Johannesburg is the largest city in South Africa and one of the 50 largest urban areas in the world. It is the provincial capital and largest city of Gauteng, the wealthiest province in South Africa. While Johannesburg is not one of South Africa's three capital cities, it is the seat of the Constitutional Court; the city is located in the mineral-rich Witwatersrand range of hills and is the centre of large-scale gold and diamond trade. The metropolis is an alpha global city as listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. In 2011, the population of the city of Johannesburg was 4,434,827, making it the most populous city in South Africa. In the same year, the population of Johannesburg's urban agglomeration was put at 7,860,781; the land area of the municipal city is large in comparison with those of other major cities, resulting in a moderate population density of 2,364/km2. The city was established in 1886 following the discovery of gold on; the city is interpreted as the modern day El Dorado due to the large gold deposit found along the Witwatersrand.
In ten years, the population grew to 100,000 inhabitants. A separate city from the late 1970s until 1994, Soweto is now part of Johannesburg. An acronym for "South-Western Townships", Soweto originated as a collection of settlements on the outskirts of Johannesburg, populated by native African workers from the gold mining industry. Soweto, although incorporated into Johannesburg, had been separated as a residential area for Blacks, who were not permitted to live in Johannesburg proper. Lenasia is predominantly populated by English-speaking South Africans of Indian descent; these areas were designated as non-white areas in accordance with the segregationist policies of the South African government known as Apartheid. Controversy surrounds the origin of the name. There was quite a number of people with the name "Johannes" who were involved in the early history of the city. Among them are the principal clerk attached to the office of the surveyor-general Hendrik Dercksen, Christiaan Johannes Joubert, a member of the Volksraad and was Republic's chief of mining.
Another was Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger, president of the South African Republic from 1883 - 1900. Johannes Meyer, the first government official in the area is another possibility. Precise records for the choice of name were lost. Johannes Rissik and Johannes Joubert were members of a delegation sent to England to attain mining rights for the area. Joubert had a park in the city named after him and Rissik has his name for one of the main streets in the city where the important albeit dilapidated Rissik Street Post Office is located; the City Hall is located on Rissik Street. The region surrounding Johannesburg was inhabited by San people. By the 13th century, groups of Bantu-speaking people started moving southwards from central Africa and encroached on the indigenous San population. By the mid-18th century, the broader region was settled by various Sotho–Tswana communities, whose villages, towns and kingdoms stretched from what is now Botswana in the west, to present day Lesotho in the south, to the present day Pedi areas of the Northern Province.
More the stone-walled ruins of Sotho–Tswana towns and villages are scattered around the parts of the former Transvaal province in which Johannesburg is situated. The Sotho–Tswana practised farming and extensively mined and smelted metals that were available in the area. Moreover, from the early 1960s until his retirement, Professor Revil Mason of the University of the Witwatersrand and documented many Late Iron Age archaeological sites throughout the Johannesburg area; these sites dated from between the 12th century and 18th century, many contained the ruins of Sotho–Tswana mines and iron smelting furnaces, suggesting that the area was being exploited for its mineral wealth before the arrival of Europeans or the discovery of gold. The most prominent site within Johannesburg is Melville Koppies, which contains an iron smelting furnace. Many Sotho–Tswana towns and villages in the areas around Johannesburg were destroyed and their people driven away during the wars emanating from Zululand during the late 18th and early 19th centuries, as a result, an offshoot of the Zulu kingdom, the Ndebele, set up a kingdom to the northwest of Johannesburg around modern-day Rustenburg.
The main Witwatersrand gold reef was discovered in June 1884 on the farm Vogelstruisfontein by Jan Gerritse Bantjes that triggered the Witwatersrand Gold Rush and the founding of Johannesburg in 1886. The discovery of gold attracted people to the area, making necessary a name and governmental organisation for the area. Jan and Johannes were common male names among the Dutch of that time. Johannes Meyer, the first government official in the area is another possibility. Precise records for the choice of name were lost. Within ten years, the city of Johannesburg included 100,000 people. In September 1884, the Struben brothers discovered the Confidence Reef on the farm Wilgespruit near present-day Roodepoort, which further boosted excitement over gold prospects; the first gold to be crushed on the Witwatersrand was the gold-bearing rock from the Bantjes mine crushed using the Struben brothers stamp machine. News of t
Bitter Fruit is a novel by Achmat Dangor first published in 2001 by Kwela Books of Cape Town. Set in South Africa in 1998, it is about the disintegration of a Coloured family in the years after the end of apartheid. According to Gabriel Gbadamosi's review in The Guardian, "All the bases are touched in a reckoning with South Africa's past and present turmoil, no box left unopened in the search for some kind of limbo or twilight zone where all unresolved conflicts might find resolution." Silas Ali is a Johannesburg lawyer approaching 50 who has risen to prominence during Nelson Mandela's presidency. A high-ranking civil servant even seen on television next to Mandela, he is employed as a liaison officer assigned to coordinate governmental activities with those of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. While his attractive wife Lydia works as a nurse, their only child, 18-year-old Michael reads Literature at Wits University; the past catches up with Silas Ali one Sunday morning at a shopping mall when he sees, recognizes, François du Boise, an Afrikaner policeman who, in 1978, raped Lydia somewhere in the veld while Silas was made to listen to her screams from inside a police van—an act of brutality triggered by Silas's involvement with the MK.
