Confederate States of America
The Confederate States of America referred to as the Confederacy, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865. The Confederacy was formed by seven secessionist slave-holding states—South Carolina, Florida, Georgia and Texas—in the Lower South region of the United States, whose economy was dependent upon agriculture cotton, a plantation system that relied upon the labor of African-American slaves; each state declared its secession from the United States, which became known as the Union during the ensuing civil war, following the November 1860 election of Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln to the U. S. presidency on a platform which opposed the expansion of slavery into the western territories. Before Lincoln took office in March, a new Confederate government was established in February 1861, considered illegal by the government of the United States. States volunteered militia units and the new government hastened to form its own Confederate States Army from scratch overnight.
After the American Civil War began in April, four slave states of the Upper South—Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina—also declared their secession and joined the Confederacy. The Confederacy accepted Missouri and Kentucky as members, although neither declared secession nor were they largely controlled by Confederate forces; the government of the United States rejected the claims of secession and considered the Confederacy illegally founded. The War began with the Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861, a Union fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. No foreign government recognized the Confederacy as an independent country, although Great Britain and France granted it belligerent status, which allowed Confederate agents to contract with private concerns for arms and other supplies. In early 1865, after four years of heavy fighting which led to 620,000–850,000 military deaths, all the Confederate forces surrendered and the Confederacy vanished; the war lacked a formal end.
By 1865 Jefferson Davis, the President of the Confederate States of America for the duration of the civil war, lamented that the Confederacy had "disappeared". On February 22, 1862, the Confederate Constitution of seven state signatories – Mississippi, South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia and Texas – replaced the Provisional Constitution of February 8, 1861, with one stating in its preamble a desire for a "permanent federal government". Four additional slave-holding states – Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina – declared their secession and joined the Confederacy following a call by U. S. President Abraham Lincoln for troops from each state to recapture Sumter and other seized federal properties in the South. Missouri and Kentucky were represented by partisan factions adopting the forms of state governments without control of substantial territory or population in either case; the antebellum state governments in both maintained their representation in the Union. Fighting for the Confederacy were two of the "Five Civilized Tribes" – the Choctaw and the Chickasaw – in Indian Territory and a new, but uncontrolled, Confederate Territory of Arizona.
Efforts by certain factions in Maryland to secede were halted by federal imposition of martial law. A Unionist government was formed in opposition to the secessionist state government in Richmond and administered the western parts of Virginia, occupied by Federal troops; the Restored Government recognized the new state of West Virginia, admitted to the Union during the war on June 20, 1863, re-located to Alexandria for the rest of the war. Confederate control over its claimed territory and population in congressional districts shrank from 73% to 34% during the course of the American Civil War due to the Union's successful overland campaigns, its control of the inland waterways into the South, its blockade of the southern coast. With the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, the Union made abolition of slavery a war goal; as Union forces moved southward, large numbers of plantation slaves were freed. Many joined the Union lines, enrolling in service as soldiers and laborers; the most notable advance was Sherman's "March to the Sea" in late 1864.
Much of the Confederacy's infrastructure was destroyed, including telegraphs and bridges. Plantations in the path of Sherman's forces were damaged. Internal movement became difficult for Southerners, weakening the economy and limiting army mobility; these losses created an insurmountable disadvantage in men and finance. Public support for Confederate President Jefferson Davis's administration eroded over time due to repeated military reverses, economic hardships, allegations of autocratic government. After four years of campaigning, Richmond was captured by Union forces in April 1865. A few days General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant signalling the collapse of the Confederacy. President Davis was captured on May 10, 1865, jailed in preparation for a treason trial, never held; the initial Confederacy was established in the Montgomery Convention in February 1861 by seven states (South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana
Texas Historical Commission
The Texas Historical Commission is an agency dedicated to historic preservation within the state of Texas. It administers the National Register of Historic Places for sites in Texas; the commission identifies Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks and recognizes them with Official Texas Historical Marker medallions and descriptive plaques. The commission identifies Historic Texas Cemeteries. A quarterly publication, The Medallion, is published by the agency and includes news and advice about preservation projects, Texas’ historic sites, heritage tourism opportunities; the agency maintains the online Texas Historic Sites Atlas featuring more than 300,000 site records, including data on Official Texas Historical Markers and National Register of Historic Places properties in Texas. The commission has main offices in the Capitol Complex in downtown Austin. Established in 1953, the state legislature created the Texas State Historical Survey Committee to oversee state historical programs; the legislature revised the agency’s enabling statute to give it additional protective powers, expand its leadership role and educational responsibilities, changed its name to the Texas Historical Commission.
