The ColecoVision is Coleco Industries second-generation home video-game console which was released in August 1982. The ColecoVision offered an experience to more powerful arcade game systems compared to competitors such as the Atari 2600. Approximately 145 titles in total were published as ROM cartridges for the system between 1982 and 1984, Coleco withdrew from the video game market in 1985, and ColecoVision was discontinued that same year. River West Brands currently owns the ColecoVision brand name, by Christmas of 1982, Coleco had sold more than 500,000 units, in part on the strength of its bundled game. The ColecoVisions main competitor was the more advanced but less commercially successful Atari 5200. The ColecoVision was distributed by CBS Electronics outside of North America, sales quickly passed 1 million in early 1983, before the video game crash of 1983. By the beginning of 1984, quarterly sales of the ColecoVision had dramatically decreased, over the next 18 months, the Coleco company ramped down its video game division, ultimately withdrawing from the video game market by the end of the summer of 1985.
The ColecoVision was officially discontinued by October 1985, the video game crash of 1983 has been cited as the main cause of the ColecoVisions being discontinued less than three years after its launch. In 1983 Spectravideo announced the SV-603 ColecoVision Video Game Adapter for its SV-318 computer, the company stated that the $70 product allowed users to enjoy the entire library of exciting ColecoVision video-game cartridges. In 1986, Bit Corporation produced a ColecoVision clone called the Dina, the controllers connect into plugs in a recessed area on the top of the unit. The design of the controllers is similar to that of Mattels Intellivision—the controller is rectangular and consists of a numeric keypad, in place of the circular control disc below the keypad, the Coleco controller has a short,1. 5-inch joystick. The keypad is designed to accept a thin plastic overlay that maps the keys for a particular game, each ColecoVision console shipped with two controllers. All first-party cartridges and most third-party software titles feature a 12-second pause before presenting the game select screen and this delay results from an intentional loop in the consoles BIOS to enable on-screen display of the ColecoVision brand.
CPU, NEC version of Zilog Z80A @3, from its introduction, Coleco touted the ColecoVisions hardware expandability by highlighting the Expansion Module Interface on the front of the unit. These hardware expansion modules and accessories were sold separately, Expansion Module #1 makes the ColecoVision compatible with the industry-leading Atari 2600, with some exceptions. Functionally, this gave the ColecoVision the largest software library of any console of its day, the expansion module prompted legal action from Atari, but Atari was unable to stop sales of the module because the 2600 could be reproduced with off the shelf parts. Coleco designed and sold the Gemini game system, which was a clone of the 2600, Expansion Module #2 is a driving controller that came packaged with a port of the arcade game Turbo. The gas pedal is merely a simple on/off switch, so many gamers used the second ColecoVision controller as a shift for more precise speed control
Final Fantasy XIV
Final Fantasy XIV, known as Final Fantasy XIV Online, is a massively multiplayer online role-playing game for Microsoft Windows personal computers and published by Square Enix in 2010. It is the entry in the main Final Fantasy series. Eventually, they are embroiled in a plot by a Garlean Legatus to destroy the Primals by bringing one of the planets moons down on Eorzea. The game had been in development since 2005 under the codename Rapture, and was announced in 2009 for Windows and it ran on Square Enixs Crystal Tools middleware engine, which was adjusted to suit the games specifications. During development, the team carried over multiple aesthetic elements from Final Fantasy XI while attempting to create something that stood on its own, due to several factors, the development was beset by problems that would have drastic effects on the game. Attempts to bring the game to Xbox 360 consoles fell through due to disagreements with Microsoft about the use of Xbox Live. After its alpha test and a beta test, the game went live on September 30,2010.
Yoshida decided to make marginal improvements before shutting down servers in favor of Final Fantasy XIV, A Realm Reborn, Final Fantasy XIV is a massively multiplayer online role-playing game in which the player controls a customized Adventurer avatar from one of the five playable races. Each race has two tribes, and all but two allow for the selection of male or female characters, the avatar can have their eye and hair color, facial features, and skin tone customized, and features such as birthmarks and scars can be added. Their chosen tribe, along with their patron deity, affect their stats. The games opening varies depending on which starting location is chosen, leves are broken down into multiple types, focusing on gathering or combat. Levequests are associated with particular non-playable characters, as the player completes leves, they gain favor with three different factions and unlock new abilities, with rewards only coming from the NPCs within the factions who issued the quest. Gaining favor unlocks a new type of level called Faction leves, compared to Final Fantasy XI, where party-based gameplay is forefront at all times, the gameplay in XIV is adjusted so that players can go for longer periods without joining a party.
