends with Luigi ‘Titta’ Benzi a prominent Rimini lawyer. In Mussolini’s Italy and Riccardo became members of the Avanguardista, the compulsory Fascist youth group for males, he visited Rome with his parents for the first time in 1933, the year of the maiden voyage of the transatlantic ocean liner SS Rex. The sea creature found on the beach at the end of La Dolce Vita has its basis in a giant fish marooned on a Rimini beach during a storm in 1934. Although Fellini adapted key events from his childhood and adolescence in films such as I Vitelloni, 8½, Amarcord, he insisted that such autobiographical memories were inventions: It is not memory that dominates my films. To say that my films are autobiographical is an overly facile liquidation, a hasty classification.
It seems to me that I have invented everything: childhood, nostalgias, memories, for the pleasure of being able to recount them. In 1937, Fellini opened a portrait shop in Rimini, with the painter Demos Bonini, his first humorous article appeared in the "Postcards to Our Readers" section of Milan's Domenica del Corriere. Deciding on a career as a caricaturist and gag writer, Fellini travelled to Florence in 1938, where he published his first cartoon in the weekly 420. According to a biographer, Fellini found school "exasperating" and, in one year, had 67 absences. Failing his military culture exam, he graduated from high school in July 1938 after doubling the exam. In September 1939, he enrolled in law school at the University of Rome to please his parents. Biographer Hollis Alpert reports that "there is no record of his having attended a class". Installed in a family pensione, he met the painter Rinaldo Geleng. Poor, they unsuccessfully joined forces to draw sketches of restaurant and café patrons.
Fellini found work as a cub reporter on the dailies Il Piccolo and Il Popolo di Roma, but quit after a short stint, bored by the local court news assignments. Four months after publishing his first article in Marc’Aurelio, the influential biweekly humour magazine, he joined the editorial board, achieving success with a regular column titled But Are You Listening? Described as “the determining moment in Fellini’s life”, the magazine gave him steady employment between 1939 and 1942, when he interacted with writers and scriptwriters; these encounters led to opportunities in show business and cinema. Among his collaborators on the magazine's editorial board were the future director Ettore Scola, Marxist theorist and scriptwriter Cesare Zavattini, Bernardino Zapponi, a future Fellini screenwriter. Conducting interviews for CineMagazzino proved congenial: when asked to interview Aldo Fabrizi, Italy's most popular variety performer, he established such immediate personal rapport with the man that they collaborated professionally.
Specializing in humorous monologues, Fabrizi commissioned material from his young protégé. Retained on business
Salò, or the 120 Days of Sodom
Salò, or the 120 Days of Sodom, titled Pasolini's 120 Days of Sodom on English-language prints and referred to as Salò, is a 1975 Italian-French horror art film directed by Pier Paolo Pasolini. The film is a loose adaptation of the book The 120 Days of Sodom by the Marquis de Sade reset during WWII; the film focuses on four wealthy, corrupt Italian libertines, during WWII in the time of the fascist Republic of Salò. The libertines kidnap eighteen teenagers and subject them to four months of extreme violence, murder and sexual and mental torture; the film explores the themes of political corruption, abuse of power, perversion and fascism. The story is in four segments, inspired by Dante's Divine Comedy: the Anteinferno, the Circle of Manias, the Circle of Excrement, the Circle of Blood; the film contains frequent references to and several discussions of Friedrich Nietzsche's 1887 book On the Genealogy of Morality, Ezra Pound's poem The Cantos and Marcel Proust's novel sequence In Search of Lost Time.
The film premiered at the Paris Film Festival on 23 November 1975, three weeks after Pasolini was murdered in Rome. It had a brief theatrical run in Italy before being banned in January 1976 and was released in the United States the following year on 3 October 1977; because it depicts youths subjected to intensely graphic violence, relentless sadism, sexual deviance and brutal murder, the film was controversial upon its release and has remained banned in several countries into the 21st century. The confluence of thematic content in the film—ranging from the political and socio-historical, to psychological and sexual—has led to much critical discussion of the film, it has been both praised and decried by various film historians and critics and was named the 65th scariest film made by the Chicago Film Critics Association in 2006. It is the subject of an entry in The Penguin Encyclopedia of Horror and the Supernatural; the film is separated into four segments with intertitles, based on Dante's Divine Comedy: Anteinferno In 1944 in the Republic of Salò, the Fascist-occupied portion of Italy, four wealthy men of power, the Duke, the Bishop, the Magistrate and the President, agree to marry each other's daughters as the first step in a debauched ritual.