In 2007, the legislature transferred management of 20 state historic sites from the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department to the THC. Today, the agency employs about 200 personnel; the Texas Historical Commission leadership is composed of 18 members appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the senate, serving overlapping six-year terms. All members must be citizens of Texas, together represent all geographical areas of Texas; the commission employs personnel in various fields, including archeology, economic development, heritage tourism, public administration and urban planning. These personnel consult with citizens and organizations to preserve Texas's architectural and cultural landmarks of balls and vagains The agency includes the following divisions dedicated to overseeing the agency's programs: Administration Architecture Community Heritage Development Historic Sites History Programs Public Information and Education Staff ServicesThere are several boards associated with the Texas Historical Commission: The State Board of Review The Antiquities Advisory Board The Guardians of Texas Preservation Trust Fund The Advisory Board of the Texas Preservation Trust Fund The Main Street Interagency Council The Texas Historical Commission administers this statewide heritage tourism program.
This program is based in the ten scenic driving regions that Texas Department of Transportation and Gov. John Connally designated in 1968 in connection with the World's fair in San Antonio, called HemisFair'68. After the fair, these trails were all but forgotten; the Texas Historical Commission began its program based on these historical designations in 1998, starting with the Texas Forts Trail. The goal of the program is to promote historic preservation; the THC divides Texas into 10 heritage regions: Texas Brazos Trail Texas Forest Trail Texas Forts Trail Texas Hill Country Trail Texas Independence Trail Texas Lakes Trail Texas Mountain Trail Texas Pecos Trail Texas Plains Trail Texas Tropical TrailIn 2005 the Heritage Trails Program won the Preserve America Presidential Award for exemplary accomplishment in the preservation and sustainable use of America's heritage assets, which has enhanced community life while honoring the nation's history. The Texas Historical Commission operates 22 state historic sites across Texas.
These unique places inspire an understanding of what it means to be a Texan. From American Indian sites to frontier forts to common and elegant homes and the leaders and statesmen who lived in them, these sites enrich people’s lives through history. Fort Griffin is home to the official State of Texas Longhorn Herd. Sponsors may apply for official historical markers through their county historical commissions; the purpose of the markers, which are available in a variety of types and sizes, is to educate the public. An application must meet certain requirements to be approved by the THC commissioners as qualifying for a marker. Beginning in November 2006, the Texas Historical Commission adopted a new marker program; the following are some of the major changes to the program: All applications are to be submitted electronically There is now an annual application deadline An application fee is required The inscription process has been reworkedAs of 2007, there are over 13,000 Official Texas Historical Markers placed throughout the state.
Texas has the most prolific state historical marker program in the United States. One of the devotees of the expanded historical marker program was Rupert N. Richardson, the Texas historian who served as a THC member from 1953–1967 and was from 1943-1953 the president of Hardin-Simmons University in Abilene; the Historical Markers have been manufactured by The Southwell Company, located in San Antonio, Texas. In 1936 the company was awarded the contract to manufacture all of the bronze historical markers for the Texas Centennial. Since thousands of cast aluminum historical markers have been provided for the State of Texas. In 1976, the company was selected to manufacture all of the historical markers for the Bicentennial. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark is the highest designation given by the Texas Historic Commission for significant structures in Texas; the THC may designate certain locations as State Antiquities Landmarks provided that they are not located on federal lands. These locations may fall i
Clubs is one of the four suits of playing cards in the standard French deck. It corresponds to the suit of Acorns in a German deck, its original French name is Trèfle which means "clover" and the card symbol depicts a three-leafed clover leaf. The Italian name is Fiori; the English name "Clubs" is derived from the suit of Bastoni in Italian-Spanish suited cards. In Germany, this suit is known as Kreuz in the International Skat Regulations. In Austria, by contrast, it is exclusively called Treff, a reference to the French name in the game of Bridge, where French names predominate, for example Cœur is used instead of Herz. In Skat and Doppelkopf, Clubs are the highest-ranked suit. In Bridge, Clubs are the lowest suit; the symbol for the suit of Clubs depicts a stylised three-leaf clover with its stalk oriented downwards. The suit of Clubs is black in colour. However, the suit may be green, for example as sometimes used in Bridge; the gallery below shows a suit of Clubs from a French suited deck of 52 cards.
