A vertical and/or short take-off and landing aircraft is an airplane able to take-off or land vertically or on short runways. Vertical takeoff and landing aircraft are a subset of V/STOL craft that do not require runways at all. A V/STOL aircraft needs to be able to hover. Helicopters are not considered under the V/STOL classification as the classification is only used for airplanes, aircraft that achieve lift in forward flight by planing the air, thereby achieving speed and fuel efficiency, greater than the capability of helicopters. Most V/STOL aircraft types were outright failures from the 1950s to 1970s. V/STOL aircraft types that have been produced in large numbers include the Harrier, Yak-38 Forger and V-22 Osprey. A rolling takeoff, sometimes with a ramp, reduces the amount of thrust required to lift an aircraft from the ground, hence increases the payload and range that can be achieved for a given thrust. For instance, the Harrier is incapable of taking off vertically with fuel load. Hence V/STOL aircraft use a runway if it is available.
I.e. short takeoff and vertical landing or conventional takeoff and landing operation is preferred to VTOL operation. V/STOL was developed to allow fast jets to be operated from clearings in forests, from short runways, from small aircraft carriers that would only have been able to carry helicopters; the main advantage of V/STOL aircraft is closer basing to the enemy, which reduces response time and tanker support requirements. In the case of the Falklands War, it permitted high-performance fighter air cover and ground attack without a large aircraft carrier equipped with aircraft catapult; this is a partial list. Hawker P.1127/Kestrel/Harrier. Bell XF-109 Bell 65 EWR VJ 101 AgustaWestland AW609 AgustaWestland Project Zero technology demonstrator Bell XV-3 Bell XV-15 Bell-Boeing V-22 Osprey Curtiss-Wright X-19 – four rotating propellers, tilt-wing. Canadair CL-84 Dynavert, two turboprop tilt-wing LTV XC-142 four-engine tilt-wing cross-shafted turboprop Bell X-22 rotating ducted propellers. Small transport prototype.
Smaller than V-22 Osprey. Hiller X-18 Dornier Do 31 Jet transport with podded vector nozzles and lift engines Kamov Ka-22 Lockheed XV-4 Hummingbird Dassault Balzac V Dassault Mirage IIIV the first VTOL capable of supersonic flight Ryan XV-5. Fans in wings driven by engine exhaust gas. VFW VAK 191B Attack fighter similar to Harrier but supersonic dash speed, smaller wings and lift engines. Flown, but not operational. Yakovlev Yak-38 Yakovlev Yak-141 Short SC.1 Although many aircraft have been proposed and built, with a few being tested, the F-35B is the first and only supersonic V/STOL aircraft to have reached operational service, having entered service in 2016. Bell D-188A Mach 2 swivelling engines, mockup stage EWR VJ 101 Mach 2 fighter, flown to Mach 1.04 but not operational Dassault Mirage IIIV Delta wing Mach 2 fighter with lift engines, first VTOL capable of supersonic and Mach 2 flight, not operational Hawker Siddeley P.1154 M1.7 Supersonic Harrier. It was not completed Rockwell XFV-12 Built with complex "window blind" wings but could not lift its own weight Yakovlev Yak-141 Lift engines plus swivel tailpipe Lockheed Martin X-35B / F-35B uses a vectored-thrust tailpipe plus a shaft-driven lifting fan.
It is the first aircraft capable of demonstrating transition from short take-off to supersonic flight to vertical landing on the same sortie. V/STOL Wheel of Misfortune
Ace Combat 7: Skies Unknown
Ace Combat 7: Skies Unknown is a combat flight action video game developed and published by Bandai Namco Entertainment. An entry in the long-running Ace Combat series, it was released for the PlayStation 4 and Xbox One in January 2019, for Microsoft Windows the following month; the game features support for virtual reality. The game takes place in the same fictional universe as the previous numbered games in the series. Following the events of Ace Combat 04 and Ace Combat 5, the Osean Federation brokered peace between the military power of Erusea and the rest of the Usean continent; the IUN was formed to maintain peace across the Usean continent, while former President Vincent Harling orders a space elevator funded off the Erusean coast in order to revitalize the continent's economy. However, the space elevator creates resentment among the Eruseans, who see it as unnecessary Osean intervention; the players control callsign "Trigger", an Osean pilot. To further unfold the story, the game plays audio communications that Trigger cannot hear.