There is no option, with each action needing a manual input while an enemy is targeted. Each action uses up a stamina bar, through defeating monsters, crafting items, and completing quests, players accumulate EXP which, when a certain threshold is reached, automatically increments the players level. The players level affects attributes such as HP, MP, under the Armory System, a characters equipped weapon or crafting tool, determines the players character class, allowing them to switch roles at will. Some classes are associated with a starting point. Certain abilities learned under one class may be equipped and used by other classes, the Job System builds upon the Armoury System for Disciples of War and Magic
Deus Ex: Human Revolution
It is the third game in the Deus Ex series, and a prequel to the original Deus Ex. Conversations between characters feature a variety of responses, with options in conversations and at crucial story points affecting how some events play out, an attack on Sarif Industries that apparently kills researcher and Adams ex-girlfriend Megan Reed leaves Adam critically injured. The story explores themes of transhumanism, the power of megacorporations. It uses the series recurring cyberpunk setting and conspiracy theory motif, the open-ended nature of the gameplay was tricky for the team to achieve, and the boss battles ended up be outsourced to another developer due to time constraints. The music, composed by Michael McCann, focused on ambiance and three-layered compositions over character themes, Human Revolution was first announced in 2007, soon after beginning development. Its official title and release window were announced in 2010, after release, a downloadable episode titled The Missing Link was developed, featuring improvements on the original gameplay. A directors cut, featuring improvements and post-release and promotional content, was released in 2013 for the original platforms.
Human Revolution received critical acclaim, with going to its player-driven plot, general gameplay. The major criticisms went to its boss fights and recurring technical problems, the directors cut received additional praise for its revamped gameplay elements. Human Revolution spawned a spin-off titled Deus Ex, The Fall, Deus Ex, Human Revolution is an action role-playing game with incorporated first-person shooter and stealth mechanics. Players take the role of Adam Jensen, a man equipped with cybernetic implants called augmentations. Also accessible are black market vendors which supply equipment and weapons for Credits, Interactive objects within environments can be highlighted, although these options are either turned off on the hardest difficulty or can be turned off in the options menu by the player. There are a variety of ways to approach the games situations, players can use a violent approach, Adam can take a stealthy approach, avoiding guards and security devices, again using cover to avoid enemy sight lines.
Adam can move between covers, and move around corners while staying hidden, taking down enemies while in stealth mode has lethal and non-lethal melee options, in addition to weapons that can both kill and stun enemies. Adam can move the bodies of enemies into hiding places, preventing them from being seen, some augmentations are dependent on Adams energy level, deactivating after an amount of energy has been drained. At multiple points within the game, Adam partakes in conversations with NPCs related to main, a Social augmentation enables better reading of an NPCs expression and judging their psychological profile, improving chances of selecting the right dialogue option. While in the environments, Adam finds terminals and computers that can be accessed either with a password or through hacking. Different nodes have different ratings, affecting how easily they can be accessed, various devices have different grades of difficulty, which in turn dictate how many times hacking may be attempted
The first-person shooter shares common traits with other shooter games, which in turn fall under the heading action game. From the genres inception, advanced 3D or pseudo-3D graphics have challenged hardware development, the first-person shooter has since been traced as far back as Maze War, development of which began in 1973, and 1974s Spasim. 1998s Half-Life—along with its 2004 sequel Half-Life 2—enhanced the narrative and puzzle elements, in 1999, Half-Lifes mod Counter-Strike was released and, together with Doom, is perhaps one of the most influential first-person shooters. GoldenEye 007 was a landmark first-person shooter for home consoles, while the Halo series heightened the consoles commercial and critical appeal as a platform for first-person shooter titles. In the 21st century, the shooter is the most commercially viable video game genre. Several first-person shooters have been popular games for eSports and competitive gaming competitions as well, first-person shooters are a type of three-dimensional shooter game, featuring a first-person point of view with which the player sees the action through the eyes of the player character.
