Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Foot whipping or bastinado is a method of corporal punishment which consists of hitting the soles of a person's bare feet. Unlike most types of flogging, this punishment was meant to be more painful than it was to cause actual injury to the victim. Blows were delivered with a light rod, knotted cord, or lash; the receiving person is required to be barefoot. The uncovered soles of the feet need to be placed in an exposed position; the beating is performed with an object in the type of a cane or switch. The strokes are aimed at the arches of the feet and repeated a certain number of times. Bastinado is referred to as foot caning or sole caning, depending on the instrument in use; the particular Middle East method is called falanga, derived from the Greek term phalanx. The German term is Bastonade, deriving from the Italian noun bastonata. In former times it was referred to as Sohlenstreich; the Chinese term is da jiao xin. The first scripted documentation of bastinado in Europe dates back to the year 1537, in China to 960.
References to bastinado have been hypothesised to be found in the Bible, suggesting the practice since antiquity. This subform of flagellation differentiates from most other forms by limiting the strokes to a narrow section of the body; the beatings aim at the vaults of the feet where the soles are pain sensitive, at this avoiding hitting the balls and heels directly but concentrating on the small area in between. As the skin texture under the soles of the feet can endure high levels of strain, injuries demanding medical attention, such as lacerations or bruises, are inflicted if certain precautions are observed by the executant; the undersides of the feet have therefore become a common target for corporal punishment in many cultures while different methods exist. Foot whipping is carried out within prisons and similar institutions. Besides inflicting intense physical suffering it trades on the significance of bare feet as a dishonouring socio-cultural attribute. Therefore, it is regarded to be a humiliating as well as degrading form of punishment.
As wearing shoes is an integral element of societal appearance since antiquity, the visual exposure of bare feet is a traditional and sometimes ritualistic practice to display the subjection or submission of a person under a manifestation of superior power. At this was used as a visual indicator of a subservient standing within a social structure and to display the imbalance in power, it was therefore imposed as a visual identifier and obstacle on slaves and prisoners divested of rights and liberties in a similar manner. Exploiting its socio-cultural significance, people have been forced to go barefoot as a formal shame sanction and for public humiliation as well. Keeping prisoners barefoot is common practice in several countries of today. Foot whipping therefore poses a distinct threat and is particularly dreaded by potential victims. Exploiting the effects this penalty is used to maintain discipline and compliance in prisons. Bastinado is associated with Middle and Far Eastern nations, where it is executed in public, therefore covered by occasional reports and photographs.
However it has been practised within in the Western World as well in prisons, boarding schools and similar institutions. In Europe bastinado was a encountered form of corporal punishment in German areas, where it was carried out to enforce discipline within penal and reformatory institutions, culminating during the Third Reich era. In several German and Austrian institutions it was still practised during the 1950s. Although bastinado was practised in penal institutions of the Western world until the late 20th century, it was noticed as there is no reference to being adjudged on a high level. Instead it was carried out on a rather low level within the confines of the institutions to punish inmates during incarceration. If not authorized the practice was condoned, while happening unbeknown to the public. Foot whipping hardly attracts public interest in general as it appears unspectacular and inoffensive compared to other punishment methods; as it was not executed publicly in the western world, it came to be witnessed only by the individuals directly involved.
At this former prisoners communicate incidents as bastinado is perceived as a degrading punishment, while former executants are obliged to confidentiality. Bastinado is still used as prison punishment in several countries; as it causes a high level of suffering for the victim and physical evidence remains undetectable after some time, it is used for interrogation and torture. Bastinado requires a certain amount of collaborative effort and an authoritarian presence on the executing party to be enforced. Therefore, it appears in settings where corporal punishment is approved to be exerted on predefined group of people; this can be situations of incarceration as well as slavery. This moderated subform of flagellation is characteristically prevalent where subjected individuals are forced to remain barefoot. Foot whipping was common practice as means of disciplinary punishment in different kinds of institutions throughout Central Europe until the 1950s in German territories. In German prisons this method served as the principal disciplinary punishment.
