Entertainment journalism is any form of journalism that focuses on popular culture and the entertainment business and its products. Like fashion journalism, entertainment journalism covers industry-specific news while targeting general audiences beyond those working in the industry itself. Common forms include lifestyle and film, theater music, video game, celebrity coverage. News journalism deals with information of current events or reports of events that have occurred; the main purpose of this type of journalism is to inform. Entertainment journalism deals with information of the entertainment industry such as films, television shows, music and video games among others; the main purpose of this type of journalism is to entertain. Journalists can skew facts in a particular matter that cause their story to come across as entertainment; this action can have a profound effect on the consumer, making the authenticity of the report questionable. Cases of this problem can occur in news articles and documentaries.
Entertainment has different news values from mainstream news. This is focused on celebrities and their lifestyles and feeds off television soap operas, reality television, members of royal families, the like. Red carpet reporting and interviewing of celebrities during film festivals and award shows are part of entertainment journalism. A review or analysis of a motion picture released to the public; the critic's review or analysis is subjective and informative, with a focus to inform and entertain the consumer. Film criticism is considered to have had a major impact on the integration of the cinema into mainstream media, it is stated that film criticism wasn't accepted as an art until film was accepted in the 1960s. The Internet has further advanced the acceptance of this entertainment journalism with the introduction of film blogs and film review sites; some popular film review sites and blogs include Rotten Tomatoes, IMDb, Metacritic. A form of journalism that covers all aspects of the video game industry.
The birth of the computer age in the 1990s forced media companies to release content that would attract consumers in the video game generation. Visually stimulating print magazines were introduced into the market, covering the video game industry; some popular video game review sites and print based magazines include IGN, Game Informer, Nintendo Power, GameSpot. The rise of the internet allowed many amateur and semi-professional personalities to start their own blogs relating to entertainment journalism; the Me Too movement can trace its roots to entertainment journalism as the centrepiece of it is Harvey Weinstein, a Hollywood mogul who not only produced independent and blockbuster films but has worked on television and theater. Infotainment Journal of Religion and Theatre
Fake news or junk news or pseudo-news is a type of yellow journalism or propaganda that consists of deliberate disinformation or hoaxes spread via traditional print and broadcast news media or online social media. The false information is caused by reporters paying sources for stories, an unethical practice called checkbook journalism. Digital news increased the usage of fake news, or yellow journalism; the news is often reverberated as misinformation in social media but finds its way to the mainstream media as well. Fake news is written and published with the intent to mislead in order to damage an agency, entity, or person, and/or gain financially or politically using sensationalist, dishonest, or outright fabricated headlines to increase readership. Clickbait stories and headlines earn advertising revenue from this activity; the relevance of fake news has increased in post-truth politics. For media outlets, the ability to attract viewers to their websites is necessary to generate online advertising revenue.
Publishing a story with false content that attracts users benefits advertisers and improves ratings. Easy access to online advertisement revenue, increased political polarization, the popularity of social media the Facebook News Feed, have all been implicated in the spread of fake news, which competes with legitimate news stories. Hostile government actors have been implicated in generating and propagating fake news during elections. Fake news undermines serious media coverage and makes it more difficult for journalists to cover significant news stories. An analysis by BuzzFeed found that the top 20 fake news stories about the 2016 U. S. presidential election received more engagement on Facebook than the top 20 election stories from 19 major media outlets. Anonymously-hosted fake news websites lacking known publishers have been criticized, because they make it difficult to prosecute sources of fake news for libel; the term is at times used to cast doubt upon legitimate news from an opposing political standpoint, a tactic known as the lying press.