Not shown is the Knight of Clubs used in tarot card games: The symbol ♣ is in the CP437 and thus part of Windows WGL4. In Unicode a black ♣ and a white ♧ Club symbol are defined
Waco is a city in central Texas and is the county seat of McLennan County, United States. It is situated along I-35, halfway between Dallas and Austin; the city had a 2010 population of 124,805. The 2017 US Census population estimate is 136,436 The Waco Metropolitan Statistical Area consists of McLennan and Falls Counties, which had a 2010 population of 234,906. Falls County was added to the Waco MSA in 2013; the 2017 US Census population estimate for the Waco MSA is 268,696. Indigenous peoples occupied areas along the river for thousands of years. In historic times, the area of present-day Waco was occupied by the Wichita Indian tribe known as the "Waco". In 1824, Thomas M. Duke was sent to explore the area after the Waco people tried to defend themselves and their lands from settlers, his report to Stephen F. Austin, described the Waco village: This town is situated on the West Bank of the River, they have a spring as cold as ice itself. All we want is some Sugar to have Ice Toddy, they have about 400 acres planted in corn, beans and melons and that tended in good order.
I think. After further violence due to settler incursion, Austin halted an attempt to destroy their village in retaliation. In 1825, he made a treaty with them; the Waco were pushed out of the region, settling north near present-day Fort Worth. In 1872, they were forced onto a reservation in Oklahoma with other Wichita tribes. In 1902, the Waco became official US citizens. Neil McLennan settled in an area near the South Bosque River in 1838. Jacob De Cordova bought McLennan's property and hired a former Texas Ranger and surveyor named George B. Erath to inspect the area. In 1849, Erath designed the first block of the city. Property owners wanted to name the city Lamartine, but Erath convinced them to name the area Waco Village, after the Indians who had lived there. In March 1849, Shapley Ross built the first house in Waco, a double-log cabin, on a bluff overlooking the springs, his daughter Kate was the first settler child to be born in Waco. In 1866, Waco's leading citizens embarked on an ambitious project to build the first bridge to span the wide Brazos River.
They formed the Waco Bridge Company to build the 475-foot brick Waco Suspension Bridge, completed in 1870. The company commissioned a firm owned by John Augustus Roebling in Trenton, New Jersey, to supply the cables and steelwork for the bridge, contracted with Mr. Thomas M. Griffith, a civil engineer based in New York, for the supervisory engineering work on the bridge; the economic effects of the Waco bridge were large. The cowboys and cattle-herds following the Chisholm Trail north, crossed the Brazos River at Waco; some chose to pay the Suspension Bridge toll. The population of Waco grew as immigrants now had a safe crossing for their horse-drawn carriages and wagons. Since 1971, the bridge has been open only to pedestrian traffic and is in the National Register of Historic Places. In the late 19th century, a red-light district called the "Reservation" grew up in Waco, prostitution was regulated by the city; the Reservation was suppressed in the early 20th century. In 1885, the soft drink Dr Pepper was invented in Waco at Morrison's Old Corner Drug Store.
In 1845, Baylor University was founded in Texas. It merged with Waco University, becoming an integral part of the city; the university's Strecker Museum was the oldest continuously operating museum in the state until it closed in 2003, the collections were moved to the new Mayborn Museum Complex. In 1873, AddRan College was founded by brothers Randolph Clark in Fort Worth; the school moved to Waco in 1895, changing its name to Add-Ran Christian University and taking up residence in the empty buildings of Waco Female College. Add-Ran changed its name to Texas Christian University in 1902 and left Waco after the school's main building burned down in 1910. TCU was offered $200,000 by the city of Fort Worth to relocate there. In the 1890s, William Cowper Brann published the successful Iconoclast newspaper in Waco. One of his targets was Baylor University. Brann revealed that Baylor officials had been importing South American children recruited by missionaries and making house-servants out of them. Brann was shot in the back by a Baylor supporter.