Throughout the Nazi era it was used in German penal
Charles I of England
Charles I was the monarch over the three kingdoms of England and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. Charles was born into the House of Stuart as the second son of King James VI of Scotland, but after his father inherited the English throne in 1603, he moved to England, where he spent much of the rest of his life, he became heir apparent to the thrones of England and Ireland on the death of his elder brother, Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, in 1612. An unsuccessful and unpopular attempt to marry him to the Spanish Habsburg princess Maria Anna culminated in an eight-month visit to Spain in 1623 that demonstrated the futility of the marriage negotiations. Two years he married the Bourbon princess Henrietta Maria of France instead. After his succession, Charles quarrelled with the Parliament of England, which sought to curb his royal prerogative. Charles believed in the divine right of kings, was determined to govern according to his own conscience. Many of his subjects opposed his policies, in particular the levying of taxes without parliamentary consent, perceived his actions as those of a tyrannical absolute monarch.
His religious policies, coupled with his marriage to a Roman Catholic, generated the antipathy and mistrust of Reformed groups such as the English Puritans and Scottish Covenanters, who thought his views were too Catholic. He supported high church Anglican ecclesiastics, such as Richard Montagu and William Laud, failed to aid Protestant forces during the Thirty Years' War, his attempts to force the Church of Scotland to adopt high Anglican practices led to the Bishops' Wars, strengthened the position of the English and Scottish parliaments, helped precipitate his own downfall. From 1642, Charles fought the armies of the English and Scottish parliaments in the English Civil War. After his defeat in 1645, he surrendered to a Scottish force that handed him over to the English Parliament. Charles refused to accept his captors' demands for a constitutional monarchy, temporarily escaped captivity in November 1647. Re-imprisoned on the Isle of Wight, Charles forged an alliance with Scotland, but by the end of 1648 Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army had consolidated its control over England.
Charles was tried and executed for high treason in January 1649. The monarchy was abolished and a republic called the Commonwealth of England was declared; the monarchy would be restored to Charles's son, Charles II, in 1660. The second son of King James VI of Scotland and Anne of Denmark, Charles was born in Dunfermline Palace, Fife, on 19 November 1600. At a Protestant ceremony in the Chapel Royal of Holyrood Palace in Edinburgh on 23 December 1600, he was baptised by David Lindsay, Bishop of Ross, created Duke of Albany, the traditional title of the second son of the King of Scotland, with the subsidiary titles of Marquess of Ormond, Earl of Ross and Lord Ardmannoch. James VI was the first cousin twice removed of Queen Elizabeth I of England, when she died childless in March 1603, he became King of England as James I. Charles was a weak and sickly infant, while his parents and older siblings left for England in April and early June that year, due to his fragile health, he remained in Scotland with his father's friend Lord Fyvie, appointed as his guardian.
By 1604, when Charles was three-and-a-half, he was able to walk the length of the great hall at Dunfermline Palace without assistance, it was decided that he was strong enough to make the journey to England to be reunited with his family. In mid-July 1604, Charles left Dunfermline for England where he was to spend most of the rest of his life. In England, Charles was placed under the charge of Elizabeth, Lady Carey, the wife of courtier Sir Robert Carey, who put him in boots made of Spanish leather and brass to help strengthen his weak ankles, his speech development was slow, he retained a stammer, or hesitant speech, for the rest of his life. In January 1605, Charles was created Duke of York, as is customary in the case of the English sovereign's second son, made a Knight of the Bath. Thomas Murray, a presbyterian Scot, was appointed as a tutor. Charles learnt the usual subjects of classics, languages and religion. In 1611, he was made a Knight of the Garter. Charles conquered his physical infirmity, which might have been caused by rickets.
He became an adept horseman and marksman, took up fencing. So, his public profile remained low in contrast to that of his physically stronger and taller elder brother, Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, whom Charles adored and attempted to emulate. However, in early November 1612, Henry died at the age of 18 of what is suspected to have been typhoid. Charles, who turned 12 two weeks became heir apparent; as the eldest surviving son of the sovereign, Charles automatically gained several titles. Four years in November 1616, he was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester. In 1613, his sister Elizabeth married Frederick V, Elector Palatine, moved to Heidelberg. In 1617, the Habsburg Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, a Catholic, was elected king of Bohemia; the following year, the Bohemians rebelled. In August 1619, the Bohemian diet chose as their monarch Frederick V, leader of the Protestant Union, while Ferdinand was elected Holy Roman Emperor in the imperial election. Frederick's acceptance of the Bohemian crown in defiance of the emperor marked the beginning of the turmoil that would develop into the Thirty Years' War.
