A school voucher called an education voucher, in a voucher system, is a certificate of government funding for a student at a school chosen by the student or the student's parents. The funding is for a particular year, term or semester. In some countries, states or local jurisdictions, the voucher can be used to cover or reimburse home schooling expenses. In some countries, vouchers only exist for tuition at private schools. According to a 2017 review of the economics literature on school vouchers, "the evidence to date is not sufficient to warrant recommending that vouchers be adopted on a widespread basis. A 2006 survey of members of American Economic Association found that over two-thirds of economists support giving parents educational vouchers that can be used at government-operated or operated schools, that support is greater if the vouchers are to be used by parents with low-incomes or parents with children in poorly performing schools. France lost the Franco-Prussian War and many blamed the loss on France's inferior military education system.
Following the defeat in the Franco-Prussian War, the French assembly proposed a religious voucher that would improve schools by allowing students to seek out the best school. This proposal never moved forward due to the reluctance of the French to subsidize religious education. Despite its failure, this proposal is one of the earliest examples of a voucher system that resembles voucher systems proposed and used today in many countries; the oldest continuing school voucher programs existing today in the United States are the Town Tuitioning programs in Vermont and Maine, beginning in 1869 and 1873 respectively. Because some towns in these states operate neither local high schools nor elementary schools, students in these towns "are eligible for a voucher to attend public schools in other towns or non-religious private schools. In these cases, the'sending' towns pay tuition directly to the'receiving' schools." A system of educational vouchers was introduced in the Netherlands in 1917. Today, more than 70% of pupils attend run but publicly funded schools split along denominational lines.
Milton Friedman argued for the modern concept of vouchers in the 1950s, stating that competition would improve schools, cost less and yield superior educational outcomes. Friedman's reasoning in favor of vouchers gained additional attention in 1980 with the broadcast of his ten part television series Free to Choose and the publication of its companion book of the same name. Episode 6 of the series and chapter 6 of the book were both entitled, "What's Wrong with Our Schools?" and asserted that permitting parents and students to use vouchers to choose their schools would expand freedom of choice and produce more well-educated students. In some Southern states during the 1960s, school vouchers were used as a way to perpetuate segregation. In a few instances, public schools were closed outright and vouchers were issued to parents; the vouchers known as tuition grants, in many cases, were only good at segregated schools, known as segregation academies. In 2005, Dr. Allah Bakhsh Malik Managing Director Punjab Education Foundation, under the supervision of Professor Henry M. Levin introduced Education Vouchers scheme in Pakistan with the features of equity, social cohesion and freedom of choice.
Today, all modern voucher programs prohibit racial discrimination. There are important distinctions between different kinds of schools: Public schools operate publicly and are funded by taxes. Private schools operate and are funded such as by tuition or donations. School vouchers are subsidies given directly to parents for tuition at any school Charter schools are funded publicly Open enrollment is the process of allowing parents to choose which public school their child attends instead of being assigned one; this is sometimes confused with vouchers as a promotion for school choice. Education tax credit, tuition tax credit, or tax-credit scholarship: There are two types of education tax credits: personal use, donation. Personal use tax credits are tax credits given to individual taxpayers for education expenditures made on behalf of their own children. Donation tax credits are tax credits given to individual taxpayers or businesses who donate to non-profit organizations that give out private school scholarships.
Education savings accounts allow parents to withdraw their children from public district or charter schools and receive a deposit of public funds into government-authorized savings accounts with restricted, but multiple, uses. Those funds distributed to families via debit card, can cover private school tuition and fees, online learning programs, private tutoring, community college costs, higher education expenses and other approved customized learning services and materials. Education as a tool for human capital accumulation is crucial to the development and progression of societies and thus governments have large incentives to continually intervene and improve public education. Additionally, education is the tool with which societies instill a common set of values that underlie the basic norms of the society. Furthermore, there are positive externalities to society from education; these positive externalities can be in the form of reduced crime, more informed citizens and economic development, known as the neighborhood effect.