Brann wheeled, drew his pistol, killed Davis. Brann was helped home by his friends, died there of his wounds. In 1894, the first Cotton Palace fair and exhibition center was built to reflect the dominant contribution of the agricultural cotton industry in the region. Since the end of the Civil War, cotton had been cultivated in the Brazos and Bosque valleys, Waco had become known nationwide as a top producer. Over the next 23 years, the annual exposition would welcome over eight million attendees; the opulent building which housed the month-long exhibition was destroyed by fire and rebuilt in 1910. In 1931, the exposition fell prey to the Great Depression, the building was torn down. However, the annual Cotton Palace Pageant continues, hosted in late April in conjunction with the Brazos River Festival. On September 15, 1896, "The Crash" took place about 15 miles north of Waco. "The Crash at Crush" was a publicity stunt done by the Missouri–Kansas–Texas Railroad company, featuring two locomotives intentionally set to a head-on collision.
Meant to be a family fun event with food and entertainment, the Crash turned deadly when both boilers exploded simul
The Italianate style of architecture was a distinct 19th-century phase in the history of Classical architecture. In the Italianate style, the models and architectural vocabulary of 16th-century Italian Renaissance architecture, which had served as inspiration for both Palladianism and Neoclassicism, were synthesised with picturesque aesthetics; the style of architecture, thus created, though characterised as "Neo-Renaissance", was of its own time. "The backward look transforms its object," Siegfried Giedion wrote of historicist architectural styles. The Italianate style was first developed in Britain in about 1802 by John Nash, with the construction of Cronkhill in Shropshire; this small country house is accepted to be the first Italianate villa in England, from, derived the Italianate architecture of the late Regency and early Victorian eras. The Italianate style was further developed and popularised by the architect Sir Charles Barry in the 1830s. Barry's Italianate style drew for its motifs on the buildings of the Italian Renaissance, though sometimes at odds with Nash's semi-rustic Italianate villas.
The style was not confined to England and was employed in varying forms, long after its decline in popularity in Britain, throughout Northern Europe and the British Empire. From the late 1840s to 1890 it achieved huge popularity in the United States, where it was promoted by the architect Alexander Jackson Davis. Key visual components of this style include: In interior decoration there were direct parallels to "Italianate" architecture with free re-combinations of decorative features drawn from Italian 16th-century architecture and objects, which were applied to purely 19th century forms. Wardrobes and dressers could be dressed in Italianate detailing as well as row houses; the spur to such commercial designs can be found in the "free Renaissance" style, espoused by Charles Eastlake. In 1868 he published Hints on Household Taste in Furniture and other Details, influential in Britain and in the United States, where the book was published in 1872. Although the archaeology of Mr. Eastlake's volume was always careful, most of the principles in it are beyond question, can be stated in a few words.
The Italianate style would have no carving or molding or other ornament glued on—such work must be done in the solid. The furniture that he thus proposed has straight, squarely cut members equal to their intention, its ornament is painted panels, porcelain plaques and tiles, metal trimmings, conventionalized carvings in sunk relief, a part of the construction entering into the ornament in the shape of narrow striated strips of wood radiating in opposite lines, after a fashion not altogether unknown in the time of Henry III. It has the solidity, but not the attraction, of the Medieval. Today "Italianate" furnishings are called "Eastlake" by American collectors and dealers, but contemporary terms ranged imaginatively, included "Neo-Grec". A late intimation of Nash's development of the Italianate style was his 1805 design of Sandridge Park at Stoke Gabriel in Devon. Commissioned by the dowager Lady Ashburton as a country retreat, this small country house shows the transition between the picturesque of William Gilpin and Nash's yet to be evolved Italianism.
While this house can still be described as Regency, its informal asymmetrical plan together with its loggias and balconies of both stone and wrought iron. Examples of the Italianate style in England tend to take the form of Palladian-style building enhanced by a belvedere tower complete with Renaissance-type balustrading at the roof level; this is a more stylistic interpretation of what architects and patrons imagined to be the case in Italy, utilises more the Italian Renaissance motifs than those earlier examples of the Italianate style by Nash. Sir Charles Barry, most notable for his works on the Tudor and Gothic styles at the Houses of Parliament in London, was a great promoter of the style. Unlike Nash he found his inspiration in Italy itself. Barry drew on the designs of the original Renaissance villas of Rome, the Lazio and the Veneto or as he put it: "...the charming character of the irregular villas of Italy." His most defining work in this style was the large Neo-Renaissance mansion Cliveden.