They are unlike third-person shooters, in which the player can see the character they are controlling, the primary design element is combat, mainly involving firearms. A more important key difference is that first-person light-gun shooters like Virtua Cop often feature on-rails movement, the first-person shooter may be considered a distinct genre in itself, or a type of shooter game, in turn a subgenre of the wider action game genre. Following the release of Doom in 1993, games in this style were commonly termed Doom clones, in time this term has largely been replaced by first-person shooter. Wolfenstein 3D, released in 1992, the year before Doom, has credited with inventing the genre. There are occasional disagreements regarding the design elements which constitute a first-person shooter. For example, Deus Ex or BioShock may be considered as first-person shooters, some commentators extend the definition to include combat flight simulators where the cockpit or vehicle takes place of the hands and weapons.
Like most shooter games, first-person shooters involve an avatar, one or more ranged weapons, and a varying number of enemies. Because they take place in a 3D environment, these tend to be somewhat more realistic than 2D shooter games. First-person shooters played on computers are most often controlled with a combination of a keyboard. This system has claimed as superior to that found in console games. It is common to display the characters hands and weaponry in the view, with a head-up display showing health. Often, it is possible to overlay a map of the surrounding area, first-person shooters often focus on action gameplay, with fast-paced and bloody firefights, though some place a greater emphasis on narrative, problem-solving and logic puzzles
The Xbox 360 is a home video game console developed by Microsoft. As the successor to the original Xbox, it is the console in the Xbox series. The Xbox 360 competed with Sonys PlayStation 3 and Nintendos Wii as part of the generation of video game consoles. The Xbox 360 was officially unveiled on MTV on May 12,2005, with detailed launch, the Xbox 360 features an online service, Xbox Live, which was expanded from its previous iteration on the original Xbox and received regular updates during the consoles lifetime. In addition to multimedia features, the Xbox 360 allows users to stream media from local PCs. Several peripherals have been released, including controllers, expanded hard drive storage. The release of additional services and peripherals helped the Xbox brand grow from gaming-only to encompassing all multimedia. Launched worldwide across 2005–2006, the Xbox 360 was initially in short supply in many regions, including North America, the earliest versions of the console suffered from a high failure rate, indicated by the so-called Red Ring of Death, necessitating an extension of the devices warranty period.
Microsoft released two redesigned models of the console, the Xbox 360 S in 2010, and the Xbox 360 E in 2013. As of June 2014,84 million Xbox 360 consoles have sold worldwide, making it the sixth-highest-selling video game console in history. The Xbox 360s successor, the Xbox One, was released on November 22,2013, on April 20,2016, Microsoft announced that it would end the production of new Xbox 360 hardware, although the company will continue to support the platform. Known during development as Xbox Next, Xbox 2, Xbox FS or NextBox, in February 2003, planning for the Xenon software platform began, and was headed by Microsofts Vice President J Allard. That month, Microsoft held an event for 400 developers in Bellevue, that month, Peter Moore, former president of Sega of America, joined Microsoft. On August 12,2003, ATI signed on to produce the graphic processing unit for the new console, before the launch of the Xbox 360, several Alpha development kits were spotted using Apples Power Mac G5 hardware.
This was because the systems PowerPC970 processor running the same PowerPC architecture that the Xbox 360 would eventually run under IBMs Xenon processor, the cores of the Xenon processor were developed using a slightly modified version of the PlayStation 3s Cell Processor PPE architecture. According to David Shippy and Mickie Phipps, the IBM employees were hiding their work from Sony and Toshiba, jeff Minter created the music visualization program Neon which is included with the Xbox 360. The Xbox 360 was released on November 22,2005, in the United States and Canada, December 2,2005, in Europe and December 10,2005, in Japan. It was launched in Mexico, Chile, Hong Kong, South Korea, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Russia
Dishonored is a 2012 stealth action-adventure video game developed by Arkane Studios and published by Bethesda Softworks. It was released worldwide in October 2012 for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 3, set in the fictional, plague-ridden industrial city of Dunwall, Dishonored follows the story of Corvo Attano, bodyguard to the Empress of the Isles. He is framed for her murder and forced to become an assassin, Corvo is aided in his quest by the Loyalists—a resistance group fighting to reclaim Dunwall, and the Outsider—a powerful being who imbues Corvo with magical abilities. Several noted actors including Susan Sarandon, Brad Dourif, Carrie Fisher, Michael Madsen, Lena Headey, the game is played from a first-person perspective and allows the player to undertake a series of assassination missions in a variety of ways, with an emphasis on player choice. Missions can be completed through stealth, combat, or a combination of both, exploring each level opens new paths and alternatives for accomplishing mission goals, and it is possible to complete all missions, eliminating all of Corvos targets, in a non-lethal manner.