The game's frame story is told through pre-rendered cutscenes played between missions focused around the point of view of two biased characters: Avril Mead, a civilian aircraft mechanic, caught in the crossfire of the war's opening salvoes and forced to work in an Osean penal military unit. The game features a several other voiced characters with their own small side stories, including Princess Rosa Cosette D'Elise, General Labarthe, Major McOnie as well as pilots of the Mage, Spare, Strider and Sol squadrons; as the game progresses, the characters' stories intersect with each other and with Trigger's story to reveal the true nature behind the war. Rising tensions between the Osean Federation and the Kingdom of Erusea culminates when Erusea declares war on Osea. Erusea launches a surprise attack using a massive number of combat drones against Osean military targets, captures much of the Usean continent, including the International Space Elevator, as well as two gigantic airborne drone carriers protecting the ISEV known as Arsenal Birds.
During a mission to extract former Osean president Vincent Harling from the ISEV, an Osean missile hits Harling's aircraft, killing him. Osean pilot Trigger is accused of firing the missile, found guilty by court martial, is transferred to 444th Fighter Squadron "Spare", a penal military unit which Avril works for. Considered "expendable" by the Osean military, they are sent on several dangerous missions. Trigger crosses paths with Erusean ace Mihaly A. Shilage, who provides flight data to the Erusean drone program headed by Belkan scientist Schroeder. For his commendable performance, Trigger is pardoned and transferred to the Long Range Strategic Strike Group of the Osean Air Force and given command of Strider squadron. Assisted by the LRSSG, Osea mounts a series of counter-offensives, destroying one of the Arsenal Birds with Stonehenge; as Osea attempts to capture the Erusean capital of Farbanti, Trigger duels Mihaly again. However and Erusea destroys each others' satellite network during the battle, causing a chain reaction that breaks down global communication networks.
Mihaly escapes. Operating independently, LRSSG attempts to extract Osean informant Labarthe. Labarthe reveals that the war was instigated by Erusean radicals empowered by drone technology, that Harling was killed by an Erusean drone that spoofed Osean IFF signals. Due to the communications breakdown, Labarthe is killed by other Osean forces. Abandoned by Osean forces, Avril escapes from the battlefield and finds Erusean Princess Cosette, whose escort was shot down by rebels. Avril and Cosette bands with refugees and heads to the ISEV. Trigger duels Mihaly for a final time. Schroeder brings Mihaly's flight data to the ISEV, intending to transmit it to automated drone factories across the continent. Mihaly's granddaughter Ionela destroys the data upon learning of his intentions, but not before Schroeder had uploaded it to two next-generation drones and Munin. Disillusioned by the destructive war his program had caused, Schroeder agrees to assist Avril and Ionela in taking down the drones' construction facilities, but admits that he can do nothing about the data, uploaded.
A coalition of Osean and Erusean forces, aided by Cosette and Avril, launches an attack on the ISEV, seizing it from Erusean radicals and bringing down the second Arsenal Bird. Hugin and Munin arrives at the ISEV and repels the coalition forces, intending to complete the data transmission and prolong the war. Trigger leads the coalition forces to fight back against the drones. One is shot down. Trigger gives chase and destroys it ending the war. Announced in 2015 and set to be released in 2017, Ace Combat 7: Skies Unknown was released for the PlayStation 4 and Xbox One on January 18, 2019, was released for Microsoft Windows on February 1, 2019; the game features special missions in virtual reality, which will be exclusive to PlayStation VR for a year. Two-player local multiplayer was rumored to have been included, but was not present in the final game; the game is the first of the series to use Unreal Engine 4. Pre-orders for the game came with digital copies of Ace Combat 5: The Unsung War for the PlayStation 4, Ace Combat 6: Fires of Liberation on the Xbox One.
The game will include some downloadable content, such as three new
Ace Combat: Joint Assault
Ace Combat: Joint Assault, or Ace Combat X²: Joint Assault in Japan, is a 2010 3D arcade, combat flight video game developed by Access Games and published by Namco Bandai Games for the PlayStation Portable. It is the second in the series released for the PlayStation Portable and the fourth for a portable platform, it is the first game in the Ace Combat franchise to be set in the real world. The game was released on August 26, 2010 in Japan, on August 31, in North America, in Europe on September 24; the game features both a single-player mode as well as a multiplayer mode supporting ad hoc and Infrastructure mode. The game features a co-operative campaign which can be played with up to four players as well as a competitive multiplayer mode supporting up to eight players; some missions in the campaign will make use of the Joint Assault Mission System, which breaks the players into teams and has them coordinate attacks where each effort can affect the other team's situation. A new feature of the game is the Enhanced Combat View mechanic, which removes the distanced fighting seen in every flight simulation game.