The conflict confined to Bohemia, spiralled into a wider European war, which the English Parliament and public grew to see
Oratory of Jesus
The Congregation of the Oratory of Jesus and Mary Immaculate, best known as the French Oratory, is a Roman Catholic Society of apostolic life of Catholic priests founded in 1611 in Paris, France, by Pierre de Bérulle a cardinal of the Catholic Church. They are known as Oratorians; the French Oratory had a determinant influence on the French school of spirituality throughout the 17th century. It is distinct from the Oratory of Saint Philip Neri, which served as its inspiration; the aim of the Society is to center spiritual life on the human aspect of Jesus, linked to the essence of God. Unlike the Italian Oratory, whose communities are all autonomous, the French Oratory operates under the central authority of a Superior General. In France, Bérulle, ordained a priest in 1599, felt that the clergy of the country had lost their spirit, seeking only the economic security of benefices. With the goal of restoring the spiritual commitment to their calling, on 11 November 1611, he and five other priests founded a society of priests, without the obligation of religious vows, in which one would dedicate one's entire strength to priestly perfection, in order to carry out all the functions of this ministry and to shape in piety those who aspired to this.
Bérulle hoped that such priests would both inspire others of the French clergy, blunt the attraction of Calvinism. Taking the example of the Oratory of Saint Philip Neri in Rome, he envisioned secular clergy living together in community. However, Bérulle felt that the situation in France required a tighter organizational structure than Neri's communities in Italy, so the French Oratory operated under the authority of a Superior General; the Oratory received letters patent from King Louis XIII of France that same year. Pope Paul V authorized them on 10 May 1613. At the time of the founder's death in 1629, the Oratory numbered about 400 priests, living in some 60 communities. Like the Jesuits and Capuchins, members of the French Oratory conducted parish missions; the French Oratory became important in the area of spiritual direction, as the Fathers of the congregation were confessors of influential people, for example Charles de Condren, confessor to Prince Gaston of France, King Louis' brother, were protected by the royal court Queen Marie de Medici.
They were confessors to numerous monasteries of Discalced Carmelite nuns, established in France, through the efforts of Bérulle, under the leadership of the Blessed Marie of the Incarnation, O. C. D; the church which the Oratorians built on the Rue Saint-Honoré in 1750 became the parish church of the royal court. Although not a teaching order, it was the first to organize seminaries in France according to the ordinances of the Council of Trent; the Oratorians became leading figures in the field of education in France and founded their own schools and colleges, such as the College of Juilly which they opened in 1638. In their schools, they taught in French, rather than the Latin used in the Jesuit schools, they had a curriculum which taught the sciences. Their students learned modern foreign languages as opposed to the classical languages; when the French Revolution broke out in 1789 the Fathers of the Oratory were supportive of the ideals of liberty that it espoused, which fit into their corporate ethos.
Despite this support, the Legislative Assembly of the new Republic dissolved all secular congregations in August 1792 and their communities and schools were disbanded. Some of the lay teachers in their schools, such as Jacques Nicolas Billaud-Varenne, became involved with the Revolution. Of the 288 members of the Oratory at that time, 51 chose to accept the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, they made up about one-fifth of the French clergy. Of the rest of the Congregation, 15 were died either in prison or on the guillotine; the rest fled the country. The last Superior General had died in 1790, given the social upheavals going on, the Oratorians decided to wait it out before attempting to elect a successor, thinking that the situation would be only temporary. Several attempts were made to re-establish the Congregation after the Catholic Church was allowed to function again in the nation, they were successful only in 1852, under the leadership of the Abbé Joseph Gratry, together with the Abbés Pierre Pététot and Hyacinthe de Valroger.
Gratry was a brilliant academic, holding doctorates in both the humanities and theology. He was named the Almoner of the École Normale Supérieure in 1846, which placed him at the center of intellectual life of the period, he envisioned communities which could be schools of theological exploration, working with the scientific focus of modern society. Pététot was a pastor in Paris, who saw the clergy of the day poorly formed; when they met, they found that they shared a desire for secular priests living in community, without vows. In 1903, forced to leave the country as a result of the anti-clerical laws of the Third French Republic, the Oratorians took refuge in Switzerland, returning to France only in 1920; as of 2019, they numbered 35 members in 13 locations. The Society of Priests of Saint Sulpice was founded in 1641 with the purpose of the education of priests, by Jean-Jacques Olier, a disciple of Oratorian Charles de Condren. John Eudes was a member of the Oratory before leaving to establish the Congregation of Jesus and Mary.
