The Roman magistrates were elected officials in Ancient Rome. During the period of the Roman Kingdom, the King of Rome was the executive magistrate. His power, in practice, was absolute and he was the chief priest, lawgiver and the sole commander of the army. When the king died, his power reverted to the Roman Senate, during the transition from monarchy to republic, the constitutional balance of power shifted from the executive to the Roman Senate. When the Roman Republic was founded in 509 BC, the powers that had held by the king were transferred to the Roman consuls. Magistrates of the republic were elected by the people of Rome, Dictators had more major powers than any other magistrate, and after the Dictator was the censor, and the consul, and the praetor, and the curule aedile, and the quaestor. Any magistrate could obstruct an action that was being taken by a magistrate with an equal or lower degree of magisterial powers, during the transition from republic to empire, the constitutional balance of power shifted from the Roman Senate back to the executive.
Theoretically, the senate elected each new emperor, in practice each emperor chose his own successor, the powers of an emperor existed, in theory at least, by virtue of his legal standing. The two most significant components to an emperors imperium were the powers and the proconsular powers. In theory at least, the tribunician powers gave the authority over Romes civil government. While these distinctions were clearly defined during the empire, eventually they were lost. The traditional magistracies that survived the fall of the republic were the consulship, plebeian tribunate, aedileship and military tribunate. Mark Antony abolished the offices of Roman dictator and Master of the Horse during his Consulship in 44 BC, while the offices of Interrex, the executive magistrates of the Roman Kingdom were elected officials of the ancient Roman Kingdom. During the period of the Roman Kingdom, the Roman King was the executive magistrate. He was the executive, chief priest, chief lawgiver, chief judge.
His powers rested on law and legal precedent, and he could receive these powers through the political process of an election. In practice, he had no restrictions on his power. When war broke out, he had the power to organize and levy troops, to select leaders for the army
An election is a formal decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office. Elections have been the usual mechanism by which modern representative democracy has operated since the 17th century, Elections may fill offices in the legislature, sometimes in the executive and judiciary, and for regional and local government. This process is used in many other private and business organizations. Electoral reform describes the process of introducing fair electoral systems where they are not in place, psephology is the study of results and other statistics relating to elections. To elect means to choose or make a decision, and so other forms of ballot such as referendums are referred to as elections. Elections were used as early in history as ancient Greece and ancient Rome, and throughout the Medieval period to select rulers such as the Holy Roman Emperor, in Vedic period of India, the raja of a gana was apparently elected by the gana. The raja belonged to the noble Kshatriya varna, and was typically a son of the previous raja, the gana members had the final say in his elections.
The Pala king Gopala in early medieval Bengal was elected by a group of feudal chieftains, such elections were quite common in contemporary societies of the region. In Chola Empire, around 920 CE, in Uthiramerur, palm leaves were used for selecting the village committee members, the leaves, with candidate names written on them, were put inside a mud pot. To select the members, a young boy was asked to take out as many leaves as the number of positions available. This was known as the Kudavolai system, ancient Arabs used election to choose their caliph and Ali, in the early medieval Rashidun Caliphate. Questions of suffrage, especially suffrage for minority groups, have dominated the history of elections, the dominate cultural group in North America and Europe, often dominated the electorate and continue to do so in many countries. Early elections in such as the United Kingdom and the United States were dominated by landed or ruling class males. However, by 1920 all Western European and North American democracies had universal male suffrage.
Despite legally mandated universal suffrage for males, political barriers were sometimes erected to prevent fair access to elections. The question of who may vote is an issue in elections. In Australia Aboriginal people were not given the right to vote until 1962, suffrage is typically only for citizens of the country, though further limits may be imposed. However, in the European Union, one can vote in municipal elections if one lives in the municipality and is an EU citizen, the nationality of the country of residence is not required
The Eucharist /ˈjuːkərɪst/ is a Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches. Through the Eucharistic celebration Christians remember Christs sacrifice of himself on the cross, the elements of the Eucharist and wine, are consecrated on an altar and consumed thereafter. Communicants may speak of receiving the Eucharist, as well as celebrating the Eucharist, Christians generally recognize a special presence of Christ in this rite, though they differ about exactly how and when Christ is present. While all agree there is no perceptible change in the elements, Catholics believe that they actually become the body. Some Protestants view the Eucharist as an ordinance in which the ceremony is not as a specific channel of divine grace. Do this in remembrance of me, the term Eucharist is that by which the rite is referred by the Didache, Ignatius of Antioch and Justin Martyr. Today, the Eucharist is the still used by Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Anglicans, Presbyterians. Other Protestant denominations rarely use this term, preferring either Communion, one remains hungry, another gets drunk.