During and after his presidential campaign and election, Donald Trump popularized the term "fake news" in this sense when he used it to describe the negative press coverage of himself. In part as a result of Trump's use of the term, the term has come under increasing criticism, in October 2018 the British government decided that it will no longer use the term because it is "a poorly-defined and misleading term that conflates a variety of false information, from genuine error through to foreign interference in democratic processes." Fake news is a neologism used to refer to fabricated news. This type of news, found in traditional news, social media or fake news websites, has no basis in fact, but is presented as being factually accurate. Michael Radutzky, a producer of CBS 60 Minutes, said his show considers fake news to be "stories that are false, have enormous traction in the culture, are consumed by millions of people." These stories are not only found in politics, but in areas like vaccination, stock values and nutrition.
He did not include news, "invoked by politicians against the media for stories that they don't like or for comments that they don't like" as fake news. Guy Campanile a 60 Minutes producer said, "What we are talking about are stories that are fabricated out of thin air. By most measures, by any definition, that's a lie."The intent and purpose of fake news is important. In some cases, what appears to be fake news may be news satire, which uses exaggeration and introduces non-factual elements that are intended to amuse or make a point, rather than to deceive. Propaganda can be fake news; some researchers have highlighted that "fake news" may be distinguished not just by the falsity of its content, but the "character of online circulation and reception". Claire Wardle of First Draft News identifies seven types of fake news: satire or parody false connection misleading content false context impostor content manipulated content fabricated content In the context of the United States of America and its election processes in the 2010s, fake news generated considerable controversy and argument, with some commentators defining concern over it as moral panic or mass hysteria and others worried about damage done to public trust.
In January 2017, the United Kingdom House of Commons conducted a parliamentary inquiry into the "growing phenomenon of fake news". Some, most notably United States President Donald Trump, have broadened the meaning of "fake news" to include news, negative of his presidency. In November 2017, Claire Wardle announced she has rejected the phrase "fake news" and "censors it in conversation", finding it "woefully inadequate" to describe the issues, she now speaks of "information pollution" and distinguishes between three types of problems:'mis-information','dis-information', and'mal-information': Mis-information: false information disseminated without harmful intent. Dis-information: created and shared by people with harmful intent. Mal-information: the sharing of "genuine" information with the intent to cause harm. Here are a few examples of fake news and how they are viewed: Clickbait Propaganda Satire/parody
Data-driven journalism shortened to "ddj", a term in use since 2009, is a journalistic process based on analyzing and filtering large data sets for the purpose of creating or elevating a news story. Many data-driven stories begin with newly available resources such as open source software, open access publishing and open data, while others are products of public records requests or leaked materials; this approach to journalism builds on older practices, most notably on computer-assisted reporting a label used in the US for decades. Other labels for similar approaches are "precision journalism", based on a book by Philipp Meyer, published in 1972, where he advocated the use of techniques from social sciences in researching stories. Data-driven journalism has a wider approach. At the core the process builds on the growing availability of open data, available online and analyzed with open source tools. Data-driven journalism strives to reach new levels of service for the public, helping the general public or specific groups or individuals to understand patterns and make decisions based on the findings.
As such, data driven journalism might help to put journalists into a role relevant for society in a new way. Since the introduction of the concept a number of media companies have created "data teams" which develop visualizations for newsrooms. Most notable are teams e.g. at Reuters, Pro Publica, La Nacion. In Europe, The Guardian and Berliner Morgenpost have productive teams, as well as public broadcasters; as projects like the MP expense scandal and the 2013 release of the "offshore leaks" demonstrate, data-driven journalism can assume an investigative role, dealing with "not-so open" aka secret data on occasion. The annual Data Journalism Awards recognize outstanding reporting in the field of data journalism, numerous Pulitzer Prizes in recent years have been awarded to data-driven storytelling, including the 2018 Pulitzer Prize in International Reporting and the 2017 Pulitzer Prize in Public Service According to information architect and multimedia journalist Mirko Lorenz, data-driven journalism is a workflow that consists of the following elements: digging deep into data by scraping and structuring it, filtering by mining for specific information and making a story.