For twenty years and Lydia have kept quiet about the crime, both to each other and towards the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Lydia has never shared her terrible suspicion that du Boise is Michael's natural father with anyone other than her secret diary. Trapped in an unpromising, sexless marriage, more than ten years younger than her husband, Lydia copes badly with Silas's sudden revelation about du Boise and the additional information that the now retired policeman has applied for amnesty for a number of sexual assaults, including the one on her. In an act of self-injury, she dances on broken glass and has to be hospitalised under the pretence of having suffered a freak accident. In the long run, all their attempts at keeping up appearances cannot disguise the fact that, for a multitude of reasons, their marriage is failing, that they have lost touch with their son, that they have no idea about where, how, he is spending his time, they find out too late that, while performing brilliantly at university, he has turned into a seducer of older women—he has had affairs with one of his father's former "comrades in arms", rich and bisexual, with one of his literature professors—and that he has started to investigate his own roots by contacting his paternal grandfather's relatives, who are Muslims.
They do not realise that he has read Lydia's diary. A birthday party thrown in Silas's honour is the last event. By that time, Silas is toying with the idea of going abroad, preferably to Europe, to make a fresh start there now that President Mandela is about to resign and he may lose his prestigious government job. In the end it is Michael Ali. Reinventing himself as a Muslim and planning to go into hiding and to India, where his grandfather was born, he goes on a killing spree, shooting first the white father who for many years has had an incestuous relationship with his daughter—who is a friend of Michael's—,and du Boise. Achmat Dangor: Bitter Fruit
The Booker Prize for Fiction is a literary prize awarded each year for the best original novel written in the English language and published in the United Kingdom. The winner of the Man Booker Prize is assured international renown and success. From its inception, only novels written by Commonwealth and South African citizens were eligible to receive the prize. A high-profile literary award in British culture, the Booker Prize is greeted with anticipation and fanfare, it is a mark of distinction for authors to be selected for inclusion in the shortlist or to be nominated for the "longlist". The prize was known as the Booker–McConnell Prize, after the company Booker, McConnell Ltd began sponsoring the event in 1969; when administration of the prize was transferred to the Booker Prize Foundation in 2002, the title sponsor became the investment company Man Group, which opted to retain "Booker" as part of the official title of the prize. The foundation is an independent registered charity funded by the entire profits of Booker Prize Trading Ltd, of which it is the sole shareholder.
The prize money awarded with the Booker Prize was £21,000, was subsequently raised to £50,000 in 2002 under the sponsorship of the Man Group, making it one of the world's richest literary prizes. In 1970, Bernice Rubens became the first woman to win the Booker Prize, for The Elected Member; the rules of the Booker changed in 1971. In 1971 the year of eligibility was changed to the same as the year of the award; the Booker Prize Foundation announced in January 2010 the creation of a special award called the "Lost Man Booker Prize," with the winner chosen from a longlist of 22 novels published in 1970. Alice Munro's The Beggar Maid was shortlisted in 1980, remains the only short story collection to be shortlisted. John Sutherland, a judge for the 1999 prize, has said, There is a well-established London literary community. Rushdie doesn't get shortlisted now; that is not a good game plan. Norman Mailer has found the same thing in the US – you have to "be a citizen" if you want to win prizes; the real scandal is.
In fact, he has only been shortlisted once and, for Time's Arrow, not one of his strongest books. That is suspicious, he pissed people off with Dead Babies and that gets lodged in the culture. There is the feeling that he has always looked towards America. In 1972, the winning writer John Berger, known for his Marxist worldview, protested during his acceptance speech against Booker McConnell, he blamed Booker's 130 years of sugar production in the Caribbean for the region's modern poverty. Berger donated half of his £5,000 prize to the British Black Panther movement, because they had a socialist and revolutionary perspective in agreement with his own. In 1980, Anthony Burgess, writer of Earthly Powers, refused to attend the ceremony unless it was confirmed to him in advance whether he had won, his was one of two books considered to win, the other being Rites of Passage by William Golding. The judges decided only 30 minutes before the ceremony. Both novels had been seen as favourites to win leading up to the prize, the dramatic "literary battle" between two senior writers made front-page news.