Communion or Holy Communion are used by some groups originating in the Protestant Reformation to mean the entire Eucharistic rite. The term Communion is derived from Latin communio, which translates Greek κοινωνία in 1 Corinthians 10,16, the bread which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ. The phrase appears five times in the New Testament in contexts which, according to some and it is the term used by the Plymouth Brethren. The Blessed Sacrament and the Blessed Sacrament of the Altar are common terms used by Catholics and some Anglicans for the consecrated elements, Sacrament of the Altar is in common use among Lutherans. In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints the term The Sacrament is used of the rite. Among the many terms used in the Catholic Church are Holy Mass, the Memorial of the Passion and Resurrection of the Lord, the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass. The term Mass is probably derived from the fact that the Roman rite celebrates the Eucharist with unleavened bread and this explains why the Eastern Catholic Liturgies are never referred to as the Mass.
Eastern rite Liturgies are celebrated with leavened bread, although the prevailing theory is that it is derived from the Latin word missa, a word used in the concluding formula of Mass in Latin, missa est. The reverse is more likely. The word dismissal probably came about because the Mass signaled the time for the Catechumens to leave, the term Misa came to imply a mission, because at the end of the Mass the congregation are sent out to serve Christ
Civil wars and executions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesars adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the annexation of Egypt. Octavians power was unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power, the imperial period of Rome lasted approximately 1,500 years compared to the 500 years of the Republican era. The first two centuries of the empires existence were a period of unprecedented political stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana, following Octavians victory, the size of the empire was dramatically increased. After the assassination of Caligula in 41, the senate briefly considered restoring the republic, under Claudius, the empire invaded Britannia, its first major expansion since Augustus. Vespasian emerged triumphant in 69, establishing the Flavian dynasty, before being succeeded by his son Titus and his short reign was followed by the long reign of his brother Domitian, who was eventually assassinated.
The senate appointed the first of the Five Good Emperors, the empire reached its greatest extent under Trajan, the second in this line. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus, Commodus assassination in 192 triggered the Year of the Five Emperors, of which Septimius Severus emerged victorious. The assassination of Alexander Severus in 235 led to the Crisis of the Third Century in which 26 men were declared emperor by the Roman Senate over a time span. It was not until the reign of Diocletian that the empire was fully stabilized with the introduction of the Tetrarchy, which saw four emperors rule the empire at once. This arrangement was unsuccessful, leading to a civil war that was finally ended by Constantine I. Constantine subsequently shifted the capital to Byzantium, which was renamed Constantinople in his honour and it remained the capital of the east until its demise. Constantine adopted Christianity which became the state religion of the empire. However, Augustulus was never recognized by his Eastern colleague, and separate rule in the Western part of the empire ceased to exist upon the death of Julius Nepos.
The Eastern Roman Empire endured for another millennium, eventually falling to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, the Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural and military forces in the world of its time. It was one of the largest empires in world history, at its height under Trajan, it covered 5 million square kilometres. It held sway over an estimated 70 million people, at that time 21% of the entire population. Throughout the European medieval period, attempts were made to establish successors to the Roman Empire, including the Empire of Romania, a Crusader state. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, then, it was an empire long before it had an emperor
United States presidential nominating convention
Other delegates to these conventions include political party members who are seated automatically, and are called unpledged delegates because they can choose for themselves for whom they vote for. Generally, usage of “presidential campaign nominating convention” refers to the two major parties’ quadrennial events, the Democratic National Convention and the Republican National Convention. Some minor parties select their nominees by convention, including the Green Party, the Socialist Party USA, the Libertarian Party, the Constitution Party, the convention cycle begins with the Call to Convention. Usually issued about 18 months in advance, the Call is an invitation from the party to the state. It sets out the number of delegates to be awarded to each, the conventions are usually scheduled for four days of business, with the exception of the 1972 Republican and 2012 Democratic conventions, which were three days each. There is no rule dictating the order of the conventions, between 1864 and 1952, the Democrats went second every year.
In 1956, when Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower was the incumbent, the Democrats went first, since 1952, all major party conventions have been held in the months of July, August or, early September. In 1996, both were held in August to accommodate the Atlanta Olympics in July, the last Summer Olympics to date to be played in the U. S, in 2000, both conventions preceded the Sydney Olympics in late September. In 2008 and 2012, the Democratic and Republican conventions were moved to back-to-back weeks following the conclusion of the Olympics, the parties did not want to schedule their conventions around the Olympics. But moving the conventions into early September led to conflicts with the National Football Leagues season kickoff game, the NFL accommodated the conventions and moved its games to an earlier start time in 2008, and an earlier date in 2012. In 2016, both the Republican and Democratic conventions moved to July, before the Rio de Janeiro Olympics in August. The Democrats followed suit so they could provide a response to the Republicans.