This process can be extended to provide information results that cater to individual interests and the broader public. Data journalism trainer and writer Paul Bradshaw describes the process of data-driven journalism in a similar manner: data must be found, which may require specialized skills like MySQL or Python interrogated, for which understanding of jargon and statistics is necessary, visualized and mashed with the aid of open source tools. A more results-driven definition comes from data web strategist Henk van Ess. "Data-driven journalism enables reporters to tell untold stories, find new angles or complete stories via a workflow of finding and presenting significant amounts of data with or without open source tools." Van Ess claims that some of the data-driven workflow leads to products that "are not in orbit with the laws of good story telling" because the result emphazes on showing the problem, not explaining the problem. "A good data driven production has different layers. It allows you to find personalized details that are only important for you, by drilling down to relevant details but enables you to zoom out to get the big picture".
In 2013, Van Ess came with a shorter definition in that doesn't involve visualisation per se: "Datajournalism is journalism based on data that has to be processed first with tools before a relevant story is possible." Telling stories based on the data is the primary goal. The findings from data can be transformed into any form of journalistic writing. Visualizations can be used to create a clear understanding of a complex situation. Furthermore, elements of storytelling can be used to illustrate what the findings mean, from the perspective of someone, affected by a development; this connection between data and story can be viewed as a "new arc" trying to span the gap between developments that are relevant, but poorly understood, to a story, verifiable, trustworthy and easy to remember. In many investigations the data that can be found is misleading; as one layer of data-driven journalism a critical examination of the data quality is important. In other cases the data might not be public or is not in the right format for further analysis, e.g. is only available in a PDF.
Here the process of data-driven journalism can turn into stories about data quality or refusals to provide the data by institutions. As the practice as a whole is in early development steps, examinations of data sources, data sets, data quality and data format are therefore an important part of this work. Based on the perspective of looking deeper into facts and drivers of events, there is a suggested change in media strategies: In this view the idea is to move "from attention to trust"; the creation of attention, a pillar of media business models has lost its relevance because reports of new events are faster distributed via new platforms such as Twitter than through traditional media channels. On the other hand, trust can be understood as a scarce resource. While distributing information is much easier and faster via the web, the abundance of offerings creates costs to verify and check the content of any story create an opportunity; the view to transform media companies into trusted data hubs has been described in an article cross-published in February 2011 on Owni.eu and Nieman Lab.
The process to transform raw data into stories is akin to a refi
New Journalism is a style of news writing and journalism, developed in the 1960s and 1970s, which uses literary techniques deemed unconventional at the time. It is characterized by a subjective perspective, a literary style reminiscent of long-form non-fiction and emphasizing "truth" over "facts", intensive reportage in which reporters immersed themselves in the stories as they reported and wrote them; this was in contrast to traditional journalism where the journalist was "invisible" and facts are reported as objectively as possible. The phenomenon of New Journalism is considered to have ended by the early 1980s; the term was codified with its current meaning by Tom Wolfe in a 1973 collection of journalism articles he published as The New Journalism, which included works by himself, Truman Capote, Hunter S. Thompson, Norman Mailer, Joan Didion, Terry Southern, Robert Christgau, Gay Talese and others. Articles in the New Journalism style tended not to be found in newspapers, but rather in magazines such as The Atlantic Monthly, Harper's, CoEvolution Quarterly, New York, The New Yorker, Rolling Stone, for a short while in the early 1970s, Scanlan's Monthly.
Contemporary journalists and writers questioned the "newness" of New Journalism, as well as whether it qualified as a distinct genre. The subjective nature of New Journalism received extensive exploration. Criticism has been leveled at numerous individual writers in the genre, as well. Various people and tendencies throughout the history of American journalism have been labeled "new journalism". Robert E. Park, for instance, in his Natural History of the Newspaper, referred to the advent of the penny press in the 1830s as "new journalism"; the appearance of the yellow press—papers such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World in the 1880s—led journalists and historians to proclaim that a "New Journalism" had been created. Ault and Emery, for instance, said "Industrialization and urbanization changed the face of America during the latter half of the Nineteenth century, its newspapers entered an era known as that of the'New Journalism.'" John Hohenberg, in The Professional Journalist, called the interpretive reporting which developed after World War II a "new journalism which not only seeks to explain as well as to inform.
