Scrap consists of recyclable materials left over from product manufacturing and consumption, such as parts of vehicles, building supplies, surplus materials. Unlike waste, scrap has monetary value recovered metals, non-metallic materials are recovered for recycling. Scrap metal originates both in business and residential environments. A "scrapper" will advertise their services to conveniently remove scrap metal for people who don't need it. Scrap is taken to a wrecking yard, where it is processed for melting into new products. A wrecking yard, depending on its location, may allow customers to browse their lot and purchase items before they are sent to the smelters, although many scrap yards that deal in large quantities of scrap do not selling entire units such as engines or machinery by weight with no regard to their functional status. Customers are required to supply all of their own tools and labor to extract parts, some scrapyards may first require waiving liability for personal injury before entering.
Many scrapyards sell bulk metals by weight at prices below the retail purchasing costs of similar pieces. A scrap metal shredder is used to recycle items containing a variety of other materials in combination with steel. Examples are automobiles and white goods such as refrigerators, clothes washers, etc; these items are labor-intensive to manually sort things like plastic, copper and brass. By shredding into small pieces, the steel can be separated out magnetically; the non-ferrous waste stream requires other techniques to sort. In contrast to wrecking yards, scrapyards sell everything by weight, instead of by item. To the scrapyard, the primary value of the scrap is what the smelter will give them for it, rather than the value of whatever shape the metal may be in. An auto wrecker, on the other hand, would price the same scrap based on what the item does, regardless of what it weighs. If a wrecker cannot sell something above the value of the metal in it, they would take it to the scrapyard and sell it by weight.
Equipment containing parts of various metals can be purchased at a price below that of either of the metals, due to saving the scrapyard the labor of separating the metals before shipping them to be recycled. Scrap prices may vary markedly over time and in different locations. Prices are negotiated among buyers and sellers directly or indirectly over the Internet. Prices displayed. Other prices are not updated frequently; some scrap yards' websites have updated scrap prices. In the US, scrap prices are reported in a handful of publications, including American Metal Market, based on confirmed sales as well as reference sites such as Scrap Metal Prices and Auctions. Non-US domiciled publications, such as The Steel Index report on the US scrap price, which has become important to global export markets. Scrap yards directories are used by recyclers to find facilities in the US and Canada, allowing users to get in contact with yards. With resources online for recyclers to look at for scrapping tips, like web sites and search engines, scrapping is referred to as a hands and labor-intensive job.
Taking apart and separating metals is important to making more money on scrap, for tips like using a magnet to determine ferrous and non-ferrous materials, that can help recyclers make more money on their metal recycling. When a magnet sticks to the metal, it will be a ferrous material, like iron; this is a less expensive item, recycled but is recycled in larger quantities of thousands of pounds. Non-ferrous metals like copper and brass do not stick to a magnet; some cheaper grades of stainless steel are other grades are not. These items are higher priced commodities for metal recycling and are important to separate when recycling them; the prices of non-ferrous metals tend to fluctuate more than ferrous metals so it is important for recyclers to pay attention to these sources and the overall markets. Great potential exists in the scrap metal industry for accidents in which a hazardous material present in scrap causes death, injury, or environmental damage. A classic example is radioactivity in scrap.
Toxic materials such as asbestos, toxic metals such as beryllium and mercury may pose dangers to personnel, as well as contaminating materials intended for metal smelters. Many specialized tools used in scrapyards are hazardous, such as the alligator shear, which cuts metal using hydraulic force and scrap metal shredders. According to research conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agency, recycling scrap metals can be quite beneficial to the environment. Using recycled scrap metal in place of virgin iron ore can yield: 75% savings in energy. 90% savings in raw materials used. 86% reduction in air pollution. 40% reduction in water use. 76% reduction in water pollution. 97% reduction in mining wastes. Every ton of new steel made from scrap steel saves: 1,115 kg of iron ore. 625 kg of coal. 53 kg of limestone. Energy savings from other metals include: Aluminium savings of 95% energy. Copper savings of 85% energy. Lead savings of 65% energy. Zinc savings of 60% energy; the metal recycling industry encompasses a wide range of metals.