In 1981, nominee John Banville wrote a letter to The Guardian requesting that the prize be given to him so that he could use the money to buy every copy of the longlisted books in Ireland and donate them to libraries, "thus ensuring that the books not only are bought but read — a unique occurrence."Judging for the 1983 award produced a draw between J. M. Coetzee's Life & Times of Michael K and Salman Rushdie's Shame, leaving chair of judges Fay Weldon to choose between the two. According to Stephen Moss in The Guardian, "Her arm was bent and she chose Rushdie" only to change her mind as the result was being phoned through. In 1993, two of the judges threatened to walk out; the novel would receive critical acclaim, is now considered Welsh's masterpiece. The choice of James Kelman's book How Late It Was, How Late as 1994 Booker Prize winner proved to be one of the most controversial in the award's history. Rabbi Julia Neuberger, one of the judges, declared it "a disgrace" and left the event deeming the book to be "crap".
In 1994, Guardian literary editor Richard Gott, citing the lack of objective criteria and the exclusion of American authors, described the prize as "a significant and dangerous iceberg in the sea of British culture that serves as a symbol of its current malaise."In 1997, the decision to award Arundhati Roy's The God of Small Things proved controversial. Carmen Callil, chair of the previous year's Booker judges, called it an "execrable" book and said on television that it shouldn't have been on the shortlist. Booker Prize chairman Martyn Goff said Roy won because nobody objected, following the rejection by the
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Poetry is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning. Poetry has a long history, dating back to prehistorical times with the creation of hunting poetry in Africa, panegyric and elegiac court poetry was developed extensively throughout the history of the empires of the Nile and Volta river valleys; some of the earliest written poetry in Africa can be found among the Pyramid Texts written during the 25th century BCE, while the Epic of Sundiata is one of the most well-known examples of griot court poetry. The earliest Western Asian epic poetry, the Epic of Gilgamesh, was written in Sumerian. Early poems in the Eurasian continent evolved from folk songs such as the Chinese Shijing, or from a need to retell oral epics, as with the Sanskrit Vedas, Zoroastrian Gathas, the Homeric epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Ancient Greek attempts to define poetry, such as Aristotle's Poetics, focused on the uses of speech in rhetoric, drama and comedy.
Attempts concentrated on features such as repetition, verse form and rhyme, emphasized the aesthetics which distinguish poetry from more objectively informative, prosaic forms of writing. Poetry uses forms and conventions to suggest differential interpretation to words, or to evoke emotive responses. Devices such as assonance, alliteration and rhythm are sometimes used to achieve musical or incantatory effects; the use of ambiguity, symbolism and other stylistic elements of poetic diction leaves a poem open to multiple interpretations. Figures of speech such as metaphor and metonymy create a resonance between otherwise disparate images—a layering of meanings, forming connections not perceived. Kindred forms of resonance may exist, between individual verses, in their patterns of rhyme or rhythm; some poetry types are specific to particular cultures and genres and respond to characteristics of the language in which the poet writes. Readers accustomed to identifying poetry with Dante, Goethe and Rumi may think of it as written in lines based on rhyme and regular meter.
Much modern poetry reflects a critique of poetic tradition, playing with and testing, among other things, the principle of euphony itself, sometimes altogether forgoing rhyme or set rhythm. In today's globalized world, poets adapt forms and techniques from diverse cultures and languages; some scholars believe. Others, suggest that poetry did not predate writing; the oldest surviving epic poem, the Epic of Gilgamesh, comes from the 3rd millennium BCE in Sumer, was written in cuneiform script on clay tablets and on papyrus. A tablet dating to c. 2000 BCE describes an annual rite in which the king symbolically married and mated with the goddess Inanna to ensure fertility and prosperity. An example of Egyptian epic poetry is The Story of Sinuhe. Other ancient epic poetry includes the Iliad and the Odyssey. Epic poetry, including the Odyssey, the Gathas, the Indian Vedas, appears to have been composed in poetic form as an aid to memorization and oral transmission, in prehistoric and ancient societies.