Joint Assault features more than 40 licensed aircraft types, plus fictional aircraft from previous installments in the series Ace Combat X: Skies of Deception. Propeller planes will be available for the first time in the series, with players being able to unlock the F6F-5 Hellcat and the A6M Zero. Frequent use of each aircraft allows the player to unlock more weapons, tune-up parts, paint schemes, new emblems; the game's official superfighter is the GAF-1 Varcolac. Players assume the role of a pilot freshly hired by a private military company called Martinez Security; the unnamed pilot is assigned to Antares Squadron under the command of Major Frederick Burford. Another squadron within the company, has Milosz Sulejmani, Daniel Oruma, Faryd Gaviria, Kiriakov; the game's antagonists are Col Nicolae Dumitrescu and international insurance businessman Andre Olivieri. The game is set sometime after the global financial crisis. Off Midway Island, the player begins his first day on the job flying with Martinez Security in an exercise involving the US 7th Fleet and the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force.
After a successful practice run, several unidentified bandits appear from the east and head due west. Burford breaks the news that the bandits, now known as the "Valahia," are attacking Tokyo and the 7th Fleet is seeking Martinez Security's help; the defense of Tokyo is a success, with the destruction of the Valahia's Orgoi flying fortress and heavy damage being dealt to a larger airborne fortress called the Spiridus. Antares Squadron helps the SDF fend off Valahia attacks at the Boso Peninsula and over the Izu Islands. In the midst of the action, the Rigel Squadron defects to the Valahia and leave Tokyo upon considering a lucrative offer by leader Col Nicolae Dumitrescu. Embarrassed by the defection, Martinez Security joins the International Union Peacekeeping Force in stopping all Valahia activity around the world, starting with operations in the Middle East and the Balkans. During missions over Croatia and Serbia, the player fends off an attack from Rigel Squadron, now calling themselves the Varcolac Squadron.
The crackdown is given an added boost. Dimitrescu announces that the Valahia have captured several former Soviet ballistic missile silos in Central Asia; as the IUPF prepares to attack the silos, the player is ordered to pilot Andre Olivieri's personal Boeing 747-200B over Valahia-controlled territory. As Antares Squadron destroys the silos and eliminates the Valahia threat, the player discovers that Olivieri used his insurance earnings to finance the Valahia and the IUPF's operations, preparing for an operation named Golden Axe, scheduled to take place over San Francisco, it is revealed that the attacks themselves are part of a plan for Olivieri to establish a monopoly over the global insurance market. He orders the Valahia eliminated because they went rogue on him with plans to establish a new nation. Antares Squadron, which reorganizes at Midway after the silo attack, is attacked by the Golden Axe forces in an attempt to prevent them from stopping the operation. In a final series of missions over Nevada and the Bay Area, Antares engages the rest of the Golden Axe forces and the Varcolac Squadron.
After eliminating the Varcolac team, the player is sent to destroy Olivieri's underground data center at his company's headquarters in downtown San Francisco. The data center is destroyed, Olivieri is killed in the blast, ending any further schemes of the Golden Axe Plan to foment more conflict. In the aftermath of the Battle of San Francisco, Olivieri's plans are exposed to the public, the Antares Squadron continues to defend the skies; the game was announced by Namco Bandai on January 12, 2010, however screenshots had been leaked a day before on IGN. The game went gold on August 13, 2010. Reception to the game has been mixed. GameSpot and IGN stated that the game's story was not as dramatic as those from previous titles, its saving grace is the co-operative play options and the easy access to new rewards. Gamesradar cited the PSP's control options as a letdown compared to console versions, but lauded the Joint Assault system as an idea worth seeing in future games with Assault Horizon. GameFan reviewer Christopher Bowen said the campaign was tedious and the online cooperative system is better off on the console versions.