The story and missions are changed in response to the violent actions or lack thereof. Magical abilities and equipment are designed to be combined to create new, during its three years in production, several versions of Dishonored were developed. Before the creation of Dunwall—inspired by late nineteenth-century London and Edinburgh—the game was set to place in medieval Japan. Dishonoreds music score was produced by composer Daniel Licht to represent London in the nineteenth century, Dishonored received positive reviews, focusing on the missions individual narratives and the freedom available in completing them. Criticism fell on the narrative, which was considered predictable. Following its release, Dishonored was supplemented with additional content focusing on the assassin Daud, PlayStation 4 and Xbox One versions of the game were released in August 2015. A sequel, Dishonored 2, was released on 11 November 2016, Dishonored is an action-adventure game played from a first-person perspective with an emphasis on stealth action and the use of gadgets and the environment to eliminate opposing forces.
The game world is a series of self-contained, mission-focused areas designed for multiple avenues of exploration in terms of in-game movement, in-game areas include loading docks, royal estates, poverty-stricken streets, and a bathhouse. The player can save their progress anywhere, and the game includes a checkpoint save system, the game has four difficulty levels which modify the effectiveness of health and mana potions, and enemies awareness, damage delivered, and responsiveness. In the easy setting, health regeneration is possible, Dishonored features role-playing game elements, such as the ability to upgrade powers and to make moral choices with a focus on non-linear consequences. The game is designed to allow the player to complete it without killing any non-player characters, including boss characters, each mission contains multiple ways to explore and reach targets. The players actions are not judged to be good or evil, but instead are tracked by a system that records the amounts of friendly fire, violence.
This modifies the game world, affecting the story without punishing the player or forcing them to one style of play over another
The Atari 2600 is a home video game console by Atari, Inc. This format contrasts with the model of having non-microprocessor dedicated hardware. The console was sold as the Atari VCS, an abbreviation for Video Computer System. Following the release of the Atari 5200 in 1982, the VCS was renamed to the Atari 2600, after the units Atari part number, CX2600. The 2600 was typically bundled with two controllers, a conjoined pair of paddle controllers, and a game cartridge, initially Combat. Ted Dabney and Nolan Bushnell developed the Atari gaming system in the 1970s, originally operating under the name Syzygy and Dabney changed the name of their company to Atari in 1972. In 1973, Atari Inc. had purchased an engineering think tank called Cyan Engineering to research next-generation video game systems, and had been working on a prototype known as Stella for some time. Unlike prior generations of machines that use custom logic to play a number of games, its core is a complete CPU. It was combined with a RAM-and-I/O chip, the MOS Technology 6532, the first two versions of the machine contain a fourth chip, a standard CMOS logic buffer IC, making Stella cost-effective.
Some versions of the console eliminated the buffer chip, programs for small computers of the time were generally stored on cassette tapes, floppy disks, or paper tape. In 1976, Fairchild Semiconductor released their own CPU-based system, the Video Entertainment System. Stella was still not ready for production, but it was clear that it needed to be there were a number of me too products filling up the market. Atari Inc. didnt have the flow to complete the system quickly. Nolan Bushnell eventually turned to Warner Communications, and sold the company to them in 1976 for US$28 million on the promise that Stella would be produced as soon as possible. Key to the success of the machine was the hiring of Jay Miner. Once that was completed and debugged, the system was ready for shipping, the unit was originally priced at US$199, and shipped with two joysticks and a Combat cartridge. In a move to compete directly with the Channel F, Atari Inc. named the machine the Video Computer System, as the Channel F was at that point known as the VES, for Video Entertainment System.
