Access Industries, Inc. is an American held multinational industrial group. It was founded in 1986 by businessman Leonard "Len" Blavatnik, its chairman. Access's industrial focus is in four areas: natural resources and chemicals and telecommunications, venture capital and real estate; the group invests in the United States, Europe and Latin America. It is headquartered with additional offices in London and Moscow. Len Blavatnik founded Access Industries in 1986 as an investment company, he attended Harvard Business School while running the company on the side, graduating with an MBA in 1989. Among its early investments, Access Industries helped form the large aluminum producer SUAL in 1996, which became part of UC RUSAL. In 1997, Access acquired a 40% stake in the Russian oil company TNK. Half of TNK was sold to British Petroleum to form TNK-BP in 2003, in what was the largest-ever foreign investment in a Russian company. In 2013 Rosneft acquired TNK-BP for $55 billion, with Access Industries selling its stake and Blavatnik collecting US$7 billion for his share of the oil venture.
Access purchased a large stake in the fashion label Tory Burch in 2004. In 2006, Access Industries took an estimated 70% stake in Top Up TV, a pay TV service in the United Kingdom which sold its subscriber business to Sky in 2013. In 2007, Access Industries purchased a majority stake in the sports media company Perform Group; that year, Access became an owner in Acision, a software company focused on messaging systems. Acision was acquired by Comverse in 2015; as of 2010, Access retained ownership in companies such as Icon Film Distribution UK, Perform Group, Top Up TV, Amedia, RGE Group, Warner Music Group. On July 20, 2011, Access acquired Warner Music Group for US$3.3 billion. Access Industries has made a variety of contributions to political candidates in local and national elections in the United States. In May 2015, Access Industries launched Access Entertainment, a division headed up by former BBC Television boss Danny Cohen which specialises in investing in the entertainment media sector.
After investing in Facebook before its IPO, Access exited its Facebook holdings in late 2015. As of 2016, Access Industries continued to have stakes in companies such as UC RUSAL, LyondellBasell, Rocket Internet, Warner Music Group, Zalando. In April 2017, Access Entertainment purchased a stake in RatPac Entertainment. Among Access Industries' current holdings are businesses in oil, power generation and biotechnology. Access helped form the large aluminum producer SUAL 1996 with a combination of mergers and acquisitions. In 2007 SUAL merged with RUSAL and the alumina business of Glencore International AG to form UC RUSAL. RUSAL raised $2.24 billion in a 2010 IPO on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, as of 2017 it was the world's largest aluminum producer. In 2005 Access acquired Basell Polyolefins, a Dutch company specializing in polyolefins. On December 20, 2007, Basell acquired the commodity chemicals company Lyondell for $20 billion; the resulting company, LyondellBasell Industries, was impacted by the 2008 financial crisis, in 2009 the US operations of LyondellBasell Industries filed for bankruptcy.
With financing in part from Access Industries, in 2010 LyondellBasell emerged from Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in a improved financial position. With a value of $15 billion, it was subsequently ranked as the world's third-largest chemical company based on net sales. Access Industries repurchased a large stake in the company in 2013; as of 2017, Access owned 18% of LyondellBasell. Since 2013, Access Industries has owned Clal Industries Ltd. an Israeli industrial investment group. Among CII's main investments are Nesher Israel Cement Enterprises, Hadera Paper, Golf & Co. Clal Biotechnology, the logistics group Taavura. Since 2013, Access has owned a significant interest in EP Energy, a North American oil and natural gas producer with a portfolio of fields in the United States and Brazil. On August 18, 2017, Access Industries and a consortium of investors agreed to acquire the energy company Calpine Corporation for $5.6 billion. Access Industries has a number of portfolio companies in the media and telecommunications industries.