Other forms of poetry developed directly from folk songs. The earliest entries in the oldest extant collection of Chinese poetry, the Shijing, were lyrics; the efforts of ancient thinkers to determine what makes poetry distinctive as a form, what distinguishes good poetry from bad, resulted in "poetics"—the study of the aesthetics of poetry. Some ancient societies, such as China's through her Shijing, developed canons of poetic works that had ritual as well as aesthetic importance. More thinkers have struggled to find a definition that could encompass formal differences as great as those between Chaucer's Canterbury Tales and Matsuo Bashō's Oku no Hosomichi, as well as differences in content spanning Tanakh religious poetry, love poetry, rap. Classical thinkers employed classification as a way to assess the quality of poetry. Notably, the existing fragments of Aristotle's Poetics describe three genres of poetry—the epic, the comic, the tragic—and develop rules to distinguish the highest-quality poetry in each genre, based on the underlying purposes of the genre.
Aestheticians identified three major genres: epic poetry, lyric poetry, dramatic poetry, treating comedy and tragedy as subgenres of dramatic poetry. Aristotle's work was influential throughout the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age, as well as in Europe during the Renaissance. Poets and aestheticians distinguished poetry from, defined it in opposition to prose, understood as writing with a proclivity to logical explication and a linear narrative structure; this does not imply that poetry is illogical or lacks narration, but rather that poetry is an attempt to render the beautiful or sublime without the burden of engaging the logical or narrative thought process. English Romantic poet John Keats termed this escape from logic "Negative Capability"; this "romantic" approach views form as a key element of successful poetry because form is abstract and distinct from the underlying notional logic. This approach remained influential into t
Nelson Mandela Children's Fund
The Nelson Mandela Children's Fund is a charitable organisation founded by Nelson Mandela, based in South Africa. Its mission is to help individuals from birth to age 22 orphans of the AIDS crisis. In 1995, Mandela stopped to talk to street children in Cape Town, was inspired to found organisation, he remarked: "We were driving back to the Presidency in Cape Town one cold winter's evening, when I saw a group of street children and stopped to talk to them." "The children asked me. This astounded me, I asked them why they asked this, they said that because every time I get money from overseas, I share it with them." Upon founding the organisation, he pledged to donate one third of his salary to the fund, began fundraising. Although the organisation continues to assist young homeless people and those living in poverty, the fund now focuses on the underprivileged, orphans of the AIDS crisis, those affected by HIV and AIDS, "child-headed households" in South Africa; this is a community mobilisation project designed to mitigate the effects of AIDS on youth.
As of March 2010, the project has established 75 self-help groups comprising 1,335. These groups support 2,152 children in 2,328 households; the project assisted with the establishment of individual or group businesses. The objectives of the NMCF Efeng Bacha Youth Club are to provide opportunities and mentoring to youths; the club encourages civic participation and upholds respect for diversity and a faith-based value system. Activities include seminars like the Schools Safety Seminar which formed part of 16 days of activism with focus on violence against women in 2006. In March 2007 Efeng Bacha and the NMCF conducted a Teenage Pregnancy Seminar as the start of a research project with the ultimate aim of resolving the challenge of teenage pregnancy; the Efeng Bacha Youth Club is involved with a Reading Initiative and with Youth Parliament. - The objectives of the NMCF Disability Program are to provide disabled youths with opportunities to integrate into the local community and ordinary schools and to enjoy equal opportunities.
The Program works with families affected and with the community to ensure that the stigmas associated with disabled children are dispelled through education. The NMCF Disability Program works with the government with the objective of increasing provisions made for disabled youths. Besides Project Goelama, Efeng Bacha and the Disability Program, other charitable events are arranged both locally and abroad. Gala dinners featuring auctions are used to raise funds in aid of the Nelson Mandela Children's Fund and the Nelson Mandela Foundation. One such event was Auction, it was arranged by former US President Bill Clinton and held on 15 July 2009 at the Vanderbilt Hall in New York. Another successful gala dinner and auction, was the Mandela Legacy Canvas Auction on 16 July 2011 in Cape Town; the canvas was auctioned by South African auctioneer Rael Levitt for R2.5 million. Championing Children Ebenezer Far North Community Care and Development Home Intervention – Hearing and Language Opportunities Parent Education Services Kidz Radio Project Regional Psychosocial Support Initiative Rivoni Society for the Blind Siyakhathala Caring Network Sparrow Schools Special Olympics South Africa Youth Connection Project Contributors who have donated to the fund include: In 2008, Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg of Norway pledged US$1 million.
2010, John Travolta, $10,000 Cathy O'Dowd, helped raise R 250,000. Michael Flatley Michael Jackson via "Michael Jackson & Friends" benefit concerts] 2009: 91,870,000 rand 2010: 64,346,000 rand The fund has offices in Johannesburg, South Africa and in London, United Kingdom, which focuses on fundraising. Nonprofit organisation List of charitable foundations Official website Newsletter