G4tv.com gave the game a 4/5 score. Official Japanese Website Official European Website
The PlayStation Portable is a handheld game console, developed by Sony Computer Entertainment and competed with the Nintendo DS as part of the seventh generation of video-game consoles. Development of the handheld console was announced during E3 2003 and it was unveiled on May 11, 2004, at a Sony press conference before the next E3; the system was released in Japan on December 12, 2004. The PSP was the most powerful portable console, it was the first real competitor of Nintendo's handheld consoles after many challengers, such as SNK's Neo Geo Pocket and Nokia's N-Gage, had failed. Its advanced graphics made the PSP a popular mobile-entertainment device, which can connect to the PlayStation 2 and PlayStation 3 games consoles, computers running Microsoft Windows and Apple Macintosh software, other PSPs and the Internet; the PSP is the only handheld console to use an optical disc format – Universal Media Disc – as its primary storage medium. It was received positively by most video-game critics and sold 76 million units by 2012.
Several models of the console were released. The PSP line was succeeded by the PlayStation Vita, released in December 2011 in Japan and worldwide in February 2012; the Vita has backward compatibility with many PSP games that were released on the PlayStation Network through the PlayStation Store, which became the main method of purchasing PSP games after Sony shut down access to the PlayStation Store from PSPs on March 31, 2016. Hardware shipments ended worldwide in 2014. Production of UMDs ended when the last Japanese factory making them closed in late 2016. Sony Computer Entertainment first announced development of the PlayStation Portable at a press conference preceding E3 2003. Although samples were not presented, Sony released extensive technical details. CEO Jose Villeta called the device the "Walkman of the 21st century". Several gaming websites were impressed with the handheld's computing capabilities and looked forward to its potential as a gaming platform. In the 1990s, Nintendo had dominated the handheld market since launching its Game Boy in 1989, experiencing close competition only from Bandai's WonderSwan in Japan and Sega's Game Gear.
In January 1999, Sony had released the successful PocketStation in Japan as its first foray into the handheld gaming market. The SNK Neo Geo Pocket and Nokia's N-Gage failed to cut into Nintendo's share. According to an IDC analyst in 2004, the PSP was the "first legitimate competitor to Nintendo's dominance in the handheld market"; the first concept images of the PSP appeared in November 2003 at a Sony corporate strategy meeting and showed it having flat buttons and no analog joystick. Although some reviewers expressed concern about the lack of an analog stick, these fears were allayed when the PSP was unveiled at the Sony press conference during E3 2004. Sony released a list of 99 developer companies. Several game demos such as Konami's Metal Gear Acid and SCE Studio Liverpool's Wipeout Pure were shown at the conference. On October 17, 2004, Sony announced that the PSP base model would be launched in Japan on December 12 that year for ¥19,800 while the Value System would launch for ¥24,800.
The launch was a success. Color variations were sold in bundle packs that cost around $200. Sony announced on February 3, 2005, that the PSP would go on sale in North America on March 24 in one configuration for an MSRP of US$249/CA$299; some commentators expressed concern over the high price, US$20 higher than that of the Japanese model and more than $100 higher than the Nintendo DS. Despite these concerns, the PSP's North American launch was a success. Sony said 500,000 units were sold in the first two days, though it was reported that this figure was below expectations; the PSP was intended to have a simultaneous PAL region and North American launch, but on March 15, 2005, Sony announced that the PAL region launch would be delayed because of high demand for the console in Japan and North America. The next month it announced that the PSP would be launched in the PAL region on September 1, 2005, for €249/£179. Sony defended the high price by saying North American consumers had to pay local sales taxes and that the Value Added Tax was higher in the UK than the US.
Despite the high price, the console's PAL region launch was a success, selling more than 185,000 units in the UK. All stock of the PSP in the UK sold out within three hours of launch, more than doubling the previous first-day sales record of 87,000 units set by the Nintendo DS; the system enjoyed great success in other areas of the PAL region. The PlayStation Portable uses the common "bar" form factor; the original model measures 6.7 by 2.9 by 0.9 inches and weighs 9.9 ounces. The front of the console is dominated by the system's 4.3-inch LCD screen, capable of 480 × 272 pixel video playback with 24-bit color, outperforming the Nintendo DS. On the unit's front are four PlayStation face buttons; the system has two shoulder buttons, a USB 2.0 mini-B port on the top of the console, a WLAN switch and power cable input on the bottom. The back of the PSP features a read-only Universal Media Disc drive for access to movies a
Australasia comprises Australia, New Zealand, some neighbouring islands. It is used in a number of different contexts including geopolitically, physiographically, ecologically where the term covers several different but related regions. Charles de Brosses coined the term in Histoire des navigations, he derived it from the Latin for "south of Asia" and differentiated the area from Polynesia and the southeast Pacific. In Australia "Australasia" is considered to be Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea, the neighbouring islands of the Pacific, while in New Zealand it means Australia, New Zealand and former New Zealand dependencies. Richards, Kel. "Australasia". Wordwatch. ABC News Radio. Retrieved 2006-09-30. Media related to Australasia at Wikimedia Commons
Search and destroy
Search and Destroy and Destroy, or simply S&D, refers to a military strategy that became a large component of the Malayan Emergency and the Vietnam War. The idea was to insert ground forces into hostile territory, search out the enemy, destroy them, withdraw afterward; the strategy was the result of a new technology, the helicopter, which resulted in a new form of warfare, the fielding of air cavalry, was thought to be ideally suited to counter-guerrilla jungle warfare. The complementary conventional strategy, which entailed attacking and conquering an enemy position fortifying and holding it indefinitely, was known as "clear and hold" or "clear and secure." In theory, since the traditional methods of "taking ground" could not be used in this war, a war of attrition would be used, eliminating the enemy by the use of "searching" for them "destroying" them, the "body count" would be the measuring tool to determine the success of the strategy of "search and destroy." The British conducted search and destroy operations in effort to flush out communist insurgents in the jungles during the early years of the Malayan Emergency.