Ice group, an internet and telecommunications company in Scandinavia, is owned by Access Industries. In Israel Access owns a third of RGE Group Ltd. a held media group with assets including Channel 10, Noga Communications and the Sports Channel. Access Industries owns a majority stake in Amedia, a large Russian film and TV studio known for shows such as Poor Nastya. Amedia earned exclusive rights to premiere HBO content in Russia in July 2017. Access invested in Warner Music Group in 2004 with various co-investors. After a partial sale of WMG was completed through an IPO on the NYSE in May 2005, Access continued as a significant shareholder with a 2 percent stake prior to 2011. Access acquired WMG for US$3.3 billion, including $320 million in cash and the assumption of $2 billion of WMG debt. Access Industries owns AI Film in London, a film finance and executive production company established in 2013. Since November 2014, Access Industries has owned a majority stake in Perform Group, a sports media company which Access formed in 2007 by merging Inform and Premium TV.
Perform Group owns the sports website Sporting News and launched the sports streaming video service DAZN in 2016. As of 2019, Access held over 85% of the group. In May 2015, Access Entertainment was established with the hiring of its president, Danny Cohen, BBC's former director of television, they took a 25% stake in Bad Wolf international TV firm, have a financing venture for drama programming with BBC Worldwide/Lookout Point a
The Tribe of Witches: The Religion of the Dobunni and Hwicce is a historical and archaeological study of pre-Christian religion among the Iron Age Dobunni and the Early Medieval Hwicce, two tribal groups who lived in central England. It was written by the archaeologist Stephen J. Yeates and published by Oxbow Books in 2008. Yeates had published his theories in a three-volume British Archaeological Report monograph entitled Religion and Territory: Defining Religion in the Severn Valley and Adjacent Hills from the Iron Age to the Early Medieval Period. Throughout the book, Yeates explores a number of different archaeological and geographical features located in the region of Dobunni and Hwicce, looking at how the landscape evolved throughout the Iron Age, Romano-British period and Early Middle Ages; these include the temples built in the area, sacred rivers and defensive features. The Tribe of Witches was reviewed in both peer-reviewed academic journals and by a number of practicing Pagans; the former were predominantly negative, arguing that Yeates' arguments were farfetched, lacking sufficient evidence and that he suffered from a poor grasp of onomastics.
Yeates expanded on the theories put forward in The Tribe of Witches in his book, A Dreaming for the Witches: The Recreation of the Dobunni Primal Myth. The book was the result of research carried out by Yeates at Oxford University as part of a D. Phil. Project from 2001–05; the supervisors of the study were Prof. Martin Henig and Prof. Barry Cunliffe, the assessors Dr. Ray Howell and Prof. Chris Gosden. Though certain ideas, such as that concerning Cuda, had been formulated before this period. Several of Yeates' arguments and theories had seen publication prior to the release of The Tribe of Witches, his theories regarding the goddess Cuda had been published in peer assessed academic journals both locally, internationally. A review of the 2006 publication Religion and Territory from a linguist Baker stated that we should now recognise Cuda and that she is the root of place-names using *Cod; some of the Cotswold river-names have been discussed in an article in the Journal of the English Place-name Society.
His arguments for cultural continuity in the region were published in a peer assessed paper in Lewis and Semple Perspectives in Landscape Archaeology: Papers presented at Oxford 2003–05. Chapter one, "The Dobunni, the Hwicce and Religion", offers an introduction to Yeates' argument, noting that his study is multidisciplinary in nature, making use of history and onomastics. Offering a brief background to both the Dobunni and the Hwicce, Yeates briefly discusses the manner in which scholars have approached the study of pre-Christian religion in Britain; the second chapter, entitled "The Deity and the Landscape", looks at the various shrines and temples from both the Pre-Roman and Roman Iron Age that have been archaeologically identified within the Dobunni region. Using etymological evidence, he puts forward propositions for the existence of unknown prehistoric deities who were localised to the region, namely an Iron Age goddess of the Cotswolds known as Cuda. Yeates attempts to present a picture of the regional landscape, the manner in which it was viewed as being "spiritual and imbued with the divine" by its inhabitants.