The VCS was rebadged as the Sears Video Arcade and sold through Sears, another breakthrough for gaming systems was Ataris invention of a computer-controlled opponent, rather than the usual two-player or asymmetric challenges of the past
Massively multiplayer online role-playing game
As in all RPGs, the player assumes the role of a character and takes control over many of that characters actions. MMORPGs are played throughout the world, worldwide revenues for MMORPGs exceeded half a billion dollars in 2005, and Western revenues exceeded a billion dollars in 2006. In 2008, the spending on subscription MMORPGs by consumers in North American, World of Warcraft, a popular MMORPG, has over 10 million subscribers as of November 2014. World of Warcrafts total revenue was $1.04 billion US dollars in 2014, Star Wars, The Old Republic, released in 2011, became the worlds Fastest-Growing MMOG Ever after gaining more than 1 million subscribers within the first three days of its launch. Although modern MMORPGs sometimes differ dramatically from their decedents, many of them share the basic characteristics. The majority of popular MMORPGs are based on traditional fantasy themes, some employ hybrid themes that either merge or replace fantasy elements with those of science fiction and sorcery, or crime fiction.
Still, others draw thematic material from American comic books, the occult, often these elements are developed using similar tasks and scenarios involving quests and loot. In nearly all MMORPGs, the development of the character is the primary goal. Traditionally, combat with monsters and completing quests for non-player characters, the accumulation of wealth is a way to progress in many MMORPGs, and this is traditionally best accomplished via combat. The cycle produced by these conditions, combat leading to new items allowing for more combat with no change in gameplay, is sometimes referred to as the level treadmill. The role-playing game Progress Quest was created as a parody of this trend, eve Online trains skills in real time rather than using experience points as a measure of progression. In some MMORPGs, there is no limit to a player’s level, MMORPGs that use this model often glorify top ranked players by displaying their avatars on the game’s website or posting their stats on a high score screen.
Another common practice is to enforce a maximum level for all players. Once reached, the definition of a player’s progression changes, instead of being awarded primarily with experience for completing quests and dungeons, the player’s motivation to continue playing will be replaced with collecting money and equipment. Often, the range of equipment available at the maximum level will have increased aesthetic value to distinguish high ranking players in game between lower ranked players. Colloquially known as gear, this set of empowered weapons. Player motivation to outperform others is fueled by acquiring such items and is a significant determining factor in their success or failure in combat-related situations, traditional in the genre is the eventual demand on players to team up with others in order to progress at the optimal rate. This sometimes forces players to change their schedules in order to keep up with the game-world
IPhone is a line of smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. They run Apples iOS mobile operating system, the first generation iPhone was released on June 29,2007, the most recent iPhone model is the iPhone 7, which was unveiled at a special event on September 7,2016. The user interface is built around the devices multi-touch screen, including a virtual keyboard, the iPhone has Wi-Fi and can connect to cellular networks. Other functionality, such as games, reference works, and social networking. As of January 2017, Apples App Store contained more than 2.2 million applications available for the iPhone, Apple has released ten generations of iPhone models, each accompanied by one of the ten major releases of the iOS operating system. The iPhone 5 featured a taller, 4-inch display and Apples newly introduced Lightning connector, in 2013, Apple released the 5S with improved hardware and a fingerprint reader, and the lower-cost 5C, a version of the 5 with colored plastic casings instead of metal.
They were followed by the larger iPhone 6, with models featuring 4.7 and 5. 5-inch displays.5 mm headphone jack found on previous phones. The iPhones commercial success has been credited with reshaping the smartphone industry, the original iPhone was one of the first phones to use a design featuring a slate format with a touchscreen interface. Almost all modern smartphones have replicated this style of design, in the US, the iPhone holds the largest share of the smartphone market. As of late 2015, the iPhone had a 43. 6% market share, followed by Samsung, LG, Apple CEO Steve Jobs steered the original focus away from a tablet and towards a phone. Apple created the device during a collaboration with Cingular Wireless at the time—at an estimated development cost of US$150 million over thirty months. Apple rejected the design by committee approach that had yielded the Motorola ROKR E1, among other deficiencies, the ROKR E1s firmware limited storage to only 100 iTunes songs to avoid competing with Apples iPod nano.
