Greek mythology is the body of myths told by the ancient Greeks. These stories concern the origin and the nature of the world, the lives and activities of deities and mythological creatures, the origins and significance of the ancient Greeks' own cult and ritual practices. Modern scholars study the myths in an attempt to shed light on the religious and political institutions of ancient Greece and its civilization, to gain understanding of the nature of myth-making itself; the Greek myths were propagated in an oral-poetic tradition most by Minoan and Mycenaean singers starting in the 18th century BC. Two poems by Homer's near contemporary Hesiod, the Theogony and the Works and Days, contain accounts of the genesis of the world, the succession of divine rulers, the succession of human ages, the origin of human woes, the origin of sacrificial practices. Myths are preserved in the Homeric Hymns, in fragments of epic poems of the Epic Cycle, in lyric poems, in the works of the tragedians and comedians of the fifth century BC, in writings of scholars and poets of the Hellenistic Age, in texts from the time of the Roman Empire by writers such as Plutarch and Pausanias.
Aside from this narrative deposit in ancient Greek literature, pictorial representations of gods and mythic episodes featured prominently in ancient vase-paintings and the decoration of votive gifts and many other artifacts. Geometric designs on pottery of the eighth century BC depict scenes from the Trojan cycle as well as the adventures of Heracles. In the succeeding Archaic and Hellenistic periods and various other mythological scenes appear, supplementing the existing literary evidence. Greek mythology has had an extensive influence on the culture and literature of Western civilization and remains part of Western heritage and language. Poets and artists from ancient times to the present have derived inspiration from Greek mythology and have discovered contemporary significance and relevance in the themes. Greek mythology is known today from Greek literature and representations on visual media dating from the Geometric period from c. 900 BC to c. 800 BC onward. In fact and archaeological sources integrate, sometimes mutually supportive and sometimes in conflict.
Mythical narration plays an important role in nearly every genre of Greek literature. The only general mythographical handbook to survive from Greek antiquity was the Library of Pseudo-Apollodorus; this work attempts to reconcile the contradictory tales of the poets and provides a grand summary of traditional Greek mythology and heroic legends. Apollodorus of Athens wrote on many of these topics, his writings may have formed the basis for the collection. Among the earliest literary sources are the Iliad and the Odyssey. Other poets completed the "epic cycle", but these and lesser poems now are lost entirely. Despite their traditional name, the "Homeric Hymns" have no direct connection with Homer, they are choral hymns from the earlier part of the so-called Lyric age. Hesiod, a possible contemporary with Homer, offers in his Theogony the fullest account of the earliest Greek myths, dealing with the creation of the world. Hesiod's Works and Days, a didactic poem about farming life includes the myths of Prometheus and the Five Ages.
The poet gives advice on the best way to succeed in a dangerous world, rendered yet more dangerous by its gods. Lyrical poets took their subjects from myth, but their treatment became less narrative and more allusive. Greek lyric poets, including Pindar and Simonides, bucolic poets such as Theocritus and Bion, relate individual mythological incidents. Additionally, myth was central to classical Athenian drama; the tragic playwrights Aeschylus and Euripides took most of their plots from myths of the age of heroes and the Trojan War. Many of the great tragic stories took on their classic form in these tragedies; the comic playwright Aristophanes used myths, in The Birds and The Frogs. Historians Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus, geographers Pausanias and Strabo, who traveled throughout the Greek world and noted the stories they heard, supplied numerous local myths and legends giving little-known alternative versions. Herodotus in particular, searched the various traditions presented him and found the historical or mythological roots in the confrontation between Greece and the East.
