TLS acceleration is a method of offloading processor-intensive public-key encryption for Transport Layer Security and its predecessor Secure Sockets Layer to a hardware accelerator. This means having a separate card that plugs into a PCI slot in a computer that contains one or more coprocessors able to handle much of the SSL processing. TLS accelerators may use off the shelf CPUs, but most use custom ASICs and RISC chips to do most of the difficult computational work; the most computationally expensive part of a TLS session is the TLS handshake, where the TLS server and the TLS client agree on a number of parameters that establish the security of the connection. During the TLS handshake the server and the client establish session keys, but the encryption and signature of the TLS handshake messages itself is done using asymmetric keys, which requires more computational power than the symmetric cryptography used for the encryption/decryption of the session data. A hardware TLS accelerator will offload processing of the TLS handshake while leaving it to the server software to process the less intense symmetric cryptography of the actual TLS data exchange, but some accelerators handle all TLS operations and terminate the TLS connection, thus leaving the server seeing only decrypted connections.
Sometimes data centers employ dedicated servers for TLS acceleration in a reverse proxy configuration. Modern x86 CPUs support Advanced Encryption Standard encoding and decoding in hardware, using the AES instruction set proposed by Intel in March 2008. Allwinner Technology provides a hardware cryptographic accelerator in its A10, A20, A30 and A80 ARM system-on-chip series, all ARM CPUs have acceleration in the ARMv8 architecture; the accelerator provides the RSA public-key algorithm, several used symmetric-key algorithms, cryptographic hash functions, a cryptographically secure pseudo-random number generator. Coprocessor Public-key cryptography Stunnel Transport Layer Security Application delivery controller Hardware security module Information Site Dedicated to SSL Acceleration SSL Acceleration and Offloading: What Are the Security Implications
The Accelerator is a collection of development solutions for IBM i and Windows platforms using. NET Framework, and/or LANSA, technologies provided by Surround Technologies; the Accelerator development architecture is a tool for building Windows and Web apps within a structured framework. The intent of the Accelerator solutions is to provide a rapid application development environment, that produces well-designed n-tier code that can run in a client/server, web or mobile deployment; the use of Microsoft’s. NET Framework, is recommended by Surround for zero-lock in development and optimal deployment flexibility including both Windows Presentation Foundation and responsive web design clients; the Accelerator uses customizable templates and naming conventions to generate code. The generated code is human readable, standardized to minimize testing, debugging and future maintenance efforts; the generated code follows object-oriented programming design principles, the inversion of control pattern, observer pattern, model–view–viewmodel.
Supports ASP. NET MVC3 Framework. Other patterns are adapted depending on the case. Abstraction is promoted though the use of Windows Presentation Foundation and Windows Communication Foundation; the Accelerator's core system architecture provides a base set of functionality and wizard-driven code generation through the implementation of: N-tier architecture that encourages reuse patterns includes: Data Access Layer with multi-threaded data access Modular and componentized architecture Business entity patterns to enable reuse of logic across all tiers Multitasking and multifunctional default user experience A thin user interface to enable reuse of UI logic across multiple UI technologies Windows Presentation Foundation, full use of WPF provides a unified framework for building applications and high-fidelity experiences in Windows that blend application UI, media content.. NET Framework, includes a large library of coded solutions to common programming problems and a virtual machine that manages the execution of programs written for the framework, which can be accomplished with the Accelerator.
MS Visual Studio, is an integrated development environment from Microsoft that assists on the elaboration of software utilizing Accelerator. IBM i Systems, advanced user system implementation to enrich your development with web services, multithreaded performance, advanced web technologies and platform independence. HTML5 support for ASP. NET The Accelerator architecture supports service-oriented architecture that includes built-in features like business objects, bus interfaces, plug-ins, XML, wizards to simplify deployment; the Accelerator Business Objects and Services implements a framework that consists of server-side Business Objects and Data Service Buses, Service Adapters. The service-oriented architecture integrates with adapters for XML, SOAP, REST, ActiveX. NET, XAML/WPF, etc; because of SOA, BOS functions under IBM i, Windows, LANSA – any server
Saskatoon Accelerators were a professional soccer team based in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan that played in the Canadian Major Indoor Soccer League. The team played indoor soccer, different from the official FIFA indoor game called futsal, its home games were played at Henk Ruys Soccer Center in Saskatoon. The Saskatoon Accelerators were a charter member of the CMISL, they were announced as a team on January 23, 2007, by CMISL President and original franchise owner Mel Kowalchuk. Their colours were black and silver, with silver jerseys and socks; the name was decided by Mel Kowalchuk to represent the scientific community in Saskatoon and its main tool the synchrotron at the University of Saskatchewan. They debuted on the field on March 23, 2007, playing a "Showcase Match" against the Winnipeg Alliance FC; the "Showcase Match" consisted of two games. Each game consisted of ten-minute halves with an intermission between them; the Accelerators won both games by scores of 5 to 2 and 3 to 2, in front of 2,102 fans at Credit Union Centre.