Jobs unveiled the iPhone to the public on January 9,2007, the passionate reaction to the launch of the iPhone resulted in sections of the media dubbing it the Jesus phone. Following this successful release in the US, the first generation iPhone was made available in the UK, and Germany in November 2007, on July 11,2008, Apple released the iPhone 3G in twenty-two countries, including the original six. Apple released the iPhone 3G in upwards of eighty countries and territories. Apple announced the iPhone 3GS on June 8,2009, along with plans to release it in June, many would-be users objected to the iPhones cost, and 40% of users had household incomes over US$100,000. The back of the original first generation iPhone was made of aluminum with a black plastic accent, the iPhone 3G and 3GS feature a full plastic back to increase the strength of the GSM signal. The iPhone 3G was available in an 8 GB black model, the iPhone 3GS was available in both colors, regardless of storage capacity
IPad is a line of tablet computers designed and marketed by Apple Inc. which run the iOS mobile operating system. The first iPad was released on April 3,2010, the most recent iPad models are the 9. 7-inch iPad Pro released on March 31,2016, the user interface is built around the devices multi-touch screen, including a virtual keyboard. The iPad includes built-in Wi-Fi and cellular connectivity on select models, as of January 2015, there have been over 250 million iPads sold. IPad tablets are second most popular, by sales, against Android-based ones, since 2013, an iPad can shoot video, take photos, play music, and perform Internet functions such as web-browsing and emailing. Other functions – games, reference, GPS navigation, social networking, as of March 2016, the App Store has more than one million apps for the iPad by Apple and third parties. There have been six versions of the iPad, the first generation established design precedents, such as the 9. 7-inch screen size and button placement, that have persisted through all models.
The third generation added a Retina Display, the new Apple A5X processor with a graphics processor, a 5-megapixel camera, HD 1080p video recording, voice dictation. The fourth generation added the Apple A6X processor and replaces the 30-pin connector with an all-digital Lightning connector, the iPad Air added the Apple A7 processor and the Apple M7 motion coprocessor, and reduced the thickness for the first time since the iPad 2. The iPad Air 2 added the Apple A8X processor, the Apple M8 motion coprocessor, an 8-megapixel camera, and the Touch ID fingerprint sensor, there have been four versions of the iPad Mini. The first generation features a screen size of 7.9 inches and features similar internal specifications as the iPad 2 except it uses the Lightning connector. The iPad Mini 2 features the Retina Display, the Apple A7 processor, the iPad Mini 3 features the Touch ID fingerprint sensor. The iPad Mini 4 features the Apple A8 and the Apple M8 motion coprocessor, Apple co-founder Steve Jobs said in a 1983 speech that the companys strategy is really simple.
What we want to do is we want to put a great computer in a book that you can carry around with you. And we really want to do it with a link in it so you don’t have to hook up to anything and you’re in communication with all of these larger databases. Apples first tablet computer was the Newton MessagePad 100, introduced in 1993, powered by an ARM6 processor core developed by ARM, Apple developed a prototype PowerBook Duo based tablet, the PenLite, but decided not to sell it in order to avoid hurting MessagePad sales. Apple released several more Newton-based PDAs, the one, the MessagePad 2100, was discontinued in 1998. Apple re-entered the mobile-computing markets in 2007 with the iPhone, smaller than the iPad, but featuring a camera and mobile phone, it pioneered the multi-touch finger-sensitive touchscreen interface of Apples iOS mobile operating system. By late 2009, the release had been rumored for several years
The Intellivision is a home video game console released by Mattel Electronics in 1979. Development of the began in 1978, less than a year after the introduction of its main competitor. The name Intellivision is a portmanteau of intelligent television, Games development started in 1978 and continued until 1990 when the Intellivision was discontinued. From 1980 to 1983 over 3 million Intellivision units were sold, in 2009, video game website IGN named the Intellivision the No.14 greatest video game console of all time. It remained Mattels only video game console until the release of the HyperScan in 2006, the Intellivision was developed at Mattel in Hawthorne, California along with their Mattel Electronics line of handheld electronic games. Mattel Electronics becoming a subsidiary in 1981, the Intellivision was test marketed in Fresno, California in 1979 with a total of four games available. It was released nationwide in 1980 with a tag of US$299, a pack-in game, Las Vegas Poker & Blackjack. Mattel began investigating a home game system in 1977.