Although it has been claimed that one third of early Victorian country houses in England used classical styles Italianate, by 1855 the style was falling from favour and Cliveden came to be regarded as "a declining essay in a declining fashion."Anthony Salvin designed in the Italianate style in Wales, at Hafod House and Penoyre House, described by Mark Girouard as "Salvin's most ambitious classical house."Thomas Cubitt, a London building contractor, incorporated simple classical lines of the Italianate style as defined by Sir Char
Historic house museum
A historic house museum is a house, transformed into a museum. Historic furnishings may be displayed in a way that reflects their original placement and usage in a home. Historic house museums are held to a variety of standards, including those of the International Council of Museums; the International Council of Museums defines a museum as: "A museum as a non profit-making, permanent institution in the service of society and of its development, open to the public, which acquires, researches and exhibits, for purpose of study and enjoyment, the tangible and intangible evidence of people and their environment." Houses are transformed into museums for a number of different reasons. For example, the homes of famous writers are turned into writer's home museums to support literary tourism. Known as a ‘memory museum’, a term used to suggest that historic house museum contains a collection of the traces of memory of the people who once lived there, it is made up of the inhabitants’ belongings and objects – this approach is concerned with authenticity.
Some museums are organised around the social role the house had. Other historic house museums may be or reconstructed in order to tell the story of a particular area, social-class or historical period; the ‘narrative’ of the people who lived there guides this approach, dictates the manner in which it is completed. In each kind of museum visitors learn about the previous inhabitants through an explanation and exploration of Social History; the idea of a historic house museum derives from a branch of history called Social History, based on people and their way of living. It became popular in the mid-twentieth century among scholars who were interested in the history of people, as opposed to political and economical issues. Social history remains an influential branch of history. Philip J. Ethington is a Professor of history and political science, further adds to social history and its relationship to locations by saying – "All human action takes and makes place; the past is the set of places made by human action.
History is a map of these places." Following this historical movement, the concept of ‘Open Air Museums’ became prominent. These particular types of museums had interpreters in costume re-enact the lives of communities in earlier eras, which would be performed to modern audiences, they occupied large wooden architecture buildings or outdoor sites and landscapes, that were true to the era adding to authenticity. Collective memory is sometimes used in the resurrection of historic house museums; the notion of Collective Memory originated from philosopher and sociologist Maurice Halbwachs, in ‘La memoire collective’. This extended thesis examines the role of people and place, how collective memory is not only associated with the individual but is a shared experience, it focused on the way individual memory is influenced by social structures, as a way of continuing socialisation by producing memory as collective experience. "Each aspect, each detail, of this place has a meaning intelligent only to members of the group, for each portion of its space corresponds to various and different aspects of the structure and life of their society, at least of what is stable in it."An example of a site that utilizes collective memory is the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park in Japan.
It was restored and is based on the dialectics of memory, however it has the inclusion of joyous festivals to mask the turmoil. The ‘Hiroshima Traces’ text takes a look the importance of collective memory and how it is embedded in culture and place. Thus, collective memory does not only reside in a house or building, but it resonates in outdoor space – when a monumental event has occurred, such as war. "The taming of memory that can be observed in the city’s redevelopment projects reveals local mediations and manifestations of transnational as well as national structural forces."Problematic creation of collective memory occurs within historic house museums when the narrative of non-family members is dismissed, ignored, or rejected. Within the Southern United States, Plantation Museums constitute a significant portion of the museum community and contribute to the racialized collective memory of the United States; because museums are responsible for “the building of identity, cultural memory and community,” neglecting to include the narrative of ALL people who lived there is dangerous.
While some Plantation museum narratives have changed following an outcry from the public and the academy, “plantation museums reflect and contribute to racialized ways of understanding and organizing the world,” by eliminating and limiting the narrative of the enslaved inhabitants. A degree of authenticity is to be considered in the restoration and creation of a historic house museum; the space must be authentic in terms of replicating and representing the way it once stood in its original form and appear to be untouched and left in time. There are three steps when declaring if a space is authentic: Proof of identity must be presented and certified by a credible individual The attributes of the object or person must be compared to the existing knowledge about it Documentation and credentials must be used to support it and thus declare if it is authentic. There are a number of Organizations around the world that dedicate themselves to the preservation, resurrection or promotion of historic house museums.