Due to the unbalanced scheduling of the "Showcase Season", the Accelerators had the best winning percentage of all CMISL clubs despite playing the fewest games. In fall 2007, Mel Kowalchuk sold 80% of the Accelerators club to Edmonton businessman Darren Hood; this was done so that Mel Kowalchuk could focus on running the CMISL, while the franchise would have a dedicated owner to run the day-to-day operations. The Saskatoon Accelerators opened the 2008 season on January 13, 2008, against the Calgary United FC at the Credit Union Centre in Saskatoon, they played six home games and four road games this season, with all member clubs visiting Saskatoon. To that, they played four pre-season games, with two of the games being played in St. Albert at the Servus Centre against the Edmonton Drillers and the other two being against the same Drillers at Credit Union Centre. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Canadian Major Indoor Soccer League's Official Website Saskatoon Accelerators' Official Website
Sunless tanning known as UV filled tanning, self tanning, spray tanning, or fake tanning, refers to the effect of a suntan without the Sun. The popularity of sunless tanning has risen since the 1960s after health authorities confirmed links between UV exposure and the incidence of skin cancer. Since sunscreen absorbs ultraviolet light and prevents it from reaching the skin, it will prevent tanning, it has been reported that sunscreen with a sun protection factor of 8 based on the UVB spectrum can decrease vitamin D synthetic capacity by 95 percent, whereas sunscreen with an SPF of 15 can reduce synthetic capacity by 98 percent. A safe and effective method of sunless tanning is consumption of certain carotenoids — antioxidants found in some fruits and vegetables such as carrots and tomatoes — which can result in changes to skin color when ingested chronically and/or in high amounts. Carotenoids are long-lasting. In addition, carotenoids have been linked to more attractive skin tone than suntan.
Carotenes fulfil the function of melanin in absorbing the UV radiation and protecting the skin. For example, they are concentrated in the macula of the eye to protect the retina from damage, they are used in plants both to protect chlorophyll from light harvest light directly. Carotenaemia is the presence in blood of the yellow pigment carotene from excessive intake of carrots or other vegetables containing the pigment resulting in increased serum carotenoids, it can lead to subsequent yellow-orange discoloration and their subsequent deposition in the outermost layer of skin. Carotenemia and carotenoderma is in itself harmless, does not require treatment. In primary carotenoderma, when the use of high quantities of carotene is discontinued the skin color will return to normal, it may take up to several months, for this to happen. Lycopene is a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of beta-carotene and xanthophylls. Lycopene may be the most powerful carotenoid quencher of singlet oxygen. Due to its strong color and non-toxicity, lycopene is a useful food coloring and is approved for usage in the USA, Australia and New Zealand and the EU.
Sunless-tanning pills contain β-carotene. The American Cancer Society states that "Although the US Food and Drug Administration has approved some of these additives for coloring food, they are not approved for use in tanning agents." That "They may be harmful at the high levels that are used in tanning pills.". Chronic, high doses of synthetic β-carotene supplements have been associated with increased rate of lung cancer among those who smoke. Canthaxanthin is most used as a color additive in certain foods. Although the FDA has approved the use of canthaxanthin in food, it does not approve its use as a tanning agent; when used as a color additive, only small amounts of canthaxanthin are necessary. As a tanning agent, much larger quantities are used. After canthaxanthin is consumed, it is deposited throughout the body, including in the layer of fat below the skin, which turns an orange-brown color; these types of tanning pills have been linked to various side effects, including hepatitis and canthaxanthin retinopathy, a condition in which yellow deposits form in the retina of the eye.
Other side effects including damage to the digestive system and skin surface have been noted. The FDA withdrew approval for use of canthaxanthin as a tanning agent, has issued warnings concerning its use. DHA is not a dye, stain or paint, but causes a chemical reaction with the amino acids in the dead layer on the skin surface. One of the pathways is a free radical-mediated Maillard reaction; the other pathway is the conventional Maillard reaction, a process well known to food chemists that causes the browning that occurs during food manufacturing and storage. It does not involve the underlying skin pigmentation nor does it require exposure to ultraviolet light to initiate the color change. However, for the 24 hours after self-tanner is applied, the skin is susceptible to ultraviolet, according to a 2007 study led by Katinka Jung of the Gematria Test Lab in Berlin. Forty minutes after the researchers treated skin samples with high levels of DHA they found that more than 180 percent additional free radicals formed during sun exposure compared with untreated skin.