It was to have rich graphics and long lasting gameplay to distinguish itself from its competitors, Mattel identified a newly designed chipset from National Semiconductor and negotiated better pricing for a simpler design. Their consultant, APh Technological Consulting, suggested a General Instrument chipset, the GI chipset lacked reprogrammable graphics and Mattel worked with GI to implement changes. GI published an updated chipset in their 1978 catalog, after initially choosing National in August 1977, Mattel waited for two months before ultimately going with the proposed GI chipset in the fall of 1977. A team at Mattel, headed by David Chandler began engineering the hardware, in 1978, David Rolfe of APh developed the executive control software and with a group of Caltech summer student hires, programmed the first games. Graphics were designed by artists at Mattel that included Dave James, though not the first system to challenge Warner Communications Atari, it was the first to pose a serious threat to the market leader.
One of the slogans of the television advertisements stated that Intellivision was the closest thing to the real thing, one example in an advertisement compared golf games. The other consoles games had a sound and cruder graphics, while the Intellivision featured a realistic swing sound and striking of the ball. There was an advertisement comparing the Atari 2600 to it, in its first year, Mattel sold out its initial 175,000 production run of Intellivision Master Components. In 1981, over 1 million Intellivision consoles were sold, the Intellivision Master Component was branded and distributed by various companies. Before Mattel shifted manufacturing to Hong Kong, Mattel Intellivisions were manufactured by GTE Sylvania, GTE Sylvania Intellivisions were produced along with Mattels with the brand name the only differentiation
The Commodore 64, known as the C64, C-64, C=64, or occasionally CBM64 or VIC-64 in Sweden, is an 8-bit home computer introduced in January 1982 by Commodore International. It is listed in the Guinness World Records as the single computer model of all time. Volume production started in early 1982, marketing in August for US$595, preceded by the Commodore VIC-20 and Commodore PET, the C64 took its name from its 64 kilobytes of RAM. It had superior sound and graphical specifications compared to earlier systems such as the Apple II and Atari 800, with multi-color sprites. The C64 dominated the low-end computer market for most of the 1980s. Sam Tramiel, a Atari president and the son of Commodores founder, said in a 1989 interview, When I was at Commodore we were building 400,000 C64s a month for a couple of years. In the UK market, the C64 faced competition from the BBC Micro and the ZX Spectrum, part of the Commodore 64s success was its sale in regular retail stores instead of only electronics and/or computer hobbyist specialty stores.
Commodore produced many of its parts in-house to control costs, including custom integrated circuit chips from MOS Technology and it has been compared to the Ford Model T automobile for its role in bringing a new technology to middle-class households via creative and affordable mass-production. Approximately 10,000 commercial software titles have made for the Commodore 64 including development tools, office productivity applications. C64 emulators allow anyone with a computer, or a compatible video game console. The C64 is credited with popularizing the computer demoscene and is used today by some computer hobbyists. In 2008,17 years after it was taken off the market, in January 1981, MOS Technology, Inc. Commodores integrated circuit design subsidiary, initiated a project to design the graphic, Design work for the chips, named MOS Technology VIC-II and MOS Technology SID, was completed in November 1981. Commodore began a game console project that would use the new chips—called the Ultimax or the Commodore MAX Machine and this project was eventually cancelled after just a few machines were manufactured for the Japanese market.
At the same time, Robert Bob Russell and Robert Bob Yannes were critical of the current product line-up at Commodore, with the support of Al Charpentier and Charles Winterble, they proposed to Commodore CEO Jack Tramiel a true low-cost sequel to the VIC-20. Tramiel dictated that the machine should have 64 KB of random-access memory, although 64-Kbit dynamic random-access memory chips cost over US$100 at the time, he knew that DRAM prices were falling, and would drop to an acceptable level before full production was reached. The product was named the VIC-40 as the successor to the popular VIC-20. The team that constructed it consisted of Yash Terakura, Bob Russell, Bob Yannes, the design and some sample software were finished in time for the show, after the team had worked tirelessly over both Thanksgiving and Christmas weekends