The more recycled metals are scrap steel, lead, copper, stainless steel and zinc. There are two main categories of metals: ferrous and
Caesium-137, or radiocaesium, is a radioactive isotope of caesium, formed as one of the more common fission products by the nuclear fission of uranium-235 and other fissionable isotopes in nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons. It is among the most problematic of the short-to-medium-lifetime fission products because it moves and spreads in nature due to the high water solubility of caesium's most common chemical compounds, which are salts. Caesium-137 has a half-life of about 30.17 years. About 94.6 percent decays by beta emission to a metastable nuclear isomer of barium: barium-137m. The remainder directly populates the ground state of barium-137, stable. Ba-137m has a half-life of about 153 seconds, is responsible for all of the emissions of gamma rays in samples of caesium-137. 85.1% of metastable barium decays to ground state by emission of gamma rays having energy 0.6617 MeV. One gram of caesium-137 has an activity of 3.215 terabecquerel. The main photon peak of Ba-137m is 662 keV. Caesium-137 has a number of practical uses.
In small amounts, it is used to calibrate radiation-detection equipment. In medicine, it is used in radiation therapy. In industry, it is used in flow meters, thickness gauges, moisture-density gauges, in gamma ray well logging devices. Caesium-137 is not used for industrial radiography because it is quite chemically reactive, hence difficult to handle; the salts of caesium are soluble in water, this complicates the safe handling of caesium. Cobalt-60, 6027Co, is preferred for radiography, since it is chemically a rather nonreactive metal and produces higher energy gamma-ray photons; as a purely man-made isotope, caesium-137 has been used to date wine and detect counterfeits and as a relative-dating material for assessing the age of sedimentation occurring after 1954. Caesium-137 is used as a radioactive tracer in geologic research to measure soil erosion and deposition. Caesium-137 reacts with water; the biological behavior of caesium is similar to that of rubidium. After entering the body, caesium gets more or less uniformly distributed throughout the body, with the highest concentrations in soft tissue.
The biological half-life of caesium is rather short, at about 70 days. A 1972 experiment showed that when dogs are subjected to a whole body burden of 3800 μCi/kg of caesium-137, they die within 33 days, while animals with half of that burden all survived for a year. Accidental ingestion of caesium-137 can be treated with Prussian blue, which binds to it chemically and reduces the biological half-life to 30 days. Caesium-134 and caesium-137 were released into the environment during nearly all nuclear weapon tests and some nuclear accidents, most notably the Chernobyl disaster and the Fukushima Daiichi disaster; as of 2005 and for the next few hundred years, caesium-137 is the principal source of radiation in the zone of alienation around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Together with caesium-134, iodine-131, strontium-90, caesium-137 was among the isotopes distributed by the reactor explosion that constitute the greatest risk to health; the mean contamination of caesium-137 in Germany following the Chernobyl disaster was 2000 to 4000 Bq/m2.
This corresponds to a contamination of 1 mg/km2 of caesium-137, totaling about 500 grams deposited over all of Germany. In Scandinavia, some reindeer and sheep exceeded the Norwegian legal limit 26 years after Chernobyl; as of 2016 the Chernobyl caesium-137 has decayed by half, but could have been locally concentrated by much larger factors. In April 2011, elevated levels of caesium-137 were being found in the environment after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disasters in Japan. In July 2011, meat from 11 cows shipped to Tokyo from Fukushima Prefecture was found to have 1,530 to 3,200 becquerels per kilogram of Cs-137 exceeding the Japanese legal limit of 500 becquerels per kilogram at that time. In March 2013, a fish caught near the plant had a record 740,000 becquerels per kilogram of radioactive caesium, above the 100 becquerels per kilogram government limit. A 2013 paper in Scientific Reports found that for a forest site 50 km from the stricken plant, Cs-137 concentrations were high in leaf litter and detritivores, but low in herbivores.