In terms of economic theory, families face a bundle of consumption choices that determine how much they will spend on education and private consumption. Any number of consumption b
The Christian right or the religious right are conservative Christian political factions that are characterized by their strong support of conservative policies. Christian conservatives principally seek to apply their understanding of the teachings of Christianity to politics and to public policy by proclaiming the value of those teachings or by seeking to use those teachings to influence law and public policy. In the United States, the Christian right is an informal coalition formed around a core of conservative evangelical Protestants and Roman Catholics; the Christian right draws additional support from politically conservative mainline Protestants and Mormons. The movement has its roots in American politics going back as far as the 1940s and has been influential since the 1970s, its influence draws, in part, from grassroots activism as well as from focus on social issues and from the ability to motivate the electorate around those issues. The Christian right is notable for advancing conservative positions on issues including school prayer, intelligent design, embryonic stem cell research, euthanasia, sex education and pornography.
Although the term Christian right is most associated with politics in the United States, similar Christian conservative groups can be found in the political cultures of other Christian-majority nations. The Christian right is "also known as the New Christian Right or the Religious Right", although some consider the religious right to be "a broader category than Christian Right". John C. Green of the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life states that Jerry Falwell used the label religious right to describe himself. Gary Schneeberger, vice president of media and public relations for Focus on the Family, states that "erms like'religious right' have been traditionally used in a pejorative way to suggest extremism; the phrase'socially conservative evangelicals' is not exciting, but that's the way to do it."Evangelical leaders like Tony Perkins of the Family Research Council have called attention to the problem of equating the term Christian right with evangelicals. Although evangelicals constitute the core constituency of the Christian right, not all evangelicals fit the description and moreover, a number of Roman Catholics are members of the Christian right's core base.
The problem of description is further complicated by the fact that religious conservative may refer to other groups. Mennonites and the Amish, for example, are theologically conservative, however，there are no overtly political organizations associated with these denominations. Patricia Miller states that the "alliance between evangelical leaders and the Catholic bishops has been a cornerstone of the Christian Right for nearly twenty years". Since the late 1970s, the Christian right has been a notable force in both the Republican party and American politics when Baptist pastor Jerry Falwell and other Christian leaders began to urge conservative Christians to involve themselves in the political process. In response to the rise of the Christian right, the 1980 Republican Party platform assumed a number of its positions, including dropping support for the Equal Rights Amendment and adding support for a restoration of school prayer; the past two decades have been an important time in the political debates and in the same time frame religious citizens became more politically active in a time period labeled the New Christian Right.
While the platform opposed abortion and leaned towards restricting taxpayer funding for abortions and passing a constitutional amendment which would restore protection of the right to life for unborn children, it accepted the fact that many Americans, including fellow Republicans, were divided on the issue. Since about 1980, the Christian right has been associated with several institutions including the Moral Majority, the Christian Coalition, Focus on the Family and the Family Research Council. While the influence of the Christian right is traced to the 1980 Presidential election, Daniel K. Williams argues in God's Own Party that it had been involved in politics for most of the twentieth century, he notes that the Christian right had been in alliance with the Republican Party in the 1940s through 1960s on matters such as opposition to communism and defending "a Protestant-based moral order."Into the 1960 election and evangelicals worked against each other, as evangelicals mobilized their forces to defeat Catholics Al Smith in 1928 and John F. Kennedy in 1960.
Secularization came to be seen by Protestants as the biggest threat to Christian values, by the 1980s Catholic bishops and evangelicals had begun to work together on issues such as abortion. The alienation of Southern Democrats from the Democratic Party contributed to the rise of the right, as the counterculture of the 1960s provoked fear of social disintegration. In addition, as the Democratic Party became identified with a pro-choice position on abortion and with nontraditional societal values, social conservatives joined the Republican Party in increasing numbers. In 1976, U. S. President Jimmy Carter received the support of the Christian right because of his much-acclaimed religious conversion. However, Carter's spiritual transformation did not compensate for his liberal policies in the minds of Christian conservatives, as reflected in Jerry Falwell's criticism that "Americans have stood by and watched as godless, spineless leaders have brought our nation floundering to the brink of death."
The Christian Right has engaged in battles over abortion, contraception, gambling, state sanctioned prayer in public schools, textbook contents, se
A cross necklace is any necklace featuring a Christian cross or crucifix worn by Christians and others. They are purchased at stores, or received as gifts for rites such as baptism and confirmation. Crosses are worn as an indication of commitment to the Christian faith. In addition, some Christians believe that the wearing of a cross offers the wearer protection from evil; some individuals, including Christians and non-Christians, may wear cross necklaces as a fashion accessory. Most adherents of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church will wear a cross attached to either a chain or a matäb, a silk cord; the matäb is tied about the neck at the time of baptism, the recipient is expected to wear the matäb at all times. Women will affix a cross or other pendant to the matäb, but this is not considered essential. In some nations, such as the People's Socialist Republic of Albania, an atheist state, the wearing of cross necklaces was banned. Many Christian bishops of several denominations, such as the Anglican Church, wear the pectoral cross as a sign of their order.