Chapter three, "The Sacred Rivers", explores the deification of rivers in the British Iron Age, the archaeological evidence for votive offerings within them. Yeates proceeds to look at the multiple rivers within the region being discussed – including the River Severn and River Wye – while making reference to any evidence for ritual activity along them; the fourth chapter, "The Gods of Tribes and Folk Groups", considers the long-term developments of communities in the area, the connections that might exist between Iron Age and Early Medieval settlements. Proclaiming that Medieval sources record the existence of two local Iron Age gods and Salenses, he uses this as evidence for his belief that there was a cultural continuity from prehistory into the Medieval, that the Hwicce were therefore the descendants of the Dobunni. Chapter five, "Mining and Minerals", explores evidence for mining in the region, highlighting the connection between this activity and religious belief in prehistoric society.
Chapter six deals with aspects of war. Chapter seven deals with the local hunter god and sacred groves or nemetons. Arguments concerning the hunter god in local "Dobunnic" religion are not new and have their origins in a series of publications by Boon and Merrifield. Chapter eight looks at tree shrines. Chapter nine the significance of burial in the landscape. Chapter ten considers the sacred horse. Chapter eleven looks at the tribal deities. Chapter twelve the influence of Christianity. Peter S. Wells of the University of Missouri reviewed The Tribe of Witches for the Cambridge Archaeological Journal in 2009. Wells criticised Yeates' use of the word "tribe" to refer to both the Dobunni and the Hwicce, believing that another term may have been more appropriate, he criticised the use of maps, believing that they were unhelpful, in particular for anyone not familiar with the regional landscape. Considering the text to be "very engaging", he noted that the bibliography was "extensive and valuable", with good use of illustrations.
Nonetheless, Wells thought Yeates' primary argument to be unconvincing, highlighting the fact that depictions of females holding vessels were widespread across the Roman world, not localised to the region of the Dobunni. Time and Mind: The Journal of Archaeology and Culture published a review authored by the folklorist Jeremy Harte. Taki
HMS Londonderry was a Rothesay or Type 12 class anti-submarine frigate of the British Royal Navy in service from 1960 to 1984. The Rothesay-class was an improved version of the Whitby-class anti-submarine frigate, with nine Rothesays ordered in the 1954–55 shipbuilding programme for the Royal Navy to supplement the six Whitbys. Londonderry was 370 feet 0 inches long overall and 360 feet 0 inches between perpendiculars, with a beam of 41 feet 0 inches and a draught of 13 feet 6 inches; the Rothesays were powered by the same Y-100 machinery used by the Whitby-class. Two Babcock & Wilcox water-tube boilers fed steam at 550 pounds per square inch and 850 °F to two sets of geared steam turbines which drove two propeller shafts, fitted with large slow-turning propellers; the machinery was rated at 30,000 shaft horsepower. Crew was about 212 men. A twin 4.5-inch Mark 6 gun mount was fitted forward, with 350 rounds of ammunition carried. It was intended to fit a twin 40 mm L/70 Bofors anti-aircraft mount aft, but in 1957 it was decided to fit the Seacat anti-aircraft missile instead.
Seacat was not yet ready, Londonderry was completed with a single L/60 40 mm Bofors mount aft as a temporary anti-aircraft armament. The design anti-submarine armament consisted of twelve 21-inch torpedo-tubes for Mark 20E Bidder homing anti-submarine torpedoes, backed up by two Limbo anti-submarine mortars fitted aft; the Bidder homing torpedoes proved unsuccessful however, being too slow to catch modern submarines, the torpedo tubes were soon removed. The ship was fitted with a Type 293Q surface/air search radar on the foremast, with a Type 277 height-finding radar on a short mast forward of the foremast. A Mark 6M fire control system for the 4.5 inch guns was mounted above the ship's bridge, while a Type 974 navigation radar was fitted. The ship's sonar fit consisted of Type 174 search, Type 170 fire control sonar for Limbo and a Type 162 sonar for classifying targets on the sea floor. Londonderry was laid down at J. Samuel White's Cowes, Isle of Wight shipyard on 15 November 1956, was launched by Cynthia Brooke, Viscountess Brookeborough, wife of Basil Brooke, 1st Viscount Brookeborough, the Prime Minister of Northern Ireland on 20 May 1958.