Another self-tanner ingredient, produced a similar response at high levels. For a day after self-tanner application, excessive sun exposure should be avoided and sunscreen should be worn outdoors, they say. Although some self-tanners contain sunscreen, its effect will not last long after application, a fake tan itself will not protect the skin from UV exposure; the study by Jung et al. further confirms earlier results demonstrating that dihydroxyacetone in combination with dimethylisosorbide enhances the process of tanning. This earlier study found that dihydroxyacetone has an effect on the amino acids and nucleic acids, bad for the skin; the free radicals are due to the action of UV light on AGE as a result of the reaction of DHA with the skin, the intermediates, such as Amadori products, that lead to them. AGEs are behind the damage to the skin that occurs with high blood sugar in diabetes where similar glycation occurs. AGEs absorb and provide a little protection against some of the damaging factors of UV, they do not have melanin's extended electronic structure that dissipates the energy, so part of it goes towards starti
In computing, a keyboard shortcut is a series of one or several keys, such as "Ctrl+F" to search a character string. Such a directive invokes a operating system operation when triggered by the user; the meaning of term "keyboard shortcut" can vary depending on software manufacturer. For instance, Microsoft differentiates keyboard shortcuts from hotkeys whereby the former consists of a specific key combination used to trigger an action, the latter represents a designated letter in a menu command or toolbar button that when pressed together with the Alt key, activates such command—whereas a "hotkey" on Windows is a system wide shortcut, always available in all contexts as long as the program responsible for it is running and not suspended. Keyboard shortcuts are a means for invoking one or more commands using the keyboard that would otherwise be accessible only through a menu, a pointing device, different levels of a user interface, or via a command-line interface. Keyboard shortcuts are used to expedite common operations by reducing input sequences to a few keystrokes, hence the term "shortcut".
To differentiate from general keyboard input, most keyboard shortcuts require the user to press and hold several keys or a sequence of keys one after the other. Unmodified key presses are sometimes accepted when the keyboard is not used for general input - such as with graphics packages e.g. Adobe Photoshop or IBM Lotus Freelance Graphics. Other keyboard shortcuts use function keys that are dedicated for use in shortcuts and may only require a single keypress. For simultaneous keyboard shortcuts, one first holds down the modifier key quickly presses and releases the regular key, releases the modifier key; this distinction is important, as trying to press all the keys will either miss some of the modifier keys, or cause unwanted auto-repeat. Sequential shortcuts involve pressing and releasing a dedicated prefix key, such as the Esc key, followed by one or more keystrokes. Mnemonics are distinguishable from keyboard shortcuts. One difference between them is that the keyboard shortcuts are not localized on multi-language software but the mnemonics are localized to reflect the symbols and letters used in the specific locale.
In most GUIs, a program's keyboard shortcuts are discoverable by browsing the program's menus – the shortcut is indicated next to the menu choice. There are keyboards that have the shortcuts for a particular application marked on them; these keyboards are used for editing video, audio, or graphics, as well as in software training courses. There are stickers with shortcuts printed on them that can be applied to a regular keyboard. Reference cards intended to be propped up in the user's workspace exist for many applications. In the past, when computer hardware was more standardized, it was common for computer books and magazines to print cards that were cut out, intended to be placed over the user's keyboard with the printed shortcuts noted next to the appropriate keys; when shortcuts are referred to as key assignments it carries the connotation that the shortcuts are customizable to a user's preference and that program functions may be'bound' to a different set of keystrokes instead of or in addition to the default.
This highlights a difference in philosophy regarding shortcuts. Some systems end-user-oriented systems such as Mac OS or Windows, consider standardized shortcuts essential to the environment's ease of use; these systems limit a user's ability to change shortcuts even requiring a separate or third-party utility to perform the task. Other systems Unix and related, consider shortcuts to be a user's prerogative, that they should be changeable to suit individual preference. In most real-world environments, both philosophies co-exist; the motivations for customizing key assignments vary. Users new to a program or software environment may customize the new environment's layout to be similar to another environment with which they are more familiar. More advanced users may customize key bindings to better suit their workflow, adding shortcuts for their used actions and deleting or replacing bindings for less-used functions. Hardcore gamers customize their key bindings in order to increase performance via faster reaction times.