They include: Historic Houses Trust of New South Wales Historic Houses Association The Historic House Trust
Tyler is the county seat of Smith County, located in east-central Texas, United States. The city of Tyler has long been Smith County's major economic, financial and cultural hub; the city is named for the tenth President of the United States. Tyler had a population of 96,900 in 2010, according to the United States Census Bureau, Tyler's 2017 estimated population was 104,991, it is 100 miles east-southeast of Dallas. Tyler is the principal city of the Tyler Metropolitan Statistical Area, which had a population of 209,714 in 2010, is the regional center of the Tyler-Jacksonville combined statistical area, which had a population of 260,559 in 2010. Tyler is known as the "Rose Capital of America", a nickname it earned from a long history of rose production and processing, it is home to the largest rose garden in the United States, a 14-acre public garden complex that has over 38,000 rose bushes of at least 500 different varieties. The Tyler Rose Garden is home to the annual Texas Rose Festival, attracting tourists by the thousands each year in mid-October.
Tyler is home to the Caldwell Zoo and Broadway Square Mall. As a regional educational and technology center, Tyler is the host for more than 20,000 higher-education students, a college of engineering, a university health science center, two regional hospital systems. In 1985, the international Adopt-a-Highway movement originated in Tyler. After appeals by local Texas Department of Transportation officials, the local Civitan chapter adopted a 2-mi stretch of U. S. Highway 69 to maintain. Drivers and other motorists traveling on this segment of US-69 will notice brown road signs that read, "First Adopt-A-Highway in the World." Tyler is located at 32°20′03″N 95°18′00″W at 544 feet above sea level. Tyler is surrounded by many smaller cities, including Whitehouse, New Chapel Hill, Edom, Kilgore and Chandler. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 54.4 square miles, of which 54.2 mi2 are land and 0.1 mi2 is covered by water. Tyler experiences weather typical of East Texas, unpredictable in the spring.
All of East Texas has the humid subtropical climate typical of the American South. The record high for Tyler is 115 °F, which occurred in 2011; the record low for Tyler is −3 °F, which occurred on January 18, 1930. As of the 2010 census, 96,900 people resided in the city of Texas; the population density was 1,782.0 people per square mile. The 41,742 housing units averaged a density of 716.7 per mi2. The racial makeup of the city was: 60.5% White, 24.8% Black, 0.5% Native American, 1.9% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 10.3% from other races, 2.0% from two or more races. About 21.2 % of the population were Latino of any race. The median income for the city was $42,752 and the poverty rate was 19.5%. Legal recognition of Tyler was initiated by an act of the state legislature on April 11, 1846. Texas authorized a county seat; the first plat designated a 28-block town site centered by a main square, located within a 100-acre tract acquired by Smith County on February 6, 1847. The new town was named for President John Tyler, who advocated for annexation of Texas by the United States.
A log building on the north side of the square functioned as courthouse and public meeting hall until it was displaced by a brick courthouse in 1852. On January 29, 1850, Tyler was incorporated. Early religious and social institutions included the First Baptist church and a Methodist church, a Masonic Lodge and an Odd Fellows Lodge, Tyler’s first newspaper. Though Tyler’s early economy was based on agriculture, it was well-diversified during this period. Logging was a second major industry, while complementary manufacturing included metal working, milling wood, leather tanning; as the seat of Smith County, the town benefited from government activity. The local agricultural economy relied on slave labor before the Civil War. By 1860, Tyler held over 1000 enslaved persons, which represented 35 percent of the town’s population. So there was strong support for secession and the Confederacy within Tyler, as a high percentage of its residents voted for secession and many of its men joined the Confederate Army.
The town was secure enough for the Confederacy to establish the largest ordnance plant in Texas. In 1870, the first bank in Tyler was established by Williams. Though both the Texas and Pacific Railroad and the International Railroad eschewed routes through Tyler, the town gained an important rail connection when the Houston and Great Northern built a branch line in 1874. Toward the end of the nineteenth century, fruit orchards emerged as an important new business in the regional economy. Eighty percent of the county agricultural revenue derived from cotton as it persisted as the dominant crop in the first decades of the twentieth century. Peaches were the principal fruit crop as the county fruit tree inventory surpassed one million by 1900. Disease struck the peach trees and local farmers moved toward growing roses by the 1920s. Twenty years most of the US rose supply originated in the Tyler area. According to the city's most recent Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the city's various funds had $87.7 million in revenues, $101.7 million in expenditures, $49.2 million in total assets, $12.3 million in total liabilities, $17.6 million in cash in investments.
The structure of the management and coordination of city services is: The Northeast Texas Public Health District is a political subdivision under the State