She was completed on 20 July 1960. From 1967 to 1969 Londonderry underwent a major modernisation, which brought the ship close in capacity to the Leander-class. A hangar and flight deck was added aft to allow a Westland Wasp helicopter to be operated, at the expense of one of the Limbo anti-submarine mortars, while a Seacat launcher and the associated GWS20 director was mounted on the hangar roof. Two 20-mm cannons were added either side of the ship's bridge. A MRS3 fire control system replaced the Mark 6M, its integral Type 903 radar allowed the Type 277 height finder radar to be removed. A Type 993 surface/air-search radar replaced the existing Type 293Q radar, while the ship's defences were enhanced by the addition of the Corvus chaff rocket dispenser. After commissioning on 20 July 1960, Londonderry completed manufacturer's trials and was formally taken over by the Royal Navy, she carried out time in the Home Fleet before departing Portsmouth, Hampshire, UK on 1 May 1961 for her first cruise in the Caribbean area.
Between 1961 and 1964 the frigate was deployed four times to the West Indies visiting Argentina. In October 1961 she was diverted to assist the Italian liner MV Bianca C. when the latter caught fire in the port of St. George's, Grenada. In August 1965 she was present at Portsmouth Navy Days. On 31 August 1965 Londonderry left Portsmouth for service in the Far East, she was modernised until 1969 at Rosyth. The most distinctive features of her modernization were the helicopter deck and hangar aft for a Westland Wasp helicopter. Following her modernization she was sent to Malaysia in 1970, she took part in the Beira Patrol and was sent to the Bahamas where she rescued 148 Cuban refugees. In 1973 she replaced Yarmouth in the NATO Standing Naval Force Atlantic. In November 1975 she entered the Rosyth Dockyard to be refitted as a trials ship for Admiralty Surface Weapons Establishment. Up to October 1979 Londonderry had her armament removed, an extra mast added for her new role as a trials ship; the original propellers were replaced and new, low-cavitation propellers were installed.
Additional navigational equipment and accommodation were installed to provide berths for both midshipmen from Dartmouth and apprentices from HMS Caledonia who were undergoing sea training. In early 1982, Londonderry accompanied Fearless on a sea training trip to the West Indies and the United States of America, visiting Virgin Gorda in the British Virgin Islands and New Orleans during the Mardi Gras celebrations. Returning home she was paid off into reserve on 31 March 1982, she should have been put on the disposal list, but due to the Falklands War she became the Dartmouth Training Ship of the 6th Frigate Squadron. From 20 January to 29 March Londonderry made her last cruise from Portsmouth for the Dartmouth Training Squadron's deployment to the West Indies and USA, she became a Harbour Training Ship attached to the shore base HMS Sultan at Gosport. She remained in this role until 1988. On 25 June 1989 Londonderry was sunk as a target off Scotland. During her service Londonderry steamed 125,500 km, four times crossing the Atlantic and transiting the Panama Canal three times.
She visited 50 ports in 35 different countries. Although never deployed in a war the ship's guns fired 1,232 rounds of 4.5-inch ammunition and 442 rounds o
Peter J. Alvarado, Jr. was an American animation and comic book artist. Alvarado's animation career spanned 60 years, he was a prolific contributor to Western Publishing's line of comic books. Alvarado was born in Raton, New Mexico, grew up in Glendale, California, he attended the Chouinard Art Institute in the 1930. He provided uncredited work on the Seven Dwarves. Around 1939 Alvarado left Disney to find work in New York City, where he provided his earliest comic book art for Funnies Inc. which supplied artwork for Fawcett Publications and Timely Comics. Alvarado returned to California and Disney Studio in 1941, he left Disney in 1946 to work for Warner Bros. Animation. Alvarado became the Background painter for Chuck Jones, his first screen credit was on the 1947 Pepé Le Pew short, "Scent-imental Over You." He held this position until 1951, working on several cartoons such as the first Wile E. Coyote and Road Runner cartoon and Furry-ous, Chuck Jones' Oscar-winning short For Scent-imental Reasons.
