In organic chemistry, acetyl is a moiety, the acyl with chemical formula CH3CO. It is sometimes represented by the symbol Ac; the acetyl group contains a methyl group single-bonded to a carbonyl. The carbonyl center of an acyl radical has one nonbonded electron with which it forms a chemical bond to the remainder R of the molecule. In IUPAC nomenclature, acetyl is called ethanoyl, although this term is heard; the acetyl moiety is a component of many organic compounds, including acetic acid, the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, acetyl-CoA, acetylcysteine and acetylsalicylic acid. The introduction of an acetyl group into a molecule is called acetylation. In biological organisms, acetyl groups are transferred from acetyl-CoA to other organic molecules. Acetyl-CoA is an intermediate both in the biological synthetase and in the breakdown of many organic molecules. Acetyl-CoA is created during the second stage of cellular respiration, the Krebs Cycle, by the action of pyruvate dehydrogenase on pyruvic acid.
Histones and other proteins are modified by acetylation. For example, on the DNA level, histone acetylation by acetyltransferases causes an expansion of chromatin architecture, allowing for genetic transcription to occur. However, removal of the acetyl group by histone deacetylases condenses DNA structure, thereby preventing transcription. In addition to HDACs, Methyl group additions are able to bind DNA resulting in DNA methylation, this is another common way to block DNA acetylation and inhibit gene transcription. Acetylation can be achieved using a variety of methods, the most common one being via the use of acetic anhydride or acetyl chloride in the presence of a tertiary or aromatic amine base. A typical acetylation is the conversion of glycine to N-acetylglycine: H2NCH2CO2H + 2O → CH3CNHCH2CO2H + CH3CO2H Acetylated organic molecules exhibit increased ability to cross the selectively permeable blood–brain barrier. Acetylation helps a given drug reach the brain more making the drug's effects more intense and increasing the effectiveness of a given dose.
The acetyl group in acetylsalicylic acid enhances its effectiveness relative to the natural anti-inflammatant salicylic acid. In similar manner, acetylation converts the natural painkiller morphine into the far more potent heroin. There is some evidence that acetyl-L-carnitine may be more effective for some applications than L-carnitine. Acetylation of resveratrol holds promise as one of the first anti-radiation medicines for human populations. Acetaldehyde Acetoxy group Histone acetylation and deacetylation Polyoxymethylene plastic, a.k.a. acetal resin, a thermoplastic
Francis E. Quinlan is a retired Brigadier General in the United States Marine Corps. Quinlan is a graduate of Boston University, Southwestern Law School and the University of Wisconsin-Madison, he is married with two children. Quinlan was commissioned an officer in the Marine Corps in 1970 and, following flight training at NAS Pensacola and NAS Whiting Field, was designated as a Naval Aviator flying the AH-1 Seacobra gunship, he transferred to the United States Marine Corps Reserve. As a general officer, he served as Vice Commander, U. S. Marine Corps Forces Pacific and U. S. Marine Corps Forces Central Command during Operation Enduring Freedom. In civilian life, he is a practicing lawyer at Newmeyer & Dillion, a prominent business and real estate law firm in Newport Beach, California. Prior to joining Newmeyer & Dillion, he co-founded the AV rated Newport Beach firm of Kester & Quinlan, LLP, for over 20 years represented banks, venture capital firms, mortgage and general liability insurers and private corporations and individuals in business.
He has worked as a Special Agent and pilot with the Federal Bureau of Investigation. General Quinlan's decorations include the Defense Meritorious Service Medal, Meritorious Service Medal, Joint Meritorious Unit Award, Meritorious Unit Commendation, National Defense Service Medal with bronze star, Sea Service Deployment Ribbon, Armed Forces Reserve Medal and Selected Marine Corps Reserve Medal with three bronze stars
Eric Veiga is a Luxembourgian footballer of Portuguese descent who plays as a midfielder for the U23 squad of C. D. Aves. In 2015, Veiga joined the under-19 side of German club Eintracht Braunschweig from the youth of Bayer 04 Leverkusen. On 3 March 2016, he made his debut for Eintracht Braunschweig II in the Regionalliga Nord. In July 2019, Veiga moved to Portuguese club C. D. Aves, starting for the clubs U23-squad. Veiga represented both Portugal at youth level. On 18 May 2016, he was called up to the Luxembourg senior national team by Luc Holtz for a match against Nigeria, but did not play. Veiga made his debut for Luxembourg on 2 September 2016 in a friendly against Latvia. Eric Veiga – UEFA competition record Eric Veiga at Soccerway Eric Veiga at National-Football-Teams.com Profile at the website of the Portuguese Football Federation