Nicolas Malebranche Jean-Baptiste Massillon Achille Harlay de Sancy Nicéphore Niépce Richard Simon Hyacinthe de Valroger Honoré de Balzac Oratoire de France website
An intellectual is a person who engages in critical thinking and reflection about society, proposes solutions for its normative problems and gains authority as a public figure. Coming from the world of culture, either as a creator or as a mediator, the intellectual participates in politics either to defend a concrete proposition or to denounce an injustice by rejecting, producing or extending an ideology, or by defending a system of values; the intellectual is a type of intelligent person who uses critical thinking. Many everyday roles require the application of intelligence to skills that may have a psychomotor component—for example, in the fields of medicine or the arts--but these do not involve the practitioner in the "world of ideas"; the intellectual scrutinizes cultural ideas and writings using abstract and esoteric aspects of human inquiry to evaluate the thinking of others. The intellectual and the scholarly classes are related: the intellectual may be a teacher involved in the production of scholarship and has an academic background, or may work in a profession or practice an art or a science.
The intellectual person is one who applies critical thinking and reason in either a professional or a personal capacity, so has authority in the public sphere of their society. In Latin language, at least starting from the Carolingian Empire intellectuals could be called litterati, a term, sometimes applied today. Intellectuals constitute the intelligentsia, a status class organised either by ideology, or by nationality; the contemporary intellectual class originated from the intelligentsiya of Tsarist Russia, the social stratum of those possessing intellectual formation, who were Russian society's counterpart to the German Bildungsbürgertum and to the French bourgeoisie éclairée, the enlightened middle classes of those realms. In the late 19th century, amidst the Dreyfus affair, an identity crisis of anti-semitic nationalism for the French Third Republic, the reactionary anti–Dreyfusards used the terms intellectual and the intellectuals to deride the liberal Dreyfusards as political dilettantes from the realms of French culture and science, who had become involved in politics, by publicly advocating for the exoneration and liberation of Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish French artillery captain falsely accused of betraying France to Germany.
In the 20th century, the term intellectual acquired positive connotations of social prestige, derived from possessing intellect and intelligence when the intellectual's activities exerted positive consequences in the public sphere and so increased the intellectual understanding of the public, by means of moral responsibility and solidarity, without resorting to the manipulations of demagoguery and incivility. Hence, for the educated person of a society, participating in the public sphere—the political affairs of the city-state—is a civic responsibility dating from the Græco–Latin Classical era: I am a human; the determining factor for a Thinker to be considered a public intellectual is the degree to which he or she is implicated and engaged with the vital reality of the contemporary world. Being designated as a public intellectual is determined by the degree of influence of the designator's motivations and options of action, by affinity with the given thinker. Analogously, the application and the conceptual value of the terms intellectual and the intellectuals are negative when the practice of intellectuality is in service to the Establishment who wield power in a society, as such: The Intellectuals are specialists in defamation, they are political commissars, they are the ideological administrators, the most threatened by dissidence.
Chomsky's negative view of the Establishment Intellectual suggests the existence of another kind of intellectual one might call "the public intellectual", the following: omeone able to speak the truth, a courageous and angry individual for whom no worldly power is too big and imposing to be criticised and pointedly taken to task. The real or true intellectual is therefore always an outsider, living in self-imposed exile, on the margins of society, he or she speaks to, as well as for, a public in public, is properly on the side of the dispossessed, the un-represented and the forgotten. The term "man of letters" derives from the French term belletrist or homme de lettres but is not synonymous with "an academic". A "man of letters" was a literate man as opposed to an illiterate man, in a time when literacy was a rare form of cultural capital. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the Belletrists were the
Ancient Diocese of Saint-Malo
The former Breton and French Catholic Diocese of Saint-Malo existed from at least the seventh century until the French Revolution. Its see was to a point in the twelfth century, when it moved to Saint-Malo, its territory extended over some of the modern departments of Ille-et-Vilaine, Côtes-d'Armor and Morbihan. Until the 860s it was termed bishopric of Poutrocoet. Catholic Church in France List of Catholic dioceses in Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae: quotquot innotuerunt a beato Petro apostolo. Ratisbon: Typis et Sumptibus Georgii Josephi Manz. pp. 548–549. Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 1. Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list p. 301. Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 2. Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list p. 175. Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 3. Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Gauchat, Patritius. Hierarchia catholica IV. Münster: Libraria Regensbergiana.