Although James E. Murphy noted that "...most uses of the term seem to refer to something more specific than vague new directions in journalism", Curtis D. MacDougal devoted the preface of the sixth edition of his Interpretative Reporting to New Journalism and cataloged many of the contemporary definitions: "Activist, participatory, tell-it-as-you-see-it, investigative, humanistic, reformist and a few more."The Magic Writing Machine—Student Probes of the New Journalism, a collection edited and introduced by Everette E. Dennis, came up with six categories, labelled new nonfiction, alternative journalism, advocacy journalism, underground journalism and precision journalism. Michael Johnson's The New Journalism addresses itself to three phenomena: the underground press, the artists of nonfiction, changes in the established media. In 1887, Matthew Arnold was credited with coining the term "New Journalism", a term that went on to define an entire genre of newspaper history Lord Northcliffe's turn-of-the-century press empire.
However, at the time, the target of Arnold's irritation was not Northcliffe, but the sensational journalism of Pall Mall Gazette editor, William Thomas Stead. He disapproved of the muck-raking Stead, declared that, under Stead, "the P. M. G. Whatever may be its merits, is fast ceasing to be literature." W. T. Stead called his brand of journalism'Government by Journalism' How and when the term New Journalism began to refer to a genre is not clear. Tom Wolfe, a practitioner and principal advocate of the form, wrote in at least two articles in 1972 that he had no idea of where it began. Trying to shed light on the matter, literary critic Seymour Krim offered his explanation in 1973. "I'm certain." In about April of 1965 he called me at Nugget Magazine, where I was editorial director, told me he wanted to write an article about new New Journalism. It was to be about the exciting things being done in the old reporting genre by Talese and Jimmy Breslin, he never wrote the piece, so far as I know, but I began using the expression in conversation and writing.
It was picked up and stuck." But wherever and whenever the term arose, there is evidence of some literary experimentation in the early 1960s, as when Norman Mailer broke away from fiction to write Superman Comes to the Supermarket. A report of John F. Kennedy's nomination that year, the piece established a precedent which Mailer would build on in his 1968 convention coverage and in other nonfiction as well. Wolfe wrote that his first acquaintance with a new style of reporting came in a 1962 Esquire article about Joe Louis by Gay Talese. "'Joe Louis at Fifty'a wasn't like a magazine article at all. It was like a short story, it began with a scene, an intimate confrontation between Louis and his third wife..." Wolfe said Talese was the first to apply fiction techniques to reporting. Esquire claimed credit as the seedbed for these new techniques. Esquire editor Harold Hayes wrote that "in the Sixties, events seemed to move too swiftly to allow the osmotic process of art to keep abreast, wh
Yellow journalism and the yellow press are American terms for journalism and associated newspapers that present little or no legitimate well-researched news while instead using eye-catching headlines for increased sales. Techniques may include exaggerations of scandal-mongering, or sensationalism. By extension, the term yellow journalism is used today as a pejorative to decry any journalism that treats news in an unprofessional or unethical fashion. In English, the term is chiefly used in the US. In the UK, a equivalent term is tabloid journalism, meaning journalism characteristic of tabloid newspapers if found elsewhere. Other languages, e.g. Russian, sometimes have terms derived from the American term. A common source of such writing is called checkbook journalism, the controversial practice of news reporters paying sources for their information without verifying its truth or accuracy. In the U. S. it is considered unethical, with most mainstream newspapers and news shows having a policy forbidding it.
