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Accession of Albania to the European Union

Albania applied for European Union membership on 28 April 2009, has since June 2014 been an official candidate for accession to the EU, is on the current agenda for future enlargement of the EU. Albania is receiving €1.2bn of developmental aid until 2020 from the Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance, a funding mechanism for EU candidate countries. Recognised by the EU as a "potential candidate country" in 2000, Albania started negotiations on a Stabilisation and Association Agreement in 2003; this was agreed and signed on 12 June 2006, thus completing the first major step toward Albania's full membership in the EU. Albania applied for European Union membership on 28 April 2009. Following the steps of countries joining the EU in 2004, Albania has been extensively engaged with EU institutions, joined NATO as a full member in 2009. Following its application for EU membership, the Council of the European Union asked the European Commission on 16 November 2009 to prepare an assessment on the readiness of Albania to start accession negotiations.

On 16 December 2009, the European Commission submitted the Questionnaire on accession preparation to the Albanian government. Albania returned answers to them on 14 April 2010. On 5 December 2013, an MEP meeting recommended to the Council to grant Albania candidate status. On 23 June 2014, under the Greek EU Presidency, the Council of the European Union agreed to grant Albania candidate status, endorsed by the European Council a few days later. In May 2019, European Commissioner Johannes Hahn recommended that the EU open membership talks with Albania. On 1 June 2019, the Council set out the path to opening accession negotiations, with talks thought to begin shortly thereafter. Albania's EU accession is bundled with North Macedonia's EU accession. Albania is given certain pre-conditions for starting the accession negotiations, such as passing reforms in the justice system, a new electoral law, opening trials for corrupt judges and the respect of human rights for its Greek minority. On 1 January 2008 the visa facilitation and readmission agreements between Albania and the EU entered into force.

Albania received a road map from the EU for further visa liberalisation with Schengen countries in June 2008. Albania started issuing biometric passports on 24 May 2009, which were designed to comply with EU guidelines. On 8 November 2010 the Council of the European Union approved visa-free travel to the EU for citizens of Albania; the decision entered into force on 15 December 2010. In 2011, the EU paid €6 million to construct or refurbish border crossing points and border police stations to help Albania fight organised crime and illegal trafficking. On 1 June 2019, the Council set out the path to opening accession negotiations, with talks thought to begin shortly thereafter. Delegation of European Union to Albania Enlargement of the European Union Future enlargement of the European Union Albania and the European Union: the tumultuous journey towards integration... By Mirela Bogdani, John Loughlin, 2007 Delegation of the European Union to Albania European Commission - Enlargement: Country Profile.

Albanian Ministry of European Integration Albanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs European Commission - Western Balkans: Enhancing the European perspective European Commission - Enlargement Strategy and Main Challenges 2009-2010


C-type lectin domain family 4 member M is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLEC4M gene. CLEC4M has been designated as CD299; this gene encodes L-SIGN, a type II integral membrane protein, 77% identical to CD209 antigen, an HIV gp120-binding protein. This protein, like CD209, efficiently binds both intercellular adhesion molecule 3 and HIV-1 gp120, enhances HIV-1 infection of T cells; this gene is mapped in a cluster with the CD209 and CD23/FCER2 genes. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene, but the biological validity of some variants has not been determined. CLEC4M+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings CLEC4M human gene location in the UCSC Genome Browser. CLEC4M human gene details in the UCSC Genome Browser; this article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, in the public domain


Awake! is an illustrated religious magazine published every four months by Jehovah's Witnesses via the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania. It is considered to be a companion magazine of The Watchtower, is distributed by Jehovah's Witnesses in their door-to-door ministry, with a total worldwide circulation of over 93 million copies in 221 languages per issue; the magazine was published bimonthly under the name The Golden Age on October 1, 1919, by the International Bible Students Association. On October 6, 1937, it was renamed Consolation and continued to be published biweekly until July 31, 1946. On August 22, 1946, the magazine was renamed Awake! and until 2005 was published semimonthly in major languages, monthly in many languages, quarterly in a few languages. As of January 2006, the magazine was published monthly, as of 2016 it was published every second month; as of early 2018, it is published every four months, in March and November of each year. The stated purpose of the magazine has changed over time.

From 1982 to 1995, each issue of the magazine included a mission statement which stated, "this magazine builds confidence in the Creator's promise of a peaceful and secure new order before the generation that saw 1914 passes away". When Jehovah's Witnesses' belief regarding the "generation" of 1914 was changed to a less literal sense, the aim was restated as, "this magazine builds confidence in the Creator's promise of a peaceful and secure new world, about to replace the present wicked, lawless system of things". Awake! Contains articles about general-interest topics such as nature, family life, the Bible and biblical history, from the Watchtower Bible And Tract Society's perspective, it has presented medical opinions of various medical conditions. Conditions that have been featured in Awake! include dementia, infectious diseases, bipolar disorder, postpartum depression. Many issues claim; the magazine's editor under the titles of The Golden Age and Consolation was Clayton J. Woodworth, who served on the boards of several corporations of Jehovah's Witnesses.

When the magazine was renamed Awake!, the journal's editorship became anonymous. Publication is overseen by the Writing Committee of the Governing Body of Jehovah's Witnesses; the magazine is printed in nineteen countries. Awake! is considered to be the most distributed magazine in the world, with a worldwide circulation of 93,354,000 each issue. The magazine is distributed by Jehovah's Witnesses in the course of their house-to-house ministry, they are distributed by approaching people in public places, given informally to acquaintances and professionals, or left as reading material in places such as bus terminals and laundromats. Awake! is available, in selected languages, on audio compact disc and online in various digital formats. Until March 1990, Awake! was available for a small charge that varied over time and in different countries. For example, in the United States, the suggested donation per issue was $0.05 in 1950 increasing to $0.25 in 1989. On January 17, 1990, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled against Jimmy Swaggart that sales of religious literature were subject to taxation, which introduced ambiguity into the tax-free practice of suggesting a particular donation in exchange for the magazines.

The Watch Tower Society supported Swaggart in the case, arguing that the perceived sale of religious literature should be exempt from taxation. From March 1, 1990, the journals were made available at no cost, on a freewill donation basis in the United States, with the stated purpose of simplifying their Bible educational work and distinguishing themselves from those who commercialize religion. An article in the May 1990 issue of Our Kingdom Ministry—a newsletter provided to members—stated that "there are growing pressures against all religious elements" and went on to say that their main concern was to move ahead in the worldwide preaching work, "without hindrance."The sale of Jehovah's Witnesses' literature was phased out in other countries, Awake! has been distributed free of charge worldwide since early 2000, its printing being funded by voluntary donations from Jehovah's Witnesses and members of the public. Jehovah's Witnesses publications List of Watch Tower Society publications List of magazines by circulation The Watchtower and Awake!