By the end of 2014, "Fukushima-derived radiocesium had spread into the whole western North Pacific Ocean", transported by the North Pacific current from Japan to the Gulf of Alaska. It has been measured in the surface layer down to 200 meters and south of the current area down to 400 meters. Caesium-137 is reported to be the major health concern in Fukushima; the government is under pressure to clean up radioactivity from Fukushima from as much land as possible so that some of the 110,000 people can return. A number of techniques are being considered that will be able to strip out 80% to 95% of the caesium from contaminated soil and other materials efficiently and without destroying the organic material in the soil; these include hydrothermal blasting. The caesium precipitated with ferric ferricyanide would be the only waste requiring special burial sites; the aim is to get annual exposure from the contaminated environment down to 1 millisievert above background. The most contaminated area where radiation doses are greater than 50 mSv/year must remain off limits, but some areas that are less than 5 mSv/year may be decontaminated, allowing 22,000 residents to return.
Caesium-137 in the environment is anthropogenic. Caesium-137 is produced from the nuclear fission of plutonium and uran
The becquerel is the SI derived unit of radioactivity. One becquerel is defined as the activity of a quantity of radioactive material in which one nucleus decays per second; the becquerel is therefore equivalent to an inverse second, s−1. The becquerel is named after Henri Becquerel, who shared a Nobel Prize in Physics with Pierre and Marie Curie in 1903 for their work in discovering radioactivity; as with every International System of Units unit named for a person, the first letter of its symbol is uppercase. However, when an SI unit is spelled out in English, it should always begin with a lowercase letter —except in a situation where any word in that position would be capitalized, such as at the beginning of a sentence or in material using title case. 1 Bq = 1 s−1A special name was introduced for the reciprocal second to represent radioactivity to avoid dangerous mistakes with prefixes. For example, 1 µs−1 could be taken to mean 106 disintegrations per second: 1·−1 = 106 s−1. Other names considered were hertz, a special name in use for the reciprocal second, fourier.
The hertz is now only used for periodic phenomena. Whereas 1 Hz is 1 cycle per second, 1 Bq is 1 aperiodic radioactivity event per second; the gray and the becquerel were introduced in 1975. Between 1953 and 1975, absorbed dose was measured in rads. Decay activity was measured in curies before 1946 and in rutherfords between 1946 and 1975. Like any SI unit, Bq can be prefixed. For practical applications, 1 Bq is a small unit. For example, the 0.0169 g of potassium-40 present in a typical human body produces 4,400 disintegrations per second or 4.4 kBq of activity. The global inventory of carbon-14 is estimated to be 8.5×1018 Bq. The nuclear explosion in Hiroshima is estimated to have produced 8×1024 Bq; the becquerel succeeded the curie, an older, non-SI unit of radioactivity based on the activity of 1 gram of radium-226. The curie is defined as 3.7 · 1010 s 37 GBq. Conversion factors: 1 Ci = 3.7×1010 Bq = 37 GBq 1 μCi = 37,000 Bq = 37 kBq 1 Bq = 2.7×10−11 Ci = 2.7×10−5 μCi 1 MBq = 0.027 mCi For a given mass m of an isotope with atomic mass m a and a half-life of t 1 / 2, the radioactivity can be calculated using: A B q = m m a N A ln t 1 / 2 With N A = 6.02214179×1023 mol−1, the Avogadro constant.