Each party sets its own rules for the participation and format of the convention, broadly speaking, each U. S. state and territory party is apportioned a select number of voting representatives, individually known as delegates and collectively as the delegation. The selection of delegates and their alternates, too, is governed by the bylaws of each state party. The 2004 Democratic National Convention counted 4,353 delegates and 611 alternates, the 2004 Republican National Convention had 2,509 delegates and 2,344 alternates. But these individuals are dwarfed by other attendees who do not participate in the business of the convention. The convention is held in a major city selected by the national party organization 18–24 months before the election is to be held. In the present day, political symbolism affects the selection of the host city as much as economic or logistical ones do, a particular city might be selected to enhance the standing of a favorite son, or in an effort to curry favor with residents of that state
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
A ballot is a device used to cast votes in an election, and may be a piece of paper or a small ball used in secret voting. It was originally a small ball used to record decisions made by voters, each voter uses one ballot, and ballots are not shared. The voter casts his/her ballot in a box at a polling station, in British English, this is usually called a ballot paper. The word ballot is used for a process within an organisation. The word ballot comes from Italian ballotta, meaning a ball used in voting” or a “secret vote taken by ballots” in Venice. In ancient Greece, citizens used pieces of pottery to scratch in the name of the candidate in the procedures of ostracism. The first use of paper ballots to conduct an election appears to have been in Rome in 139 BC, in Ancient India, around 920 AD, in Tamil Nadu, Palm leaves were used for village assembly elections. The palm leaves with candidate names, will be put inside a mud pot, the first use of paper ballots in America was in 1629 within the Massachusetts Bay Colony to select a pastor for the Salem Church.
Paper ballots were pieces of paper marked and supplied by voters, depending on the type of voting system used in the election, different ballots may be used. Ranked ballots allow voters to rank candidates in order of preference, in party-list systems, lists may be open or closed. The United States, a republic, has a unique politics of long, progressivists attacked the long ballot during the Progressive Era. Ballot design can aid or inhibit clarity in an election, poor designs lead to confusion and potentially chaos if large numbers of voters spoil or mismark a ballot. The butterfly ballot used in the Palm Beach County, Florida U. S. presidential election,2000 led to allegations of mismarked ballots. For example, one might count the number of ballots whereon the voter had crossed out the name of the party that nominated the candidate. In a jurisdiction using a system, voters choose by marking a ballot or, as in the case of Israel and France. In most jurisdictions the ballots are pre-printed with names of candidates, the Philippines and Japan are an exception.
There, voters must write the names of their candidates on the ballot, election officials manually count the ballots after the polls close and may be recounted in the event of a dispute. In a jurisdiction using an optical scan voting system, voters choose by filling an oval or by completing an arrow on the ballot next to their chosen candidate or referendum position
Canada is a country in the northern half of North America. Canadas border with the United States is the worlds longest binational land border, the majority of the country has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer. Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its territory being dominated by forest and tundra. It is highly urbanized with 82 per cent of the 35.15 million people concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, One third of the population lives in the three largest cities, Toronto and Vancouver. Its capital is Ottawa, and other urban areas include Calgary, Quebec City, Winnipeg. Various aboriginal peoples had inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Pursuant to the British North America Act, on July 1,1867, the colonies of Canada, New Brunswick and this began an accretion of provinces and territories to the mostly self-governing Dominion to the present ten provinces and three territories forming modern Canada.
With the Constitution Act 1982, Canada took over authority, removing the last remaining ties of legal dependence on the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II being the head of state. The country is officially bilingual at the federal level and it is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Its advanced economy is the eleventh largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources, Canadas long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. Canada is a country and has the tenth highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the ninth highest ranking in the Human Development Index. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, Canada is an influential nation in the world, primarily due to its inclusive values, years of prosperity and stability, stable economy, and efficient military.
