Achilles Point

Achilles Point is a rocky point on the headland at the eastern end of the small sandy beach named Ladies Bay, New Zealand. The name'Te Pane o Horoiwi' can sometimes refer to the whole headland between St Heliers and Tamaki River estuary. Achilles Point is named after a ship called HMNZS Achilles which defeated the German pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee in 1939; the headland, from the point round to the Tamaki heads, was known as Te Pane o Horoiwi, named after Horoiwi who arrived in New Zealand on the Tainui canoe. Ladies Bay is a secluded beach, below steep cliffs, on the headland west of the lookout over Achilles point. Both Ladies Bay and further to the east, the more secluded Gentleman's Bay beach are unofficially places where nudists can be found enjoying the sun and sand however the fine for indecent exposure is $200; the secluded bays are popular with the male gay community. Glover Park is an ancient volcanic crater; the volcanic tuff ring crater is known in Māori language as Whakahumu or geologically as the'St Heliers explosion crater'.

It is found in the center of the headland between West Tamaki Head and the eastern end of St Heliers Bay beach. It was filled in during the 1950s to form a public sports field. Before that it swamp; the seaward side of the tuff crater is falling away down the coastal cliffs to'Gentleman's Bay' far below. The tuff ring is made from ejected material; the cliffs were there before the volcano erupted so the volcanic rock draped over the clay hill that once existed before sea levels rose and began eroding it away to become the steep cliffs we see today. Some volcanic rocks can be found on the beach below – some fragments ejected from deep in the earth, or blocks of tuff ring that were once perched on top of the cliff. Rangitoto Island is directly to the north, however Rangitoto is a recent eruption and was not always there to shelter the cliffs from powerful wave action. There is an old concrete water tower built on the tuff ring formed around the edge of the crater opposite the seaward side. Going east, past Ladies Bay and Gentleman's Bay, we round the West Tamaki Head into the Tamaki Estuary.

It is here we find an excellent example of the grey coloured'Parnell Grit' accessible from Karaka Bay.'Parnell Grit', is a brittle sedimentary rock containing fragments of scoria and pumice. At low tide there is an interesting walk from Ladies Bay along the base of the cliffs to St Helier's Bay; the rocky shoreline overlooks the Waitematā Harbour which itself occupies a drowned valley system cut in marine sediments of Miocene Age. Around Auckland these soft Miocene sediments are alternating Waitemata series sandstone and mudstone with more massive beds of sandstone sometimes with minor occurrences of limestone; the concretions that can be seen, are formed by the action of ground water with dissolved minerals percolating through the layers. Calcium carbonate is an important component of concrete and fills in the pore spaces between grains of sediment thereby cementing the grains together and making them more durable against erosion. Volcanoes of Auckland: A Field Guide. Hayward, B. W.. Archaeology and History of St Heliers, Auckland.

Geology of the headland Point to point walkway ARC – St Heliers to Churchill park through the crater at Glover Park Explanation of concretions Point to Point walkway. The full point to point walk is 7.5km long, starting at the popular St Heliers Bay and finishing at Point England. Allow three to four hours. Geological features between Ladies Bay and St Heliers Bay

Military mail

Military mail, as opposed to civilian mail, refers to the postal services provided by armed forces that allow serving members to send and receive mail. Military mail systems are subsidized to ensure that military mail does not cost the sender any more than normal domestic mail. In some cases, military personnel in a combat zone may post letters and packages to their home country for free. Modern military mail services are provided by most armed forces around the world. In some nations, individual service branches may run their own military mail program. Early forms of military mail may go back to the dawn of civilization. There is some evidence of it dating back to Ancient Egypt of the 2nd millennium BC; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle make mention of messengers being sent by King Edward the Elder to recall members of the Kent fyrd, but it is regarded that the origins of the postal services stem from the King's Messengers of medieval times, in particular, the Royal Post established in the reign of King Edward IV to support his troops engaged in a war against Scotland.

In 1795, Parliament granted the penny postage concession to soldiers and sailors of the British Army and Royal Navy. Four years in 1799, the Duke of York appointed Henry Darlot, an ‘intelligent clerk’ from the General Post Office as the Army Postmaster to accompany his expedition to Helder. Thomas Reynolds, as the British Post Office Agent in Lisbon, Portugal was made responsible for coordinating the exchange of the British Army’s mails at the port during the Peninsular War. Two Sergeant Postmasters were appointed to work with Reynolds; the sergeants reported to the Duke of Wellington’s the Superintendent of Military Communications, Major Scovell and Lieutenant Colonel Sturgeon. After complaints about the mail services to the British troops fighting in the Crimean War the Postmaster General authorised the secondment of GPO staff to organise and distribute mail in the theatre of war. A Base Army Post Office was established in Constantinople and a field post Office with the Army Headquarters at Balaklava.

A regular seaborne mail service was established between Constantinople. In response to demands made by Florence Nightingale, a method of transmitting money was devised to allow troops to transfer monies back to their families at home in the United Kingdom; this was designed to prevent drunkenness and became the world's first International Money Order Service. In its first month of operation £7,000 was remitted by the British troops; the military postal experience of the Crimea and the lessons learnt from the Indian Army encouraged the British Army to review the arrangements for the provision of a postal service to the troops in the field. There were two opinions. Secondly, that civilians from the Post Office be responsible for the service as in the Crimean and Indian Army example; the provision of a mail service to soldiers remained an ad hoc affair until 1882. In 1881 a rebellion broke out in Egypt. In response a British Expeditionary Force was sent to Egypt in the same year under the command of Sir Garnet Wolseley.

This gave Lieutenant Colonel du Plat Taylor the opportunity to raise the matter of the postal corps again and it was agreed that an Army Post Office Corps should be formed. Mails from Britain were despatched three times a week via the'overland route' through France to Alexandria; the Army Post Offices sold stamps and postal orders. In addition to the mail services, a free parcel service from the naval docks at Deptford was set up; these parcels transports. This service was the forerunner of the Military Forwarding Office service; the Expedition was a success and set the basis for the institution of military mail, both in England and around the world. The unit received high praise from the commander-in-chief, who wrote: At the end of World War I, the Royal Engineers along with the Royal Air Force helped to pioneer international airmail services, by setting up airmail routes between Folkestone and Cologne, Germany to service the British Army of the Rhine; the British Forces Post Office provides a postal service to HM Forces, separate from that provided by Royal Mail in the United Kingdom.

BFPO addresses are used for the delivery of mail around the world. BFPO is based at RAF Northolt in North West London; the mission of BFPO is to "...provide an efficient and effective Postal and Courier Service to sustain the fighting power of UK Armed Forces Worldwide." When sending mail from the UK to a member of HM Forces serving overseas, the sender must address it to the appropriate BFPO number, not to the country in which that person is based. In 2012, in collaboration with Royal Mail, the BFPO introduced UK-style postcodes, to help ordering items online, owing to problems with websites not recognising the BFPO addressing format; the addresses are assigned to the notional post town "BFPO" and, as of 2012, the postcodes all begin with "BF1". The Bundeswehr's military mail system is known in German as Feldpost; these include Kosovo and Afghanistan. Feldpost addresses consist of the word "Feldpost" and a four-digit number beginning with "64" followed by two additional digits denoting the specific mission.

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James Laurinaitis

James Richard Laurinaitis is a former American football linebacker who played for the St. Louis Rams and New Orleans Saints of the National Football League, he played college football at Ohio State, where he was a three-time consensus All-American and won numerous awards. He was drafted by the Rams in the second round of the 2009 NFL Draft. Laurinaitis was born in Minnesota, he was raised in a family of athletes. He attended Wayzata High School, played high school football and hockey, he was touted as a potential second or third-round National Hockey League draft pick, but teams didn't draft him because it was thought that he was more to pursue a football career. While he was a successful hockey player, having been named a team captain as a senior, football was arguably his best sport, he was named Defensive Mr. Football in Minnesota in 2004; that season, he helped lead his high school football team to the state championship game in Class 5A with 193 tackles, including 28 for loss and five sacks.

Laurinaitis attended Ohio State University, where he played for coach Jim Tressel's Ohio State Buckeyes football team from 2005 to 2008. As a true freshman in 2005, he played in all 12 games reaching No. 2 on the depth chart at strong-side linebacker behind Bobby Carpenter. After Carpenter broke a leg on the first play from scrimmage in their rivalry game against Michigan, Laurinaitis played the rest of that game, started in their Fiesta Bowl victory over Notre Dame. At the end of the 2006 regular season, Laurinaitis led the team in tackles and interceptions, had 8.5 tackles for loss and 4.0 sacks. In 2006 Laurinaitis won the Nagurski Award as the nation's best defensive player, was named a finalist for the Butkus and Bednarik awards, he was a first-team All-Big Ten selection, was recognized as a consensus first-team All-American. Laurinaitis won the Butkus Award for most outstanding college linebacker in 2007, he was recognized as a unanimous first-team All-American in 2007, having been named to the first teams of multiple selectors including the Associated Press, the American Football Coaches Association, FWAA, Sporting News, the Walter Camp Foundation,

He was honored as the Big Ten Defensive Player of the Year. In 2008, he was named one of four finalists for the 2008 Rotary Lombardi Award and the winner of the Lott Trophy for The Defensive IMPACT Player of the Year and the recipient of the Lowe's Senior CLASS Award, he was recognized as a consensus first-team All-American for the third consecutive year. He was a finalist for the Chuck Bednarik Award, presented to the nation's top defender by the Maxwell Club of Philadelphia and one of five defensive players among fifteen finalists for the Walter Camp Player of the Year award, he started all thirteen games, becoming the fourth player in school history to lead the team in tackles three times in a career, as he ranked second in the Big Ten and 14th nationally with an average of 10.0 tackles per game. He recorded a career-high 130 tackles that included four sacks, seven stops for losses and one quarterback pressure, caused a fumble, deflected four passes and picked off two others. Laurinaitis is the only player to win two Big Ten Defensive Player of the Year awards.

Laurinaitis attended the NFL Scouting Combine and performed all of the combine and positional drills. On March 19, 2009, he participated at Ohio State's Pro day and improved his 40-yard dash, 20-yard dash, 10-yard dash, short shuttle, three-cone drill. At the conclusion of the pre-draft process, Laurinaitis was projected to be a first or second round pick by NFL draft experts or scouts, he was ranked as the second best inside linebacker prospect in the draft by and NFL analyst Mike Mayock. The St. Louis Rams selected Laurinaitis in the second round of the 2009 NFL Draft. Laurinaitis was the fourth linebacker drafted in 2009, behind Aaron Curry, Brian Cushing, Clay Matthews III. On July 29, 2009, the Rams signed Laurinaitis to a four-year, $5.1 million contract that included $3.3 million guaranteed. Laurinaitis entered training camp slated as the starting middle linebacker, replacing Will Witherspoon. Head coach Steve Spagnuolo named Laurinaitis the starting middle linebacker to begin the regular season.

He made his professional regular season debut and his first career start in the St. Louis Rams' season-opener at the Seattle Seahawks and recorded 14 combined tackles in their 28–0 loss. On October 9, 2009, Laurinaitis recorded six solo tackles, a pass deflection, made his first career interception during a 38–10 loss to the Minnesota Vikings in Week 5. Laurinaitis made his first career interception off a pass by Vikings' quarterback Brett Favre, intended for wide receiver Bernard Berrian, returned it for a seven-yard gain in the second quarter. In Week 12, he collected nine solo tackles and made his first career sack during a 27–17 loss to the Seattle Seahawks. Laurinaitis made his first career sack on quarterback Matt Hasselbeck for a seven-yard loss in the first quarter, he started in all 16 games during his rookie season in 2009 and recorded 120 combined tackles, five pass deflections, two interceptions, two sacks, a forced fumble. He earned the Carroll Rosenbloom Memorial Award, he was named to the NFL All-Rookie team by Sporting News.

Defensive coordinator Ken Flajole retained Laurinaitis as the starting middle linebacker to begin trai