Since m / m a is the number of moles, the amount of radioactivity A can be calculated by: A B q = n N A ln t 1 / 2 For instance, on average each gram of potassium contains 0.000117 gram of 40K that has a t 1 / 2 of 1.277×109 years = 4.030×1016 s, has an atomic mass of 39.964 g/mol, so the amount of radioactivity associated with a gram of potassium is 30 Bq. The following table shows radiation quantities in non-SI units. Background radiation Banana equivalent dose Counts per minute Ionizing radiation Orders of magnitude Radiation poisoning Relative Biological Effectiveness Rem Rutherford Sievert Derived units on the International Bureau of Weights and Measures web site
The sources of radioactive pollution can be classified into two groups: natural and man made. Radioactive contamination called radiological contamination, is the deposition of, or presence of radioactive substances on surfaces or within solids, liquids or gases, where their presence is unintended or undesirable; such contamination presents a hazard because of the radioactive decay of the contaminants, which emit harmful ionising radiation such as alpha particles or beta particles, gamma rays or neutrons. The degree of hazard is determined by the concentration of the contaminants, the energy of the radiation being emitted, the type of radiation, the proximity of the contamination to organs of the body, it is important to be clear that the contamination gives rise to the radiation hazard, the terms "radiation" and "contamination" are not interchangeable. Contamination may affect a place, an animal, or an object such as clothing. Following an atmospheric nuclear weapon discharge or a nuclear reactor containment breach, the air, people and animals in the vicinity will become contaminated by nuclear fuel and fission products.
A spilled vial of radioactive material like uranyl nitrate may contaminate the floor and any rags used to wipe up the spill. Cases of widespread radioactive contamination include the Bikini Atoll, the Rocky Flats Plant in Colorado, the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, the Chernobyl disaster, the area around the Mayak facility in Russia. Radioactive contamination can be due to a variety of causes, it may occur due to release of radioactive liquids or particles. For example, if a radionuclide used in nuclear medicine is spilled, the material could be spread by people as they walk around. Radioactive contamination may be an inevitable result of certain processes, such as the release of radioactive xenon in nuclear fuel reprocessing. In cases that radioactive material cannot be contained, it may be diluted to safe concentrations. For a discussion of environmental contamination by alpha emitters please see actinides in the environment. Nuclear fallout is the distribution of radioactive contamination by the 520 atmospheric nuclear explosions that took place from the 1950s to the 1980s.
In nuclear accidents, a measure of the type and amount of radioactivity released,such as from a reactor containment failure, is known as the source term. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission defines this as "Types and amounts of radioactive or hazardous material released to the environment following an accident."Contamination does not include residual radioactive material remaining at a site after the completion of decommissioning. Therefore, radioactive material in sealed and designated containers is not properly referred to as contamination, although the units of measurement might be the same. Containment is the primary way of preventing contamination being released into the environment or coming into contact or being ingested by humans. Being within the intended Containment differentiates radioactive material from radioactive contamination; when radioactive materials are concentrated to a detectable level outside a containment, the area affected is referred to as "contaminated".
There are a large number of techniques for containing radioactive materials so that it does not spread beyond the containment and become contamination. In the case of liquids this is by the use of high integrity tanks or containers with a sump system so that leakage can be detected by radiometric or conventional instrumentation. Where material is to become airborne extensive use is made of the glovebox, a common technique in hazardous laboratory and process operations in many industries; the gloveboxes are kept under a slight negative pressure and the vent gas is filtered in high efficiency filters, which are monitored by radiological instrumentation to ensure they are functioning correctly. A variety of radionuclides occur in the environment. Elements like uranium and thorium, their decay products, are present in rock and soil. Potassium-40, a primordial nuclide, makes up a small percentage of all potassium and is present in the human body. Other nuclides, like carbon-14, present in all living organisms, are continuously created by cosmic rays.