In two publicised British cases, nurse Shirley Chaplin and British Airways flight attendant Nadia Eweida were disciplined for wearing cross necklaces at work, in breach of their employment terms. Both took their cases to the European Court of Human Rights. In light of such cases, in 2012 the former Archbishop of Canterbury of the Anglican Communion, Lord Carey, head of the Roman Catholic Church in Scotland, Cardinal Keith O'Brien, have urged all Christians to wear cross necklaces regularly. Anglican devotions Devotional medal Sacramentals On Wearing of The Cross Explanation on Wearing Cross Necklaces
Laïcité "secularity", is a French concept of secularism. It discourages religious involvement in government affairs religious influence in the determination of state policies. Dictionaries ordinarily translate laïcité as "secularity" or "secularism", although it is sometimes rendered in English as laicity or laicism by its opponents. While the term was first used with this meaning in 1871 in the dispute over the removal of religious teachers and instruction from elementary schools, the word laïcisme dates to 1842. In its strict and official acceptance, it is the principle of separation of state. Etymologically, laïcité is a noun formed by adding the suffix -ité to the Latin adjective lāicus, a loanword from the Greek λᾱϊκός, the adjective from λᾱός. French secularism has a long history. For the last century, the French government policy has been based on the 1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and the State. Laïcité is a concept rooted in the French Revolution, as it started to develop since the French Third Republic, after the Republicans gained control of the state.
The word laïcité has been used, from the end of the 19th century on, to mean the freedom of public institutions primary schools, from the influence of the Catholic Church in countries where it had retained its influence, in the context of a secularization process. Today, the concept covers other religious movements as well. Proponents assert the French state secularism is based on respect for freedom of thought and freedom of religion, thus the absence of a state religion, the subsequent separation of the state and Church, is considered by proponents to be a prerequisite for such freedom of thought. Proponents maintain that laïcité is thus distinct from anti-clericalism, which opposes the influence of religion and the clergy. Laïcité relies on the division between private life, where adherents believe religion belongs, the public sphere, in which each individual, adherents believe, should appear as a simple citizen equal to all other citizens, devoid of ethnic, religious or other particularities.
According to this concept, the government must refrain from taking positions on religious doctrine and only consider religious subjects for their practical consequences on inhabitants' lives. Supporters argue that laïcité by itself does not imply any hostility of the government with respect to any religion, it is best described as a belief that government and political issues should be kept separate from religious organizations and religious issues. This is meant to protect both the government from any possible interference from religious organizations, to protect the religious organization from political quarrels and controversies. Critics of laïcité argue that it is a disguised form of anti-clericalism and infringement on individual right to religious expression, that, instead of promoting freedom of thought and freedom of religion, it prevents the believer from observing his or her religion. Another critique is that, in countries dominated by one religious tradition avoiding taking any positions on religious matters favors the dominant religious tradition of the relevant country.
In the current French Fifth Republic, school holidays follow the Christian liturgical year, that include Christmas and holiday seasons, though Easter holidays have been replaced by Spring holidays which may or may not include Easter, depending on the vagaries of the liturgical calendar. However, schools have long given leave to students for important holidays of their specific non-majority religions, food menus served in secondary schools pay particular attention to ensuring that each religious observer may respect his religion's specific restrictions concerning diets. Other countries, following in the French model, have forms of Laïcité – examples include Albania and Turkey; the principle of laïcité in France is implemented through a number of policies. The French government is prohibited from recognizing any religion. Instead, it recognizes religious organizations, according to formal legal criteria that do not address religious doctrine: whether the sole purpose of the organization is to organize religious activities whether the organization disrupts public order.
French political leaders, though not by any means prohibited from making religious remarks refrain from it. Religious considerations are considered incompatible with reasoned political debate. Political leaders may practice their religion but they are expected to differentiate their religious beliefs from their political arguments. Christine Boutin, who argued on religious grounds against a legal domestic partnership available regardless of the sex of the partners became the butt of late-night comedy jokes; the term was the French equivalent of the term laity, that is, everyone, not clergy. After the French Revolution this meaning changed and it came to mean keeping religion separate from the executive and legislative branches of government; this includes prohibitions on having a state religion, as well as for the government to endorse any religious position, be it a religion or atheism. Although the term was current throughou
Headscarves, or head scarves, are scarves covering most or all of the top of a person's women and her head, leaving the face uncovered. A headscarf is formed of a triangular or square cloth folded into a triangle piece of fabric, with which the head is covered. Headscarves may be worn for a variety of purposes, such as protection of the head or hair from rain, dirt, warmth, for sanitation, for fashion, recognition or social distinction. Headscarves are now worn for practical, cultural or religious reasons; until the latter 20th century, headscarves were worn by women in many parts of the Southwestern Asia, North Africa, the Americas, as well as some other parts of the world. In recent decades, like hats, have fallen out of favor in Western culture, they are still, common in many rural areas of Eastern Europe as well as many areas of the Middle East. A form of headscarf, known as the hijab, is seen in Muslim countries and is born out of qur'anic tradition, it is worn by Muslim women for fashion and religious purposes, its style varies by culture.
Headscarves may have a religious significance or function, or be expected as a matter of social custom, the two often being confused. Religions such as Judaism under Halakhah promote modest dress among men. Many married Orthodox Jewish women wear a scarf to cover their hair; the Tallit is worn by Jewish men for prayers, which they use to cover their head in order to recite the blessings, although not all men do this. It may not apply to the entire prayer service, sometimes only specific sections such as the Amidah; the Kohanim cover their heads and shoulders with the tallit during the priestly blessing so as to conform to Halakah which states that the hands of the priests should not be seen during this time as their mystical significance to the hand position. Until at least the 18th century, the wearing of a headcovering for the hair was regarded as customary for Christian women in Mediterranean, Middle Eastern, African cultures, to agree with contemporary notions of modesty and as an indication of married status.
This practice was derived from the Christian Bible 1 Corinthians 11:4-13, which has traditionally been interpreted to mandate the wearing of a headcovering by Christian women. To some extent, the covering of the head depended on. Women who did not wear headcoverings were interpreted to be "a prostitute or adulteress". In Europe, law stipulated that married women who uncovered their head in public was evidence of her infidelity; the Roman Catholic Church required all women to wear a Christian headcovering over their hair in church until the 1960s. Women meeting the Pope in formal audiences are still expected to wear them. Martin Luther, the German Reformer, as well as John Calvin, a major figure in the Reformed Churches expected women to cover their heads in church, as did John Wesley, the founder of the Methodist Churches. In many rural areas, women widows, continue to observe the traditional Christian custom of headcovering in the Mediterranean, as well as in eastern and southern Europe. At times the styles of covering using simple cloth became elaborate, with complicated layers and folding, held in place with hair pins.
Among the many terms for head-coverings made of flexible cloth are wimple, kerchief, gable hood, as well as light hats, mob caps and bonnets. Many Anabaptist Christian women wear their headscarf except when sleeping. In countries with large Eastern Orthodox Christianity population such as Romania or Russia headscarves and veils are used by Christian women in the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodox Church, Assyrian Church of the East, Roman Catholic Church. A few years back, all women in Russia who attended Divine Liturgy wore head-coverings. A woman having her head covered means. Head-coverings symbolizes that a woman is married and that her husband is the head of the family. Little girls have their heads covered when they go to Mass at church, not because they are married, but in order to honor the Lord. Today, young Russian Orthodox women and little girls still cover their heads when going to church, although it differs in style from those worn by women of older age; some English speakers use the word "babushka" to indicate a headscarf tied below the chin, as still worn in rural parts of Europe.
In many parts of Europe, headscarves are used by elderly women and this led to the use of the term "babushka", a Slavic word meaning'grandmother'. Some types of head coverings that Russian women wear are: circlet and wimple. Islam promotes modest dress among women. Many Muslim women wear a headscarf known as a hijab and in Quranic Arabic as the khimar. Many of these garments cover the hair and throat, but do not cover the face; the Keffiyeh is used by Muslim men, as for example Yasser Arafat who adopted a black and white fishnet-patterned keffiyeh as a hallmark. Headscarves and veils are used by observant Muslim women and girls, required by law for women and girls in certain Muslim countries
Alexis de Tocqueville
Alexis Charles Henri Clérel, Viscount de Tocqueville was a French diplomat, political scientist and historian. He was best known for his works Democracy in America and The Old Regime and the Revolution. In both, he analyzed the improved living standards and social conditions of individuals as well as their relationship to the market and state in Western societies. Democracy in America was published after Tocqueville's travels in the United States and is today considered an early work of sociology and political science. Tocqueville was active in French politics, first under the July Monarchy and during the Second Republic which succeeded the February 1848 Revolution, he retired from political life after Louis Napoléon Bonaparte's 2 December 1851 coup and thereafter began work on The Old Regime and the Revolution. He argued the importance of the French Revolution was to continue the process of modernizing and centralizing the French state which had begun under King Louis XIV; the failure of the Revolution came from the inexperience of the deputies who were too wedded to abstract Enlightenment ideals.
Tocqueville was a classical liberal who advocated parliamentary government, but he was skeptical of the extremes of democracy. Alexis de Tocqueville came from an old Norman aristocratic family, his parents, Hervé Louis François Jean Bonaventure Clérel, Count of Tocqueville, an officer of the Constitutional Guard of King Louis XVI. Under the Bourbon Restoration, Tocqueville's father became a noble peer and prefect. Tocqueville attended the Lycée Fabert in Metz. Tocqueville, who despised the July Monarchy, began his political career in 1839. From 1839 to 1851, he served as deputy of the Manche department. In parliament, he sat on the centre-left, defended abolitionist views and upheld free trade while supporting the colonisation of Algeria carried on by Louis-Philippe's regime. In 1847, he sought to found a Young Left party which would advocate wage increases, a progressive tax, other labor concerns in order to undermine the appeal of the socialists. Tocqueville was elected general counsellor of the Manche in 1842 and became the president of the department's conseil général between 1849 and 1851.
According to one account, Tocqueville's political position became untenable during this time in the sense that he was mistrusted by both the left and right and was looking for an excuse to leave France. In 1831, he obtained from the July Monarchy a mission to examine prisons and penitentiaries in the United States and proceeded there with his lifelong friend Gustave de Beaumont. While Tocqueville did visit some prisons, he traveled in the United States and took extensive notes about his observations and reflections, he returned within nine months and published a report, but the real result of his tour was De la démocratie en Amerique, which appeared in 1835. Beaumont wrote an account of their travels in Jacksonian America: Marie or Slavery in the United States. During this trip, he made a side trip to Lower Canada to Montreal and Quebec City from mid-August to early September 1831. Apart from North America, Tocqueville made an observational tour of England, producing Memoir on Pauperism. In 1841 and 1846, he traveled to Algeria.
His first travel inspired his Travail sur l'Algérie in which he criticized the French model of colonisation, based on an assimilationist view, preferring instead the British model of indirect rule, which avoided mixing different populations together. He went as far as advocating racial segregation between the European colonists and the Arabs through the implementation of two different legislative systems. In 1835, Tocqueville made a journey through Ireland, his observations provide one of the best pictures of how Ireland stood before the Great Famine. The observations chronicle the growing Catholic middle class and the appalling conditions in which most Catholic tenant farmers lived. Tocqueville made clear both his libertarian sympathies and his affinity for his Irish co-religionists. After the fall of the July Monarchy during the February 1848 Revolution, Tocqueville was elected a member of the Constituent Assembly of 1848, where he became a member of the Commission charged with the drafting of the new Constitution of the Second Republic.
He defended bicameralism and the election of the President of the Republic by universal suffrage. As the countryside was thought to be more conservative than the labouring population of Paris, universal suffrage was conceived as a means to counteract the revolutionary spirit of Paris. During the Second Republic, Tocqueville sided with the parti de l'Ordre against the socialists. A few days after the February insurrection, he believed that a violent clash between the Parisian workers' population led by socialists agitating in favor of a "Democratic and Social Republic" and the conservatives, which included the aristocracy and the rural population, was inescapable; as Tocqueville had foreseen, these social tensions exploded during the June Days Uprising of 1848. Led by General Cavaignac, the suppression was supported by Tocqueville, who advocated the "regularization" of the state of siege declared by Cavaignac and other measures promoting suspension of the constitutional order. Between May and September, Tocqueville participated in the Constitutional Commission which wrote the new Constitution.
His proposals underlined the importance of his North America
Founding Fathers of the United States
The Founding Fathers of the United States, or the Founding Fathers, were a group of philosophers and writers who led the American Revolution against the Kingdom of Great Britain. Most were descendants of colonists settled in the Thirteen Colonies in North America. Historian Richard B. Morris in 1973 identified the following seven figures as the key Founding Fathers: Alexander Hamilton, George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison. Adams and Franklin were members of the Committee of Five that drafted the Declaration of Independence. Hamilton and Jay were authors of The Federalist Papers, advocating ratification of the Constitution; the constitutions drafted by Jay and Adams for their respective states of New York and Massachusetts were relied upon when creating language for the U. S. Constitution. Jay and Franklin negotiated the Treaty of Paris that would end the American Revolutionary War. Washington was Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army and was President of the Constitutional Convention.
All held additional important roles in the early government of the United States, with Washington, Adams and Madison serving as President. Jay was the nation's first Chief Justice, Hamilton was the first Secretary of the Treasury, Franklin was America's most senior diplomat, the governmental leader of Pennsylvania; the term Founding Fathers is sometimes used to refer to the Signers of the embossed version of the Declaration of Independence in 1776. Signers should not be confused with the term Framers. Of the 55 Framers, only 39 were signers of the Constitution. Two further groupings of Founding Fathers include: 1) those who signed the Continental Association, a trade ban and one of the colonists' first collective volleys protesting British control and the Intolerable Acts in 1774, or 2) those who signed the Articles of Confederation, the first U. S. constitutional document. The phrase "Founding Fathers" is a 20th-century appellation, coined by Warren G. Harding in 1916. Prior to, during the 19th century, they were referred to as the "Fathers".
The term has been used to describe first settlers of the original royal colonies. The First Continental Congress met in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1774, consisting of 56 delegates from all thirteen American colonies except Georgia. Among them was George Washington, who would soon be drawn out of military retirement to command the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. In attendance was Patrick Henry, John Adams, who like all delegates were elected by their respective colonial assemblies. Other delegates included Samuel Adams from Massachusetts, John Dickinson from Pennsylvania and New York's John Jay; this congress in addition to formulating appeals to the British crown, established the Continental Association to administer boycott actions against Britain. When the Second Continental Congress convened on May 10, 1775, it reconstituted the First Congress. Many of the same 56 delegates who attended the first meeting participated in the second. New arrivals included Benjamin Franklin and Robert Morris of Pennsylvania, John Hancock of Massachusetts, John Witherspoon of New Jersey.
Hancock was elected Congress President two weeks into the session when Peyton Randolph was recalled to Virginia to preside over the House of Burgesses. Thomas Jefferson replaced Randolph in the Virginia congressional delegation; the second Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence. Witherspoon was the only active clergyman to sign the Declaration, he signed the Articles of Confederation and attended the New Jersey convention that ratified the Federal Constitution. The newly founded country of the United States had to create a new government to replace the British Parliament; the U. S. adopted the Articles of Confederation, a declaration that established a national government with a one-house legislature. Its ratification by all thirteen colonies gave the second Congress a new name: the Congress of the Confederation, which met from 1781 to 1789; the Constitutional Convention took place in Philadelphia. Although the Convention was called to revise the Articles of Confederation, the intention from the outset for some including James Madison and Alexander Hamilton was to create a new frame of government rather than amending the existing one.
The delegates elected George Washington to preside over the Convention. The result of the Convention was the United States Constitution and the replacement of the Continental Congress with the United States Congress; the Founding Fathers represented a cross-section of 18th-century U. S. leadership. According to a study of the biographies by Caroline Robbins: The Signers came for the most part from an educated elite, were residents of older settlements, belonged with a few exceptions to a moderately well-to-do class representing only a fraction of the population. Native or born overseas, they were of the Protestant faith. All of them were leaders in their communities. Many were prominent in national affairs; every one had taken part in the American Revolution. Scholars have examined the collective biography of them as well as the signers of the Declaration and the Constitution. Many of the Founding Fathers attended or held degrees from the colonial colleges, most notably Columbia known at the time as "King's College", Princeton or