The original Macintosh User Interface Guidelines defined a set of keyboard shortcuts that would remain consistent across application programs. This provides a better user experience than the situation then-prevalent one of applications using the same keys for different functions; this could result in user errors if one program used ⌘ Command+D to mean Delete while another used it to Duplicate an item. The standard bindings were: ⌘ Q: Quit ⌘ W: Close Window ⌘ B: Bold text ⌘ I: Italicize text ⌘ U: Underline text ⌘ O: Open ⌘ P: Print ⌘ A: Select All ⌘ S: Save ⌘ F: Find ⌘ G: Find Again ⌘ Z: Undo ⌘ X: Cut ⌘ C: Copy ⌘ V: Paste (resembles an arrow pointing downward "in
Vulcanization is a chemical process, invented by Charles Goodyear, used to harden rubber. Vulcanization traditionally referred to the treatment of natural rubber with sulfur and this remains the most common example, however the term has grown to include the hardening of other rubbers via various means. Examples include silicone rubber via room temperature vulcanizing and chloroprene rubber using metal oxides. Vulcanization can therefore be defined as the curing of elastomers, it works by forming cross-links between sections of polymer chain which results in increased rigidity and durability, as well as other changes in the mechanical and electrical properties of the material. Vulcanization, in common with the curing of other thermosetting polymers, is irreversible; the word vulcanization is derived from the Roman god of fire. In contrast with thermoplastic processes, vulcanization, in common with the curing of other thermosetting polymers, is irreversible. Five types of curing systems are in common use: Sulfur systems Peroxides Metallic oxides Acetoxysilane Urethane crosslinkers By far the most common vulcanizing methods depend on sulfur.
Sulfur, by itself, does not vulcanize synthetic polyolefins. Accelerated vulcanization is carried out using various compounds that modify the kinetics of crosslinking, this mixture is referred to as a cure package; the main polymers subjected to sulfur vulcanization are polyisoprene and styrene-butadiene rubber, which are used for most street-vehicle tires. The cure package is adjusted for the substrate and the application; the reactive sites—cure sites—are allylic hydrogen atoms. These C-H bonds are adjacent to carbon-carbon double bonds. During vulcanization, some of these C-H bonds are replaced by chains of sulfur atoms that link with a cure site of another polymer chain; these bridges contain between one and several atoms. The number of sulfur atoms in the crosslink influences the physical properties of the final rubber article. Short crosslinks give the rubber better heat resistance. Crosslinks with higher number of sulfur atoms give the rubber good dynamic properties but less heat resistance.
Dynamic properties are important for flexing movements of the rubber article, e.g. the movement of a side-wall of a running tire. Without good flexing properties these movements form cracks, make the rubber article fail; the vulcanization of neoprene or polychloroprene rubber is carried out using metal oxides rather than sulfur compounds which are presently used with many natural and synthetic rubbers. In addition, because of various processing factors, the choice of accelerator is governed by different rules to other diene rubbers. Most conventionally used accelerators are problematic when CR rubbers are cured and the most important accelerant has been found to be ethylene thiourea, although being an excellent and proven accelerator for polychloroprene, has been classified as reprotoxic; the European rubber industry has started a research project SafeRubber to develop a safer alternative to the use of ETU. Room-temperature vulcanizing silicone is constructed of reactive oil-based polymers combined with strengthening mineral fillers.
There are two types of room-temperature vulcanizing silicone: RTV-1. Acetoxysilane, when exposed to humid conditions, will form acetic acid; the curing process progresses through to its core. The product is either in a fluid or paste form. RTV-1 silicone has good adhesion and durability characteristics; the Shore hardness can be varied between 18 and 60. Elongation at break can range from 150% up to 700%, they have excellent aging resistance due to superior resistance to UV weathering. RTV-2. RTV-2 remains flexible from −80 to 250 °C. Break-down occurs at temperatures above 350 °C, leaving an inert silica deposit, non-flammable and non-combustible, they can be used for electrical insulation due to their dielectric properties. Mechanical properties are satisfactory. RTV-2 is used to make flexible moulds, as well as many technical parts for industry and paramedical applications. Polymer stabilizers Vulcanized fibre
A spud gun is a small toy gun used to fire a fragment of potato. To operate, one punctures the surface of a potato with the gun's hollow tip and pries out a small pellet which fits snugly in the muzzle. Squeezing the grip causes a small build-up of air pressure inside the toy which propels the projectile; the devices are short-range and low-powered. The first spud gun was invented during the Great Depression, when few people would have wanted to waste a potato; the original inventor sold his patent to E. Joseph Cossman for US$600 after World War II. Cossman, the brother-in-law of "Uncle" Milton Levine, discovered there was a potato glut at the time, through an advertising campaign sold two million spud guns in six months