They rule that when they get to the mansion their daughters must be naked at all times. They recruit four teenage boys to act as guards and four young soldiers, who are chosen because of their large penises, they kidnap nine young men and nine young women and take them to a palace near Marzabotto. Circle of Manias / Girone delle Manie Accompanying the libertines at the palace are four middle-aged prostitutes collaborators, whose job it is to orchestrate debauched interludes for the men, who sadistically exploit their victims. During the many days at the palace, the four men devise abhorrent tortures and humiliations for their own pleasure. During breakfast, the daughters enter the dining hall naked to serve food. One of the studs trips and rapes a daughter in front of the crowd, which laughs at her cries of pain. Intrigued, the President moons several slaves before prompting the stud to perform anal sex on him and the Duke sings'Sul Ponte di perati'. Signora Vaccari uses a mannequin to demonstrate to the young men and women how to properly masturbate a penis and one of the girls tries to escape, only to have her throat cut.
Signora Vaccari continues with her story. Two victims and Renata, are forced to marry; the ceremony is interrupted when the Duke fondles several prostitutes. At the end and Renata are forced to fondle each other and the men rape them to stop them from having sex with each other. During this, the Magistrate engages with the Duke in three-way intercourse. Another day, the victims are forced to act like dogs; when one of the victims, refuses, the Magistrate whips him and tortures the President's daughter by tricking her into eating food containing nails. Circle of Shit / Girone della Merda Signora Maggi relates her troubled childhood and her coprophilia; as she tells her story, the President notices that one of the studs fondles him. She explains how she killed her mother over a dispute about her prostitution and Renata cries, remembering the murder of her own mother; the Duke, sexually excited at the sound of her cries, begins verbally abusing her. The Duke orders the guards and studs to undress her.
During this, she begs God for death and the Duke punishes her by defecating and forcing her to eat his feces. The President leaves to masturbate; the other victims are presented with a meal of human feces. During a search for the victim with the most beautiful buttocks, Franco is picked and promised death in the future. Circle of Blood / Girone del Sangue Later, there is a Black Mass-like wedding between the studs and the men of power; the men angrily order the children to laugh. The Pianist and Signora Vaccari tell jokes to make the victims laugh; the wedding ceremony ensues with each man of power exchanging rings with a stud. After the wedding, the Bishop receives anal sex from his stud; the Bishop leaves to examine the captives in their rooms, where they start systematically betraying each other: Claudio reveals that Graziella is hiding a photograph, Graziella reveals that Eva and Antiniska are having a secret sexual affair and Ezio, a collaborator and the black servant girl are shot dead after being found having sex, but not before Ezio
Pigsty is a 1969 Italian film and directed by Pier Paolo Pasolini and starring Jean-Pierre Léaud, Marco Ferreri, Ugo Tognazzi, Pierre Clémenti, Alberto Lionello, Franco Citti and Anne Wiazemsky. The film features two parallel stories; the first one is set in an unknown past time and is about a young man who wanders in a volcanic landscape and turns into a cannibal. The man joins ravages the countryside. At the end, his company gets arrested and during his execution, he recites the famous tagline of the film: "I killed my father, I ate human flesh and I quiver with joy." The story is about the human capacity of destruction and a rebellion against the social prerequisites implied against it. The second story is about Herr Klotz, a German industrialist and his young son Julian who live in 1960s Germany. Julian, instead of passing time with his radically politicised fiancée Ida, prefers to build relationships with pigs. Herr Klotz, on the other hand, with his loyal aide Hans Guenther, tries to solve his rivalry with fellow industrialist Herdhitze.
The two industrialists join forces. Herdhitze intends to conceal the event; the story attempts to provide a link between the Third Wirtschaftswunder Germany. Pigsty on IMDb