His last work with Jones was "Scentimental Romeo" in 1951. Alvarado went on to Replace Cornett Wood as chief layout artist for Robert McKimson's unit, he left Warner Bros. and was replaced by Bob Givens in 1953. Alvarado joined DePatie-Freleng Enterprises after Warner Bros. closed their cartoon division. He worked on several Pink Panther shorts, as well as the short lived animated series Super President. Around 1971 Alvarado joined Hanna-Barbera as a layout artist. Alvarado provided animation and layout work for Film Roman. Alvarado was the recipient of the 2001 Winsor McCay Award, for his lifetime of achievement in animation, as well as the Animation Guild's 1987 Golden Award. Concurrently with his animation work, Alvarado worked as a prolific comic book illustrator; as noted above, he worked from 1939 to 1941 providing artwork for Funnies Inc. Alvarado returned in collaboration with Charles McKimson. McKimson was the art director at Western Publishing Company, the two drew the Roy Rogers strip under the pen name "Al McKimson."
Alvarado went on to draw the Gene Autry newspaper strip and comic book, the Mr. Magoo newspaper strip for its entire run, a long period of the Little Lulu newspaper strip, some work on the Flintstones and Yogi Bear newspaper strip, fill-in work for all the Disney newspaper strips, including an extended period as the main artist on the Donald Duck strip; the bulk of Alvarado's work at Western was for their "funny animal" line of comic books. Alvarado provided artwork for every Disney, Warner Bros. Hanna-Barbera and Walter Lantz licensed title, he illustrated comic book adaptations of the animated films The Rescuers, Robin Hood, Gay Purr-ee. Alvarado retired from animation in 1999, he died on December 2003, in La Crescenta, California. Floyd Norman. "Animation Profile: Pete Alvarado". Animato no.20, pp.10-11. Pete Alvarado at the Comic Book DB Pete Alvarado on IMDb Pete Alvarado at INDUCKS Pete Alvarado biography on Lambiek Extensive list of Alvarado credits at Who's Who Bio For Pete's Sake
The phrase "the disciple whom Jesus loved" or, in John 20:2, the disciple beloved of Jesus is used six times in the Gospel of John, but in no other New Testament accounts of Jesus. John 21:24 states. Since the end of the first century, the Beloved Disciple has been identified with John the Evangelist. Scholars have debated the authorship of Johannine literature since at least the third century, but since the Enlightenment; the authorship by John the Apostle is rejected by many modern scholars, but not entirely. There is a consensus among Johannine scholars that the Beloved Disciple was a real historical person, but there is no consensus on who the beloved disciple was; the disciple whom Jesus loved is referred to six times in John's gospel: It is this disciple who, while reclining beside Jesus at the Last Supper, asks Jesus who it is that will betray him, after being requested by Peter to do so. At the crucifixion, Jesus tells his mother, "Woman, here is your son", to the Beloved Disciple he says, "Here is your mother."
When Mary Magdalene discovers the empty tomb, she runs to tell the Beloved Peter. The two men rush to the empty tomb and the Beloved Disciple is the first to reach it. However, Peter is the first to enter. In John 21, the last chapter of the Gospel of John, the Beloved Disciple is one of seven fishermen involved in the miraculous catch of 153 fish. In the book's final chapter, after Jesus implies the manner in which Peter will die, Peter sees the Beloved Disciple following them and asks, "What about him?" Jesus answers, "If I want him to remain until I come, what is that to you? You follow Me." Again in the Gospel's last chapter, it states that the book itself is based on the written testimony of the disciple whom Jesus loved. The other Gospels do not mention anyone in parallel circumstances who could be directly linked to the Beloved Disciple. For example, in Luke 24:12, Peter runs to the tomb. Matthew and Luke do not mention any one of the 12 disciples having witnessed the crucifixion; the New Testament makes two references to an unnamed "other disciple" in John 1:35-40 and John 18:15-16, which may be to the same person based on the wording in John 20:2.