While a variety of theories have been postulated for the origins of Canada. In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona, from the 16th to the early 18th century Canada referred to the part of New France that lay along the St. Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named The Canadas, until their union as the British Province of Canada in 1841. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the name for the new country at the London Conference. The transition away from the use of Dominion was formally reflected in 1982 with the passage of the Canada Act, that year, the name of national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day
Elections NWT is headed by the Chief Electoral Officer, an officer of the Legislative Assembly of the Northwest Territories. Responsibility for the management of elections was devolved to Elections NWT from Elections Canada in 1997. The first election legislation was known as Section 15 under the Act, the election legislation established basic parameters for the creation of electoral districts, eligibility of electors and how the ballot casting process was to be conducted. Oversight was held by the Lieutenant Governor of the Northwest Territories to royally proclaim electoral district boundaries on the formula of 1000 electors per 1,000 square miles, other responsibilities included issuing writs and appointing Chief Returning Officers to oversee each election. The first legislation passed by the Northwest Territories Legislative Assembly regarding election administration was An Ordinance respecting controverted elections and this piece of legislation was given Royal Assent on August 6,1884.
The ordinance was put in place to deal with potentially corrupt electoral practices, in the years from 1881 until 1905 the Chief Returning Officer for each electoral district was responsible for certifying returns and publishing them in local journals of records. No official publications on election wide statistics and returns were compiled into a single source until the resumption of elections in 1951, in 1905 the populated regions of the Northwest Territories were carved out to form Alberta and Saskatchewan. The territorial government was reduced to a council, and the Lieutenant Governor replaced by a Commissioner. The Council and Commissioner were moved by the government to the nations capital, Ottawa. Another general election was not held for 46 years, an Elections Ordinance was introduced in 1951 that, among other changes enfranchised women. The Office of the Chief Electoral Officer of Canada oversaw territorial elections, revision of territorial electoral districts remained subject to an act of the Parliament of Canada.
The Northwest Territories Legislature passed an amended Elections Act in the 10th Legislative Assembly in 1987 to create an independent agency to oversee elections, the agency was intended to run the 1991 Northwest Territories general election, but was not ready in time. Elections Canada continued to run elections in the territory until 1997, Elections NWT was supposed to take full control of election regulation in time for the 1995 Northwest Territories general election. Among other issues, lack of funding prevented the Legislative Assembly from appointing a resident Chief Electoral Officer, the 1995 general election was run by Elections Canada. Jean-Pierre Kingsley served as the Chief Electoral Officer to oversee electoral operations, Elections Canada was responsible for publishing reports and returns related to the election. On April 1,1999 the territory of Nunavut was carved out of the portion of the Northwest Territories. A general election was called to elect members to the Legislative Assembly of Nunavut, the agency ran Nunavuts first by-election held in the electoral district of Quttiktuq on December 4,2000.
After the general election, David Hamilton, Chief Electoral Officer recommended the creation of a similar non-partisan agency for Nunavut and this recommendation helped to establish Elections Nunavut
Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, and is a part of the Boston metropolitan area. According to the 2010 Census, the population was 105,162. As of July 2014, it was the fifth most populous city in the state, behind Boston, Springfield, Cambridge was one of the two seats of Middlesex County prior to the abolition of county government in 1997, Lowell was the other. The site for what would become Cambridge was chosen in December 1630, because it was located safely upriver from Boston Harbor, Thomas Dudley, his daughter Anne Bradstreet, and her husband Simon, were among the first settlers of the town. The first houses were built in the spring of 1631, the settlement was initially referred to as the newe towne. Official Massachusetts records show the name capitalized as Newe Towne by 1632, the original village site is in the heart of todays Harvard Square. In the late 19th century, various schemes for annexing Cambridge itself to the city of Boston were pursued and rejected, in 1636, the Newe College was founded by the colony to train ministers.
Newe Towne was chosen for the site of the college by the Great and General Court primarily—according to Cotton Mather—to be near the popular, in May 1638 the name of the settlement was changed to Cambridge in honor of the university in Cambridge, England. Hooker and Shepard, Newtownes ministers, and the colleges first president, major benefactor, in 1629, Winthrop had led the signing of the founding document of the city of Boston, which was known as the Cambridge Agreement, after the university. It was Governor Thomas Dudley who, in 1650, signed the charter creating the corporation which still governs Harvard College, Cambridge grew slowly as an agricultural village eight miles by road from Boston, the capital of the colony. By the American Revolution, most residents lived near the Common and Harvard College, with farms and estates comprising most of the town. Coming up from Virginia, George Washington took command of the volunteer American soldiers camped on Cambridge Common on July 3,1775, most of the Tory estates were confiscated after the Revolution.