In contrast, tabloid newspapers and tabloid television shows, which rely more on sensationalism engage in the practice. Joseph Campbell describes yellow press newspapers as having daily multi-column front-page headlines covering a variety of topics, such as sports and scandal, using bold layouts, heavy reliance on unnamed sources, unabashed self-promotion; the term was extensively used to describe certain major New York City newspapers around 1900 as they battled for circulation. Frank Luther Mott identifies yellow journalism based on five characteristics: scare headlines in huge print of minor news lavish use of pictures, or imaginary drawings use of faked interviews, misleading headlines, a parade of false learning from so-called experts emphasis on full-color Sunday supplements with comic strips dramatic sympathy with the "underdog" against the system; the term was coined in the mid-1890s to characterize the sensational journalism in the circulation war between Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal.
The battle peaked from 1895 to about 1898, historical usage refers to this period. Both papers were accused by critics of sensationalizing the news in order to drive up circulation, although the newspapers did serious reporting as well. An English magazine in 1898 noted, "All American journalism is not'yellow', though all strictly'up-to-date' yellow journalism is American!"The term was coined by Erwin Wardman, the editor of the New York Press. Wardman was the first to publish the term but there is evidence that expressions such as "yellow journalism" and "school of yellow kid journalism" were used by newsmen of that time. Wardman never defined the term exactly, it was a mutation from earlier slander where Wardman twisted "new journalism" into "nude journalism". Wardman had used the expression "yellow kid journalism" referring to the then-popular comic strip, published by both Pulitzer and Hearst during a circulation war. In 1898 the paper elaborated: "We called them Yellow because they are Yellow."
Joseph Pulitzer purchased the New York World in 1883 after making the St. Louis Post-Dispatch the dominant daily in that city. Pulitzer strove to make the New York World an entertaining read, filled his paper with pictures and contests that drew in new readers. Crime stories filled many of the pages, with headlines like "Was He a Suicide?" and "Screaming for Mercy." In addition, Pulitzer only charged readers two cents per issue but gave readers eight and sometimes 12 pages of information. While there were many sensational stories in the New York World, they were by no means the only pieces, or the dominant ones. Pulitzer believed that newspapers were public institutions with a duty to improve society, he put the World in the service of social reform. Just two years after Pulitzer took it over, the World became the highest circulation newspaper in New York, aided in part by its strong ties to the Democratic Party. Older publishers, envious of Pulitzer's success, began criticizing the World, harping on its crime stories and stunts while ignoring its more serious reporting — trends which influenced the popular perception of yellow journalism.
Charles Dana, editor of the New York Sun, attacked The World and said Pulitzer was "deficient in judgment and in staying power."Pulitzer's approach made an impression on William Randolph Hearst, a mining heir who acquired the San Francisco Examiner from his father in 1887. Hearst read the World while studying at Harvard University and resolved to make the Examiner as bright as Pulitzer's paper. Under his leadership, the Examiner devoted 24 percent of its space to crime, presenting the stories as morality plays, sprinkled adultery and "nudity" on the front page. A month after Hearst took over the paper, the Examiner ran this headline about a hotel fire: HUNGRY, FRANTIC FLAMES, they Leap Madly Upon the Splendid Pleasure Palace by the Bay of Monterey, Encircling Del Monte in Their Ravenous Embrace From Pinnacle to Foundation. Leaping Higher, Higher, With Desperate Desire. Running Madly Riotous Through Cornice and Facade. Rushing in Upon the Trembling Guests with Savage Fury. Appalled and Panic-Stricken the Breathless Fugitives Gaze Upon the Scene of Terror.