The closing words of John's Gospel state explicitly concerning the Beloved Disciple, "It is this disciple who testifies to these things and has written them, we know that his testimony is true."Eusebius, writing in the fourth century, recorded in his Church History a letter which he believed to have been written by Polycrates of Ephesus in the second century. Polycrates believed that John was the one "who reclined upon the bosom of the Lord", he fell asleep at Ephesus. Augustine of Hippo believed that John was the Beloved Disciple, in his Tractates on the Gospel of John; the assumption that the Beloved Disciple was one of the Apostles is based on the observation that he was present at the Last Supper, Matthew and Mark state that Jesus ate with the Twelve. Thus, the most frequent identification is with John the Apostle, who would be the same as John the Evangelist. Merril F. Unger presents a case for this by a process of elimination. While some modern academics continue to share the view of Augustine and Polycrates, a growing number do not believe that John the Apostle wrote the Gospel of John or indeed any of the other New Testament works traditionally ascribed to him, making this linkage of a'John' to the beloved disciple difficult to sustain.
Some scholars have additionally suggested a homoerotic interpretation of Christ's relationship with the Beloved Disciple, although such a scriptural reading is disputed by others. Tilborg suggests that the portrait in the Gospel of John is "positively attuned to the development of homosexual behaviour". However, he cautions that "in the code... such imaginary homosexual behaviour is not an expression of homosexuality." Meanwhile, Dunderberg has explored the issue and argues that the absence of accepted Greek terms for "lover" and "beloved" discounts a purely erotic reading. The relationship between Christ and John was interpreted by some as being of a physical erotic nature as early as the 16th century - documented, for example, in the trial for blasphemy of Christopher Marlowe, accused of claiming that "St. John the Evangelist was bedfellow to Christ and leaned always in his bosom, that he used him as the sinners of Sodoma". In accusing Marlowe of the "sinful nature" of homosexual acts, James I of England invited comparisons to his own erotic relationship with the Duke of Buckingham which he compared to that of the Beloved Disciple.
Francesco Calcagno, a friar of Venice faced trial and was executed in 1550 for claiming that "St. John was Christ's catamite". Dynes makes a link to the modern day where in 1970s New York a popular religious group was established called the "Church of the Beloved Disciple", with the intention of giving a positive reading of the relationship to support respect for same-sex love; the Beloved Disciple has been identified with Lazarus of Bethany, based on John 11:5: "Now Jesus loved Martha and her sister and Lazarus", John 11:3 "Therefore his sisters sent unto him, saying
Plotters were employed on an early form of air traffic monitoring that played a vital role in World War II during the Battle of Britain, The Blitz and the bombing of British cities that followed. They worked at individual RAF stations' Sector Control Rooms or in the central Group Control Rooms that directed the operations of RAF fighters; the majority of plotters were members of the Women's Auxiliary Air Force. Plotting depended on reports from the newly installed Chain Home radar stations that detected aircraft approaching the coastline, the Royal Observer Corps posts that spotted hostile and friendly aircraft over land; such reports were fed to a Filter Room, where Filter Plotters processed the mass of incoming data by hand and fed a digest to the underground Operations room. There, information about aircraft movements was passed to a large number of plotters stationed around a giant table bearing a map of the section. Details about the number of aircraft, their position and bearings were transferred to counters that were positioned and moved around the map by the plotters, in a similar way to a croupier at a roulette table, using plotting rods that were adjustable in length and magnetised to pick up the plots.
Each plotter was responsible for aircraft movements in a particular sector, changing the plots so that the whole picture of a raid could be monitored by the Group controllers who were stationed in a gallery above the plotting table. RAF Uxbridge Sector clock Origins of the Women's Auxiliary Air Force History of the WAAF in World War II Sector clock at Uxbridge Ops Room Memoirs of plotter Joan Watkins Memoirs of plotter Janet Pieters/Hind The RAF Fighter Control System