Herodotus attempted to reconcile the blending of differing cultural concepts. The poetry of the Hellenistic and Roman ages was composed as a literary rather than cultic exercise, it contains many important details that would otherwise be lost. This category includes the works of: The Roman poets Ovid, Valerius Flaccus and Virgil with Servius's commentary; the Greek poets of the Late Antique period: Nonnus, Antoninus Liberalis, Quintus Smyrnaeus. The Greek poets of the Hellenistic period: Apollonius of Rhodes, Pseudo-Eratosthenes, Parthenius. Prose writers from the same periods who make reference to myths includ
King, or king regnant is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant, while the title of queen on its own refers to the consort of a king. In the context of prehistory and contemporary indigenous peoples, the title may refer to tribal kingship. Germanic kingship is cognate with Indo-European traditions of tribal rulership. In the context of classical antiquity, king may translate in Latin as rex and in Greek as archon or basileus. In classical European feudalism, the title of king as the ruler of a kingdom is understood to be the highest rank in the feudal order subject, at least nominally, only to an emperor. In a modern context, the title may refer to the ruler of one of a number of modern monarchies; the title of king is used alongside other titles for monarchs: in the West, emperor, duke or grand duke, in the Middle East, sultan or emir, etc. The term king may refer to a king consort, a title, sometimes given to the husband of a ruling queen, but the title of prince consort is sometimes granted instead.
A king dowager is the male equivalent of the queen dowager. A king father is a king dowager, the father of the reigning sovereign; the English term king is derived from the Anglo-Saxon cyning, which in turn is derived from the Common Germanic *kuningaz. The Common Germanic term was borrowed into Estonian and Finnish at an early time, surviving in these languages as kuningas; the English term "King" translates, is considered equivalent to, Latin rēx and its equivalents in the various European languages. The Germanic term is notably different from the word for "King" in other Indo-European languages, it is a derivation from the term *kunjom "kin" by the -inga- suffix. The literal meaning is that of a "scion of the kin", or "son or descendant of one of noble birth"; the English word is of Germanic origin, refers to Germanic kingship, in the pre-Christian period a type of tribal kingship. The monarchies of Europe in the Christian Middle Ages derived their claim from Christianisation and the divine right of kings influenced by the notion of sacral kingship inherited from Germanic antiquity.
The Early Middle Ages begin with a fragmentation of the former Western Roman Empire into barbarian kingdoms. In Western Europe, the kingdom of the Franks developed into the Carolingian Empire by the 8th century, the kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England were unified into the kingdom of England by the 10th century. With the breakup of the Carolingian Empire in the 9th century, the system of feudalism places kings at the head of a pyramid of relationships between liege lords and vassals, dependent on the regional rule of barons, the intermediate positions of counts and dukes; the core of European feudal manorialism in the High Middle Ages were the territories of the former Carolingian Empire, i.e. the kingdom of France and the Holy Roman Empire. In the course of the European Middle Ages, the European kingdoms underwent a general trend of centralisation of power, so that by the Late Middle Ages there were a number of large and powerful kingdoms in Europe, which would develop into the great powers of Europe in the Early Modern period.
In the Iberian Peninsula, the remnants of the Visigothic Kingdom, the petty kingdoms of Asturias and Pamplona, expanded into the kingdom of Portugal, the Crown of Castile and the Crown of Aragon with the ongoing Reconquista. In southern Europe, the kingdom of Sicily was established following the Norman conquest of southern Italy; the Kingdom of Sardinia was claimed as a separate title held by the Crown of Aragon in 1324. In the Balkans, the Kingdom of Serbia was established in 1217. In eastern-central Europe, the Kingdom of Hungary was established in AD 1000 following the Christianisation of the Magyars; the kingdoms of Poland and Bohemia were established within the Holy Roman Empire in 1025 and 1198, respectively. In Eastern Europe, the Kievan Rus' consolidated into the Grand Duchy of Moscow, which did not technically claim the status of kingdom until the early modern Tsardom of Russia. In northern Europe, the tribal kingdoms of the Viking Age by the 11th century expanded into the North Sea Empire under Cnut the Great, king of Denmark and Norway.
The Christianization of Scandinavia resulted in "consolidated" kingdoms of Sweden and Norway, by the end of the medieval period the pan-Scandinavian Kalmar Union. Fifteen kings are recognized as the heads of state of sovereign states. Most of these are heads of state of constitutional monarchies. Thomas J. Craughwell, 5,000 Years of Royalty: Kings, Princes, Emperors & Tsars. David Cannadine, Simon Price, Rituals of Royalty: Power and Ceremonial in Traditional Societies. Jean Hani, Sacred Royalty: From the Pharaoh to the Most Christian King. Media related to Kings at Walter Alison. "King". Encyclopædia Britannica. 15. Pp. 805–806
Henry I of England
Henry I known as Henry Beauclerc, was King of England from 1100 to his death in 1135. Henry was educated in Latin and the liberal arts. On William's death in 1087, Henry's elder brothers Robert Curthose and William Rufus inherited Normandy and England but Henry was left landless. Henry purchased the County of Cotentin in western Normandy from Robert, but William and Robert deposed him in 1091. Henry rebuilt his power base in the Cotentin and allied himself with William against Robert. Henry was present when William died in a hunting accident in 1100, he seized the English throne, promising at his coronation to correct many of William's less popular policies. Henry married Matilda of Scotland but continued to have a large number of mistresses by whom he had many illegitimate children. Robert, who invaded in 1101, disputed Henry's control of England; the peace was short-lived, Henry invaded the Duchy of Normandy in 1105 and 1106 defeating Robert at the Battle of Tinchebray. Henry kept Robert imprisoned for the rest of his life.
Henry's control of Normandy was challenged by Louis VI of France, Baldwin VII of Flanders and Fulk V of Anjou, who promoted the rival claims of Robert's son, William Clito, supported a major rebellion in the Duchy between 1116 and 1119. Following Henry's victory at the Battle of Brémule, a favourable peace settlement was agreed with Louis in 1120. Considered by contemporaries to be a harsh but effective ruler, Henry skilfully manipulated the barons in England and Normandy. In England, he drew on the existing Anglo-Saxon system of justice, local government and taxation, but strengthened it with additional institutions, including the royal exchequer and itinerant justices. Normandy was governed through a growing system of justices and an exchequer. Many of the officials who ran Henry's system were "new men" of obscure backgrounds rather than from families of high status, who rose through the ranks as administrators. Henry encouraged ecclesiastical reform, but became embroiled in a serious dispute in 1101 with Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury, resolved through a compromise solution in 1105.
He supported the Cluniac order and played a major role in the selection of the senior clergy in England and Normandy. Henry's only legitimate son and heir, William Adelin, drowned in the White Ship disaster of 1120, throwing the royal succession into doubt. Henry took a second wife, Adeliza of Louvain, in the hope of having another son, but their marriage was childless. In response to this, Henry declared his daughter, Empress Matilda, his heir and married her to Geoffrey of Anjou; the relationship between Henry and the couple became strained, fighting broke out along the border with Anjou. Henry died on 1 December 1135 after a week of illness. Despite his plans for Matilda, the King was succeeded by his nephew, Stephen of Blois, resulting in a period of civil war known as the Anarchy. Henry was born in England in 1068, in either the summer or the last weeks of the year in the town of Selby in Yorkshire, his father was William the Conqueror, the Duke of Normandy who had invaded England in 1066 to become the King of England, establishing lands stretching into Wales.
The invasion had created an Anglo-Norman elite, many with estates spread across both sides of the English Channel. These Anglo-Norman barons had close links to the kingdom of France, a loose collection of counties and smaller polities, under only the minimal control of the king. Henry's mother, Matilda of Flanders, was the granddaughter of Robert II of France, she named Henry after her uncle, King Henry I of France. Henry was the youngest of Matilda's four sons. Physically he resembled his older brothers Robert Curthose and William Rufus, being, as historian David Carpenter describes, "short and barrel-chested," with black hair; as a result of their age differences and Richard's early death, Henry would have seen little of his older brothers. He knew his sister Adela well, as the two were close in age. There is little documentary evidence for his early years, he was educated by the Church by Bishop Osmund, the King's chancellor, at Salisbury Cathedral. It is uncertain how far Henry's education extended, but he was able to read Latin and had some background in the liberal arts.
He was given military training by an instructor called Robert Achard, Henry was knighted by his father on 24 May 1086. In 1087, William was fatally injured during a campaign in the Vexin. Henry joined his dying father near Rouen in September, where the King partitioned his possessions among his sons; the rules of succession in western Europe at the time were uncertain. In other parts of Europe, including Normandy and England, the tradition was for lands to be divided up, with the eldest son taking patrimonial lands – considered to be the most valuable – and younger sons given smaller, or more acquired, partitions or estates. In dividing his lands, William appears to have followed the Norman tradition, distinguishing between Normandy, which he had inherited, England, which he had acquired through war. William's second son, had died in a hunting accident, leaving
The title archimandrite used in the Eastern Orthodox and the Eastern Catholic churches referred to a superior abbot whom a bishop appointed to supervise several'ordinary' abbots and monasteries, or to the abbot of some great and important monastery. It is used purely as a title of honour, with no connection to any actual monastery, is bestowed on clergy as a mark of respect or gratitude for service to the Church; this particular sign of respect is only given to those priests who have taken vows of celibacy, monks. Distinguished married clergy may receive the title of archpriest; the term derives from the Greek: the first element from ἀρχι archi- meaning "highest" or from archon "ruler". The title has been in common use since the 5th century, but is mentioned for the first time in a letter to Epiphanius, prefixed to his Panarium, but the Lausiac History of Palladius may evidence its common use in the 4th century as applied to Saint Pachomius; when the supervision of monasteries passed to another episcopal official—the Great Sakellarios —the title of archimandrite became an honorary one for abbots of important monasteries.
In some cases it served as an extra title: for example, manuscripts of 1174 mention Hegumen Polikarp of Kiev Cave Monastery as "Hegumen Archimandrite". In 1764 the Russian Orthodox Church secularised its monasteries and ranked them in one of three classes, awarding only the abbots at the head of monasteries of the second or first class the title of archimandrite. Abbots of third class monasteries were to be styled "hegumen"; the duties of both a hegumen and an archimandrite are the same. The Russian Orthodox Church selects its bishops from the ranks of the archimandrites. An archimandrite is a priest who has taken monastic vows and is theoretically in line to be ordained a bishop. Churches under the spiritual jurisdiction of the four Eastern Orthodox Patriarchates require that such a monastic priest possess a university degree in theology before they are elevated to the rank of archimandrite. Sometimes the requirement is waived if the priest can show outstanding achievement in other academic fields, such as the humanities or science.
An archimandrite who does not function as an abbot has the style "The Very Reverend Archimandrite" whilst one with abbatial duties uses the style "The Right Reverend Archimandrite". The word occurs in the Regula Columbani, du Cange gives a few other cases of its use in Latin documents, but it never came into vogue in the West; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary. 1906. Dictionnaire d'archéologie chrétienne et de liturgie Plank, Peter, "Archimandrite", in Fahlbusch, Encyclopedia of Christianity, 1, Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans, p. 118, ISBN 0802824137 The dictionary definition of archimandrite at Wiktionary
E. Cobham Brewer
Ebenezer Cobham Brewer, was the author of A Guide to the Scientific Knowledge of Things Familiar, Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, The Reader's Handbook, among other reference books. E. Cobham Brewer was the son of Elisabeth, née Kitton, John Sherren Brewer, a Norwich schoolmaster associated with the Baptist congregation of St Mary's Chapel in Norwich, his father kept a school in Calvert Street, until 1824, when he opened a new academy in Eaton on the outskirts of Norwich. E. Cobham Brewer attended Trinity Hall, graduating in Law in 1836, he was ordained in 1838. On returning to Norwich to work at his father's school, Brewer compiled his first major work, A Guide to the Scientific Knowledge of Things Familiar, first published around 1838–41; the book became immensely popular. It followed a simple format, organised like a catechism into questions and answers, focused on explaining "the common phenomena of life" such as why snow is white, or a leaf green. In parts of the book, Brewer's questions place scientific information in a theological context by asking readers to consider how scientific examples illustrate "the goodness and wisdom of God".
Its sales may have funded the extensive travels in Europe. On returning to England in 1856, Brewer started on the work, to become Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable; the dictionary was derived in part from correspondence with readers of his previous book. The first edition was published in 1870, a revised edition appeared in 1894. Of his methodology, Brewer wrote in the preface to the Historic Note-Book: I have been an author for sixty years, have written many books, of course have been a miscellaneous reader. In my long experience I have remarked how little the range of "literary" reading has varied, how doubt still centres on matters which were cruces in my early years. So that a work of this kind is of as much usefulness in 1891 as it would have been in 1830. I have always read with a slip of paper and a pencil at my side, to jot down whatever I think may be useful to me, these jottings I keep sorted in different lockers; this has been a life-habit with me... The Reader's Handbook has had an extended subsequent history.
With detailed revisions by editor Henrietta Gerwig it formed the nucleus of Crowell's Handbook for Readers and Writers which in turn provided the nucleus of Benet's Reader's Encyclopedia, "veritably a new book", as Benét remarked. Brewer's Reader's Handbook was re-edited by Marion Harland and published in the United States, with numerous illustrations as Character Sketches of Romance and the Drama: A Revised American Edition of the Reader's Handbook, 4 vols. New York 1892. Other works by Brewer include A Dictionary of Miracles: Imitative and Dogmatic, The Historic Notebook, With an Appendix of Battles. Several of Brewer's siblings achieved professional success. John Sherren Brewer junior was an eminent historian and editor of British State Papers at the Public Record Office. In 1856, he married at eldest daughter of the Rev. Francis Tebbutt of Hove, he died on 6 March 1897 at Edwinstowe vicarage, Sherwood Forest, Nottinghamshire where he had been residing with his son-in-law, the Rev. H. T. Hayman.
Dictionary of Phrase and Fable Theology in Science, or the testimony of Science to the Wisdom and Goodness of God History of France, brought down to 1874 Evidences of Christianity Guide to Science Works by Ebenezer Cobham Brewer at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Ebenezer Cobham Brewer at Internet Archive
Nestorianism is a Christian theological doctrine that upholds several distinctive teachings in the fields of Christology and Mariology. It opposes the concept of hypostatic union and emphasizes a radical distinction between two natures of Jesus Christ; this Christological position is defined as radical dyophisitism. Nestorianism was named after Christian theologian Nestorius, Patriarch of Constantinople from 428 to 431, influenced by Christological teachings of Theodore of Mopsuestia at the School of Antioch. Nestorius' teachings brought him into conflict with other prominent church leaders, most notably Cyril of Alexandria, who criticized his rejection of the title Theotokos for Mary, the mother of Jesus. Nestorius and his teachings were condemned as heretical at the Council of Ephesus in 431, again at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, which led to the Nestorian Schism. Following that, many of Nestorius's supporters relocated to the Sasanian Empire, where they affiliated with the local Christian community, known as the Church of the East.
Over the next decades the Church of the East became Nestorian in doctrine, leading to it becoming known alternatively as the Nestorian Church. Nestorianism is a radical form of dyophysitism, differing from the orthodox dyophysitism on several points by opposition to the concept of hypostatic union, it can be seen as the antithesis to monophysitism. Where Nestorianism holds that Christ had two loosely united natures and human, monophysitism holds that he had but a single nature, his human nature being absorbed into his divinity. A brief definition of Nestorian Christology can be given as: "Jesus Christ, not identical with the Son but united with the Son, who lives in him, is one hypostasis and one nature: human." This contrasts with Nestorius' own teaching that the Word, eternal, the Flesh, not, came together in a hypostatic union,'Jesus Christ', Jesus thus being both man and God, of two ousia but of one prosopon. Both Nestorianism and monophysitism were condemned as heretical at the Council of Chalcedon.
Monophysitism developed into the Miaphysitism of the Oriental Orthodoxy. Nestoranism was condemned as heresy at the Council of Ephesus; the Armenian Church rejected Council of Chalcedon because they believed Chalcedonian Definition was too similar to Nestorianism. The Persian Nestorian Church, on the other hand, supported the spread of Nestorianism in Persarmenia; the Armenian Church and other eastern churches saw the rise of Nestorianism as a threat to the independence of their Church. Peter the Iberian, a Georgian prince strongly opposed the Chalcedonian Creed. Thus, in 491, Catholicos Babken I of Armenia, along with the Albanian and Iberian bishops met in Vagharshapat and issued a condemnation of the Chalcedonian Definition. Nestorians held that the Council of Chalcedon proved the orthodoxy of their faith who had started persecuting non-Chalcedonian or monophysite Syrian Christians during the reign of Peroz I. In response to pleas for assistance from the Syrian Church, Armenian prelates issued a letter addressed to Persian Christians reaffirming their condemnation of the Nestorianism as heresy.
Following the exodus to Persia, scholars expanded on the teachings of Nestorius and his mentors after the relocation of the School of Edessa to the Persian city of Nisibis in 489, where it became known as the School of Nisibis. Nestorian monasteries propagating the teachings of the Nisbis school flourished in 6th century Persarmenia. Despite this initial Eastern expansion, the Nestorians' missionary success was deterred. David J. Bosch observes, "By the end of the fourteenth century, the Nestorian and other churches—which at one time had dotted the landscape of all of Central and parts of East Asia—were all but wiped out. Isolated pockets of Christianity survived only in India; the religious victors on the vast Central Asian mission field of the Nestorians were Islam and Buddhism". Nestorius developed his Christological views as an attempt to understand and explain rationally the incarnation of the divine Logos, the Second Person of the Holy Trinity as the man Jesus, he had studied at the School of Antioch.
Nestorius took his Antiochene leanings with him when he was appointed Patriarch of Constantinople by Byzantine emperor Theodosius II in 428. Nestorius's teachings became the root of controversy when he publicly challenged the long-used title Theotokos for Mary, he suggested that the title denied Christ's full humanity, arguing instead that Jesus had two persons, the divine Logos and the human Jesus. As a result of this prosopic duality, he proposed Christotokos as a more suitable title for Mary. Nestorius' opponents found his teaching too close to the heresy of adoptionism – the idea that Christ had been born a man, "adopted" as God's son. Nestorius was criticized by Cyril of Alexandria, Patriarch of Alexandria, who argued that Nestorius's teachings undermined the unity of Christ's divine and human natures at the Incarnation; some of Nestorius's opponents argued that he put too much emphasis on the human nature of Christ, others debated that the difference that Nestorius implied between the human nature and the divine nature created a fracture in the si
Nestorius was Archbishop of Constantinople from 10 April 428 to August 431, when Emperor Theodosius II confirmed his condemnation by the Council of Ephesus on 22 June. His teachings included a rejection of the long-used title of Theotokos, "Mother of God", for Mary, mother of Jesus, they were considered by many to imply that he did not believe that Christ was God; that brought him into conflict with other prominent churchmen of the time, most notably Cyril of Alexandria, who accused him of heresy. Nestorius sought to defend himself at the First Council of Ephesus in 431 but instead found himself formally condemned for heresy by a majority of the bishops and was subsequently removed from his see. On his own request, he retired in or near Antioch. In 435, Theodosius II sent him into exile in Upper Egypt, where he lived on until 450, strenuously defending his orthodoxy, his last major defender within the Roman Empire, Theodoret of Cyrrhus agreed to anathematize him in 451 during the Council of Chalcedon.
From on, he had no defenders within the empire, but the Church of the East never accepted his condemnation. That led to western Christians giving the name Nestorian Church to the Church of the East where his teachings were deemed Orthodox and in line with its own teachings. Nestorius is revered as among three "Greek Teachers" of the Church. Parts of the Church of the East's Eucharistic Service, known to be among the oldest in the world, is contributed to with prayers attributed to Nestorius himself; the Second Council of Constantinople of AD 553 confirmed the validity of the condemnation of Nestorius, refuting the letter of Ibas of Edessa that affirms that Nestorius was condemned without due inquiry. The discovery and publication of his Bazaar of Heracleides at the beginning of the 20th century have led to a reassessment of his theology in western scholarship, it is now agreed that his ideas were not far from those that emerged as orthodox, but the orthodoxy of his formulation of the doctrine of Christ is still controversial.
Sources place the birth of Nestorius in either 381 or 386 in the city of Germanicia in the Province of Syria, Roman Empire. He received his clerical training as a pupil of Theodore of Mopsuestia in Antioch, he was living as a priest and monk in the monastery of Euprepius near the walls, he gained a reputation for his sermons that led to his enthronement by Theodosius II, as Patriarch of Constantinople, following the 428 death of Sisinnius I. Shortly after his arrival in Constantinople, Nestorius became involved in the disputes of two theological factions, which differed in their Christology. Nestorius tried to find a middle ground between those that emphasized the fact that in Christ, God had been born as a man and insisted on calling the Virgin Mary Theotokos and those that rejected that title because God, as an eternal being, could not have been born. Nestorius suggested the title Christotokos. "Nestorianism" refers to the doctrine that there are two distinct hypostases in the Incarnate Christ, the one Divine and the other human.
The teaching of all churches that accept the Council of Ephesus is that in the Incarnate Christ is a single hypostasis and man at once. That doctrine is known as the Hypostatic union. Nestorius's opponents charged him with detaching Christ's divinity and humanity into two persons existing in one body, thereby denying the reality of the Incarnation, it is not clear whether Nestorius taught that. Eusebius, a layman who became the bishop of the neighbouring Dorylaeum, was the first to accuse Nestorius of heresy but the most forceful opponent of Nestorius was Patriarch Cyril of Alexandria; this caused great excitement at Constantinople among the clergy, who were not well disposed to Nestorius, the stranger from Antioch. Cyril appealed to Celestine of Rome to make a decision, Celestine delegated to Cyril the job of excommunicating Nestorius if he did not change his teachings within 10 days. Nestorius had arranged with the emperor in the summer of 430 for the assembling of a council, he now hastened it, the summons had been issued to patriarchs and metropolitans on 19 November, before the pope's sentence, delivered though Cyril of Alexandria, had been served on Nestorius.
Emperor Theodosius II convoked a general church council, at Ephesus, itself a special seat for the veneration of Mary, where the Theotokos formula was popular. The Emperor and his wife supported Nestorius. Cyril took charge of the First Council of Ephesus in 431, opening debate before the long-overdue contingent of Eastern bishops from Antioch arrived; the council deposed declared him a heretic. In Nestorius' own words, When the followers of Cyril saw the vehemence of the emperor... they roused up a disturbance and discord among the people with an outcry, as though the emperor were opposed to God. And... they took with them those, separated and removed from the monasteries by reason of their lives and their strange manners and had for this reason been expelled, all who were of heretical sects and were possessed with fanaticism and with hatred against me. And one passion was in them all and pagans and all the sects, they were busying themselves that they should accept without examination the things which were done without examination against me.