The Magnificent Hotel and Its Rich Adornments Now a Smoldering heap of Ashes. The Examiner Sends a Special Train to Monterey to Gather Full Details of the Terrible Disaster. Arrival of the Unfortunate Victims on the Morning's Train — A History of Hotel del Monte — The Plans for Rebuilding the Celebrated Hostelry — Part
Science journalism conveys reporting about science to the public. The field involves interactions between scientists and the public. One of the first occasions an article was attributed to a "scientific correspondent" was "A Gale in the Bay of Biscay" by William Crookes which appeared in The Times on January 18, 1871, page 7. Thomas Henry Huxley and John Tyndall were scientists who were involved in journalism and Peter Chalmers Mitchell was Scientific Correspondent for The Times from 1918 to 1935; however it was with James Crowther's appointment as the ‘scientific correspondent’ of The Manchester Guardian by C. P. Scott in 1928 that science journalism took shape. Crowther related that Scott had declared that there was ‘no such thing’ as science journalism, at which point Crowther replied that he intended to invent it. Scott was convinced and employed him. Science values detail, the impersonal, the technical, the lasting, facts and being right. Journalism values brevity, the personal, the colloquial, the immediate, stories and being right now.
There are going to be tensions. The aim of a science journalist is to render detailed and jargon-laden information produced by scientists into a form that non-scientists can understand and appreciate while still communicating the information accurately. One way science journalism can achieve, to avoid an information deficit model of communication, which assumes a top-down, one-way direction of communicating information that limits an open dialogue between knowledge holders and the public. Science journalists have training in the scientific disciplines that they cover; some have earned a degree in a scientific field before becoming journalists or exhibited talent in writing about science subjects. However, good preparation for interviews and deceptively simple questions such as "What does this mean to the people on the street?" can help a science journalist develop material, useful for the intended audience. With budget cuts at major newspapers and other media, there are fewer working science journalists working for traditional print and broadcast media than before.
There are very few journalists in traditional media outlets that write multiple articles on emerging science, such as nanotechnology. In 2011, there were 459 journalists who had written a newspaper article covering nanotechnology, of whom 7 wrote about the topic more than 25 times. In January 2012, just a week after The Daily Climate reported that worldwide coverage of climate change continued a three-year slide in 2012 and that among the five largest US dailies, the New York Times published the most stories and had the biggest increase in coverage, that newspaper announced that it was dismantling its environmental desk and merging its journalists with other departments. News coverage on science by traditional media outlets, such as newspapers, magazines and news broadcasts is being replaced by online sources. In April 2012, the New York Times was awarded two Pulitzer Prizes for content published by Politico and The Huffington Post, both online sources, a sign of the platform shift by the media outlet.
Tracking the remaining experienced science journalists is becoming difficult. For example, in Australia, the number of science journalists have decreased to abysmal numbers "you need less than one hand to count them." Due to the decreasing number of science journalists, experiments on ways to improve science journalism are rare. However, in one of the few experiments conducted with science journalists, when the remaining population of science journalists networked online the produced more accurate articles than when in isolation. New communication environments provide unlimited information on a large number of issues, which can be obtained anywhere and with limited effort; the web offers opportunities for citizens to connect with others through social media and other 2.0-type tools to make sense of this information. "After a lot of hand wringing about the newspaper industry about six years ago, I take a more optimistic view these days,” said Cristine Russell, president of the Council for the Advancement of Science Writing.
“The world is online. Science writers today have the opportunity to communicate not just with their audience but globally.”Blog-based science reporting is filling in to some degree, but has problems of its own. In 2015, John Bohannon produced a deliberately bad study to see how a low-quality open access publisher and the media would pick up their findings, he worked with a film-maker Peter Onneken, making a film about junk science in the diet industry with fad diets becoming headline news despite terrible study design and no evidence. He invented a fake "diet institute" that lacks a website, used the pen name, "Johannes Bohannon," and fabricated a press release. Science journalists come under criticism for misleading reporting of scientific stories. All three groups of scientists and the public criticize science journalism for bias and inaccuracies. However, with the increasing collaborations online between science journalists there may be potential with removing inaccuracies; the 2010 book Merchants of Doubt by historians of science Naomi Oreskes and Erik M. Conway argues that in topics like the global warming controversy, tobacco smoking, acid rain, DDT and ozone depletion, contrarian scientists have sought to "keep the controversy alive" in the public arena by demanding that reporters give false balance to the minority side.
Such as with climate change, this leaves the public with the impression that disagreement within the scientific community is much
Medical journalism is news reporting of medical news and features. Medical journalism is diverse, reflects its audience; the main division is into medical journalism for the general public, which includes medical coverage in general news publications and in specialty medical publications, medical journalism for doctors and other professionals, which appears in peer-reviewed journals. The accuracy of medical journalism varies widely. Reviews of mass media publications have graded most stories unsatisfactory, although there were examples of excellence. Other reviews have found that most errors in mass media publications were the result of repeating errors in the original journal articles or their press releases; some web sites, such as Columbia Journalism Review and Hippocrates Med Review and review medical journalism. Medical journalism can come from a variety of sources including: Television news programs Newspapers Internet websites Scientific journals Most inaccuracies and speculations in news coverage can be attributed to several barriers between the scientific community and the general public that include lack of knowledge by reporters, lack of time to prepare a proper report, lack of space in the publication.
Most news articles fail to discuss important issues such as evidence quality and risks versus benefits. However, medical journalism is not only what is being commercialized and covered by news and mass media. There is another extensive, more academic branch of medical journalism, based on evidence. Evidence-based research is more accurate and thus it is a much more reliable source than medical news disseminated by tabloids. Medical journalism in this regard is a professional field and is disregarded. There are some medical journalism institutions that provide assistance to medical researchers to enable them to perform more reliable studies. A 2009 study found small improvements in some areas of medical reporting in Australia, but the overall quality remained poor in commercial human-interest television programs. More the use of medical writers has become more popular as a way to produce medical literature, clear and easier to read by the lay person; the ICMJE, International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, is a committee that deals with this kind of issue.
This organization is committed to keeping medical reporting as true as possible by setting a standard known as URM, or the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts. These requirements do not only specify technical points such as bibliographical references and copyrights but regarding ethical issues that may arise. For example, a submitter must disclose any personal or professional relationships that might slightly have a bearing on the submitted work. To this end, it is not uncommon for researchers to hold a press conference or interviews before publishing significant research to prevent any misconstruing of any data or methods. A large gap divides the scientific and journalist communities when it comes to deciding what is newsworthy; the ongoing nature of peer review in the scientific community makes it difficult to report interesting advances in scientific discovery. This can create a focus on the negative aspects of medicine and science. However, journalists are not the only ones to fault as scientists have broadcast their promising initial research to the media in attempts to secure future funding.
For example, research done by George Washington University in 1993 on in-vitro fertilization was warped by the media into a horrific foray into human cloning. Medical journalists face challenges due to potential conflicts of interest; the pharmaceutical industry has sponsored journalism contests that carry large prizes in cash or in overseas trips. The Association of Health Care Journalists urges journalists to consider these contests before entering, most journalists avoid them; the Center for Excellence in Health Care Journalism, the supporting 501 for AHCJ, does not accept industry funding. The National Association of Science Writers does not accept such funding; the changing nature of news media has caused more reporters to work freelance, outside of traditional news organizations such as major metropolitan newspapers, which may have created more ways to sidestep conflict-of-interest standards, the rise of blogs has allowed nontraditional providers of news that lack these standards entirely.
There is the effect of direct corporate investments in research funding. While appreciated by scientists, this may cause conflicts with journalists that see this as profiteering. Sources for evaluating health care media coverage include the review websites Behind the Headlines, Health News Review, Media Doctor, along with specialized academic journals such as the Journal of Health Communication. Reviews can appear in the American Journal of Public Health, the Columbia Journalism Review, Ben Goldacre's "Bad Science" column in The Guardian, others. Health News Review has published criteria for rating news stories. Although medical news articles deliver public health messages they convey wrong or misleading information about health care when reporters do not know or cannot convey the results of clinical studies, when they fail to supply reasonable context; this can result in unrealistic expectations due to coverage of radical medical procedures and experimental technology. Mass media news outlets can create a "communications storm" to shift attention to a single health issue.