On January 24,1776, Henry Knox arrived with artillery captured from Fort Ticonderoga, a second bridge, the Canal Bridge, opened in 1809 alongside the new Middlesex Canal. The new bridges and roads made what were formerly estates and marshland into prime industrial and residential districts, in the mid-19th century, Cambridge was the center of a literary revolution when it gave the country a new identity through poetry and literature. Cambridge was home to some of the famous Fireside Poets—so called because their poems would often be read aloud by families in front of their evening fires, the Fireside Poets—Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, James Russell Lowell, and Oliver Wendell Holmes—were highly popular and influential in their day. Cambridge was incorporated as a city in 1846, the citys commercial center began to shift from Harvard Square to Central Square, which became the downtown of the city around this time. The coming of the railroad to North Cambridge and Northwest Cambridge led to three changes in the city, the development of massive brickyards and brickworks between Massachusetts Ave.
For many decades, the citys largest employer was the New England Glass Company, by the middle of the 19th century it was the largest and most modern glassworks in the world
A walkover or W. O. is the awarding of a victory to a contestant because there are no other contestants, or because the other contestants have been disqualified or have forfeited. The term can apply in sport but can apply to elections. The word is used generally by extension, particularly in politics. The strict and extended meanings of walkover as a word are both found from 1829. The word originates from horseracing in the United Kingdom, where an entrant in a race run under Jockey Club rules has at least to walk over the course before being awarded victory. This outcome was quite common at a time there was no guaranteed prize money for horses finishing second or third so there was no incentive to run a horse in a race it could not win. The term is used in tennis, in reference to a players unopposed victory as a result of the opponents failing to start the match for any reason. The only Olympic Games walkover for a medal was at the 1908 Summer Olympics. The only time it has happened at the FIFA World Cup was in the 1938 edition, after the England team declined to take Austrias entry, FIFA gave Sweden a walkover. A walkover is usually the sign of a strong mandate or unanimous support.
It can, however, be interpreted by critics of the faction the walkover is awarded to as a sign of electoral fraud or gerrymandering to prevent other candidates from participating. The circumstances of such an interpretation are usually controversial, walkovers can thus often be a sign of an illiberal democracy. Many liberal democracies in history, including the United States, have had uncontested elections because support for one candidate was so strong. In the 1820 election, James Monroe ran unopposed, though New Hampshire elector William Plumer cast a vote for John Quincy Adams as a symbolic measure, walkovers are called acclamation in Canada. Other multi-party systems that have held uncontested presidential elections include Germany, Ireland, Iceland, running without opponents is not always a guarantee of winning. Many elections require that the winner has not only the most votes of all candidates but a fraction of all votes cast. In this case electors may be able to cast a vote or none of the above vote, spoil their papers.
In such cases, the members of the body usually appoint someone to the vacant seat
It is to be distinguished from the county, which may encompass rural territory and/or numerous small communities such as towns and hamlets. The term municipality may mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality, a municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district. The term is derived from French municipalité and Latin municipalis, a municipality can be any political jurisdiction from a sovereign state, such as the Principality of Monaco, or a small village, such as West Hampton Dunes, New York. The power of municipalities range from virtual autonomy to complete subordination to the state, municipalities may have the right to tax individuals and corporations with income tax, property tax, and corporate income tax, but may receive substantial funding from the state. Similar terms include Spanish ayuntamiento, called municipalidad, Polish gmina, Dutch/Flemish Gemeente, in Australia, the term local government area is used in place of the generic municipality.
Here, the LGA Structure covers only incorporated areas of Australia, incorporated areas are legally designated parts of states and territories over which incorporated local governing bodies have responsibility. In Canada, municipalities are local governments established through provincial and territorial legislation, the Province of Ontario has different tiers of municipalities, including lower and single tiers. Types of upper tier municipalities in Ontario include counties and regional municipalities, nova Scotia has regional municipalities, which include cities, districts, or towns as municipal units. In India, a Nagar Palika or Municipality is a local body that administers a city of population 100,000 or more. Under the Panchayati Raj system, it directly with the state government. Generally, smaller cities and bigger towns have a Nagar Palika. Nagar Palikas are a form of local self-government entrusted with duties and responsibilities. Such a corporation in Great Britain consists of a head as a mayor or provost, since local government reorganisation, the unit in England, Northern Ireland and Wales is known as a district, and in Scotland as a council area.
A district may be awarded borough or city status, or can retain its district title, in Jersey, a municipality refers to the honorary officials elected to run each of the 12 parishes into which it is subdivided. This is the highest level of government in this jurisdiction. In the United States, municipality is usually understood as a city, village, or other local government unit, in the Peoples Republic of China, a direct-controlled municipality is a city with equal status to a province, Tianjin and Chongqing. In Taiwan, a municipality is a city with equal status to a province, New Taipei, Tainan, Taipei. In Portuguese language usage, there are two words to distinguish the territory and the administrative organ, when referring to the territory, the word concelho is used, when referring to the organ of State, the word município is used