Retrieved 2016-07-06. P. 219. Ritzler, Remigius. Hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi V. Patavii: Messagero di S. Antonio. Retrieved 2016-07-06. Jean, Armand. Les évêques et les archevêques de France depuis 1682 jusqu'à 1801. Paris: A. Picard. Pisani, Paul. Répertoire biographique de l'épiscopat constitutionnel. Paris: A. Picard et fils
Cardinal Armand Jean du Plessis, 1st Duke of Richelieu and Fronsac referred to as Cardinal Richelieu, was a French clergyman and statesman. He was consecrated as a bishop in 1607 and was appointed Foreign Secretary in 1616. Richelieu soon rose in both the Catholic Church and the French government, becoming a cardinal in 1622, King Louis XIII's chief minister in 1624, he remained in office until his death in 1642. Cardinal de Richelieu was known by the title of the king's "Chief Minister" or "First Minister", he sought to crush domestic factions. By restraining the power of the nobility, he transformed France into a centralized state, his chief foreign policy objective was to check the power of the Austro-Spanish Habsburg dynasty, to ensure French dominance in the Thirty Years' War that engulfed Europe. Although he was a cardinal, he did not hesitate to make alliances with Protestant rulers in an attempt to achieve his goals. While a powerful political figure, events like the Day of the Dupes show that in fact he much depended on the king's confidence to keep this power.
As alumnus of the University of Paris and headmaster of the College of Sorbonne, he renovated and extended the institution. Richelieu was famous for his patronage of the arts. Richelieu is known by the sobriquet l'Éminence rouge, from the red shade of a cardinal's clerical dress and the style "eminence" as a cardinal; as an advocate for Samuel de Champlain and of the retention of New France, he founded the Compagnie des Cent-Associés and saw the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye return Quebec City to French rule under Champlain, after the settlement had been taken by the Kirkes in 1629. This in part allowed the colony to develop into the heartland of Francophone culture in North America. Richelieu has been depicted in popular fiction most notably as a leading character in Alexandre Dumas's novel The Three Musketeers and its numerous film adaptations. Born in Paris, Armand du Plessis was the fourth of five children and the last of three sons: he was delicate from childhood, suffered frequent bouts of ill-health throughout his life.
His family was somewhat prominent, belonging to the lesser nobility of Poitou: his father, François du Plessis, seigneur de Richelieu, was a soldier and courtier who served as the Grand Provost of France, his mother, Susanne de La Porte, was the daughter of a famous jurist. When he was five years old, his father died fighting in the French Wars of Religion, leaving the family in debt. At the age of nine, young Richelieu was sent to the College of Navarre in Paris to study philosophy. Thereafter, he began to train for a military career, his private life seems to have been typical of a young officer of the era: in 1605, aged twenty, he was treated by Théodore de Mayerne for gonorrhea. Henry III had rewarded Richelieu's father for his participation in the Wars of Religion by granting his family the bishopric of Luçon; the family appropriated most of the revenues of the bishopric for private use. To protect the important source of revenue, Richelieu's mother proposed to make her second son, the bishop of Luçon.
Alphonse, who had no desire to become a bishop, became instead a Carthusian monk. Thus, it became necessary, he threw himself into studying for his new post. In 1606 Henry IV nominated Richelieu to become Bishop of Luçon; as Richelieu had not yet reached the canonical minimum age, it was necessary that he journey to Rome for a special dispensation from the Pope. This secured, Richelieu was consecrated bishop in April 1607. Soon after he returned to his diocese in 1608, Richelieu was heralded as a reformer, he became the first bishop in France to implement the institutional reforms prescribed by the Council of Trent between 1545 and 1563. At about this time, Richelieu became a friend of François Leclerc du Tremblay, a Capuchin friar, who would become a close confidant; because of his closeness to Richelieu, the grey colour of his robes, Father Joseph was nicknamed l'Éminence grise. Richelieu used him as an agent during diplomatic negotiations. In 1614, the clergymen of Poitou asked Richelieu to be one of their representatives to the States-General.
There, he was a vigorous advocate of the Church, arguing that it should be exempt from taxes and that bishops should have more political power. He was the most prominent clergyman to support the adoption of the decrees of the Council of Trent throughout France. At the end of the assembly, the First Estate chose him to deliver the address enumerating its petitions and decisions. Soon after the dissolution of the Estates-General, Richelieu entered the service of King Louis XIII's wife, Anne of Austria, as her almoner. Richelieu advanced politically by faithfully serving the Queen-Mother's favourite, Concino Concini, the most powerful minister in the kingdom. In 1616, Richelieu was made Secretary of State, was given responsibility for foreign affairs. Like Concini, the Bishop was one of the closest advisors of Louis XIII