The Ferret Force, formed in 1948, became an important intelligence provider to the British military. The objective was to contact with native locals and intelligence as to the whereabouts of communist insurgents. With the information the captured persons provided, British troops would use search and destroy as a tactic in effort to flush out the insurgents. Once the communist guerrillas had been flushed out by search and destroy missions, they would be harried by denial of food and medical supplies by surrendered enemy personnel willing to cooperate with the British, induced to surrender, tempted into betrayal, or killed off by a precise military strike an ambush. In the end, many British officials suspected that the search and destroy worked out poorly because the way it was conducted was in a brutalized way. British troops set fire to villages accused of supporting the insurgents, detaining thousands of suspected collaborators, in order to deny the insurgents cover. British units that discovered civilians providing assistance to insurgents were to detain and interrogate them to discover the location of insurgent camps.
Insurgents had numerous advantages over British forces. British forces thus faced a dual threat: the insurgents and the silent network in villages who, willingly or unwillingly, supported them. While the insurgents sought out contact with British forces, they used terrorist tactics to intimidate civilians and elicit material support. British troops described the terror of jungle patrols. Many patrols would stay in the jungle for days weeks, without encountering the enemy and without warning, insurgents would ambush them. British forces, unable to distinguish from friend to foe, had to adjust to the constant risk of an insurgent attack; such instances led to the infamous incident at Batang Kali in which 24 unarmed villagers were killed by British troops. Search and destroy became an offensive tool, crucial to General William Westmoreland's second phase during the Vietnam War. In his three-phase strategy, the first was to tie down the Viet Cong, the second phase was to resume the offensive and destroy the enemy, the third phase was to restore the area under South Vietnamese government control.
Most Zippo missions were assigned to the second phase around 1966 and 1967, along with clear-and-secure operations. Search-and-destroy missions entailed sending out platoons, companies, or larger detachments of US troops from a fortified position to locate and destroy communist units in the countryside; these missions most involved hiking out into the "boonies" and setting an ambush in the brush, near a suspected Viet Cong trail. The ambush involved the use of fixed Claymore antipersonnel mines, crossing lines of small arms fire, mortar support, additional artillery support called in via radio from a nearby fire support base. In February 1967, some of the largest Zippo missions were conducted in the Iron Triangle, between Saigon and Routes 13 and 25; the area had a mass centre of Viet Cong logistics and headquarters, with some of the most high-ranking NLF officials stationed there. The offensive began with Operation Junction City, where the American units assigned had destroyed hundreds of tons of rice, killed 720 guerrillas, captured 213 prisoners.
However, the number of defenders in the Iron Triangle area was thought to be over 10,000. The offensive failed to destroy the NLF's headquarters or to capture any high-ranking officers and so it had little effect toward Hanoi's plan. Both search-and-destroy and clear-and-hold missions stretched into the third phase, which began in 1968; the number of missions mounted after the US was hit by General Võ Nguyên Giáp's Tet offensive in 1968. As the war grew more aggressive, so did the missions, search-and-destroy and clear-and-secure operations became merged. Search-and-destroy missions had many flaws. First, there was lack of distinction between search-and-destroy missions. Thus, clearing missions, which were less aggressive morphed into a more violent and brutal form of tactic, just as search-and-destroy missions were. With the lack of distinction between and search-and-destroy missions, pacification was