These levels of radioactivity can confuse measurement. A particular problem is encountered with generated radon gas which can affect instruments which are set to detect contamination close to normal background levels and can cause false alarms; because of this skill is required by the operator of radiological survey equipment to differentiate between background radiation and the radiation which emanates from contamination. Occurring radioactive materials can be brought to the surface or concentrated by human activities like mining and gas extraction and coal consumption. Radioactive contamination may exist on surfaces or in volumes of material or air, specialist techniques are used to measure the levels of contamination by detection of the emitted radiation. Contamination monitoring depends upon the correct and appropriate deployment and utilisation of radiation monitoring instruments. Surface contamination may either be fixed or "free". In the case of fixed contamination, the radioactive material cannot by definition be spread, but its radiation is still measurable.
In the case of free contamination there is the hazard of contamination spread to other surfaces such as skin or clothing, or entrainment in the air. A concrete surface contaminated by radioactivity can be shaved to a specific depth, removing the co
An environmental disaster or ecological disaster is a catastrophic event regarding the environment due to human activity. This distinguishes it from the concept of a natural disaster, it is distinct from intentional acts of war such as nuclear bombings. In this case, the impact of humans' alteration of the ecosystem has led to widespread and/or long-lasting consequences, it can include the deaths of animals and plants, or severe disruption of human life requiring migration. Environmental disasters can have an effect on agriculture, the economy and human health; the causes include pollution, depletion of natural resources, custom industrial activity or agriculture. Seveso disaster, 1976 – Release of dioxin. Amoco Cadiz oil spill, 1978 – the vessel broke in two, releasing its entire cargo of 1.6 million barrels of oil. Ok Tedi environmental disaster, 1984; as of 2006, mine operators have discharged about two billion tons of tailings and mine-induced erosion into the Ok Tedi river system. About 1,588 square kilometres of forest is under stress.
Bhopal disaster, 1984 – Release of methyl isocyanate gas and other chemicals Some estimate 8,000 people died within two weeks. A government affidavit in 2006 stated the leak caused 558,125 injuries including 38,478 temporary partial and 3,900 and permanently disabling injuries. Chernobyl disaster, 1986 – The official Soviet count of 31 deaths has been disputed. An UNSCEAR report places the total confirmed deaths from radiation at 64 as of 2008; the eventual death toll could reach 4,000. Some 50 emergency workers died of acute radiation syndrome, nine children died of thyroid cancer and an estimated total of 3940 died from radiation-induced cancer and leukemia. Hanford Nuclear, 1986 – The U. S. government declassifies 19,000 pages of documents indicating that between 1946 and 1986, the Hanford Site near Richland, released thousands of US gallons of radioactive liquids. Radioactive waste was both flowed into the Columbia River. Exxon Valdez oil spill, 1989 – spilled 260–750 thousand barrels of crude oil.
Prestige oil spill, 2002 – spilled over 20 million US gallons of two different grades of heavy fuel oil. Prudhoe Bay oil spill, 2006 – spilled up to 267,000 US gallons. Kingston Fossil Plant coal fly ash slurry spill, 2008 – spilled 1.1 billion US gallons of slurry from a coal plant, covering 300 acres, flowing down several rivers, destroying homes and contaminating water. Volume spilled was over 7 times as much as the volume of oil spilled in the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Deepwater Horizon oil spill, 2010 – An explosion killed 11 men working on the platform and injured 34 others; the gushing wellhead was capped. Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, 2011 – was an energy accident, initiated by the tsunami following the Tōhoku earthquake on 11 March 2011. After the earthquake, the active reactors automatically shut down their sustained fission reactions; the insufficient cooling led to three nuclear meltdowns, hydrogen-air explosions, the release of radioactive material. Level 7 event classification of the International Nuclear Event Scale.
A 2013 report examined the relationship between disasters and poverty. It concludes that, without concerted action, there could be up to 325 million poor people living in the 49 countries most exposed to the full range of natural hazards and climate extremes in 2040. Anthropogenic hazard List of environmental issues Environmental hazard Emergency management Environmental emergency Ecocide Malthusian catastrophe Davis, Lee. Environmental Disasters. New York: Facts on File, Inc. ISBN 0-8160-3265-3
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia