She was offered in marriage to the man who would lead an attack on the city of Debir, also called Kirjath-sepher/Kirjath-sannah; this was done by Othniel, Caleb's brother's son, who accordingly obtained her as his wife.
She was offered in marriage to the man who would lead an attack on the city of Debir, also called Kirjath-sepher/Kirjath-sannah; this was done by Othniel, Caleb's brother's son, who accordingly obtained her as his wife.
The Book of Joshua is the sixth book in the Hebrew Bible and the first book of the Deuteronomistic history, the story of Israel from the conquest of Canaan to the Babylonian exile. It tells of the campaigns of the Israelites in central and northern Canaan, the destruction of their enemies, the division of the land among the Twelve Tribes, framed by two set-piece speeches, the first by God commanding the conquest of the land, and, at the end, the last by Joshua warning of the need for faithful observance of the Law revealed to Moses. All scholars agree that the Book of Joshua holds little historical value for early Israel and most reflects a much period; the earliest parts of the book are chapters 2–11, the story of the conquest. Transfer of leadership to Joshua A. God's commission to Joshua B. Joshua's instructions to the people II. Entrance into and conquest of Canaan A. Entry into Canaan 1. Reconnaissance of Jericho 2. Crossing the River Jordan 3. Establishing a foothold at Gilgal 4. Circumcision and Passover B.
Victory over Canaan 1. Destruction of Jericho 2. Failure and success at Ai 3. Renewal of the covenant at Mount Ebal 4. Other campaigns in central Canaan; the Gibeonite Deception 5. Campaigns in southern Canaan 6. Campaigns in northern Canaan 7. Summary of lands conquered 8. Summary list of defeated kings III. Division of the land among the tribes A. God's instructions to Joshua B. Tribal allotments 1. Eastern tribes 2. Western tribes C. Cities of refuge and levitical cities D. Summary of conquest E. De-commissioning of the eastern tribes IV. Conclusion A. Joshua's farewell address B. Covenant at Shechem C. Deaths of Joshua and Eleazar. God warns him to keep faith with the Covenant. God's speech foreshadows the major themes of the book: the crossing of the Jordan River and conquest of the land, its distribution, the imperative need for obedience to the Law; the Israelites cross the Jordan River through the miraculous intervention of God and the Ark of the Covenant. They are circumcised at Gibeath-Haaraloth, renamed Gilgal in memory.
Gilgal sounds like Gallothi, "I have removed", but is more to translate as "circle of standing stones". The conquest begins in Canaan with Jericho, followed by Ai. After which Joshua renews the Covenant; the covenant ceremony has elements of a divine land-grant ceremony, similar to ceremonies known from Mesopotamia. The narrative switches to the south; the Gibeonites trick the Israelites into entering an alliance with them by saying that they are not Canaanites. This prevents the Israelites from exterminating them. An alliance of Amorite kingdoms headed by the Canaanite king of Jerusalem is defeated with Yahweh's miraculous help of stopping the Sun and the Moon, hurling down large hailstones; the enemy kings were hanged on trees. The Deuteronomist author may have used the then-recent 701 BCE campaign of the Assyrian king Sennacherib in the Kingdom of Judah as his model. With the south conquered the narrative moves to the northern campaign. A powerful multi-national coalition headed by the king of Hazor, the most important northern city, is defeated with Yahweh's help.
Hazor itself is captured and destroyed. Chapter 11:16–23 summarises the extent of the conquest: Joshua has taken the entire land entirely through military victories, with only the Gibeonites agreeing to peaceful terms with Israel; the land "had rest from war". Chapter 12 lists the vanquished kings on both sides of the Jordan River: the two kings who ruled east of the Jordan who were defeated under Moses' leadership, the 31 kings on the west of the Jordan who were defeated under Joshua's leadership; the list of the 31 kings is quasi-tabular: the king of one. Having described how the Israelites and Joshua have carried out the first of their God's commands, the narrative now turns to the second: to "put the people in possession of the land." Joshua is "old, advanced in years" by this time (Joshua
The Septuagint is the earliest extant Greek translation of the Hebrew scriptures from the original Hebrew. It is estimated that the first five books of the Old Testament, known as the Torah or Pentateuch, were translated in the mid-3rd century BCE and the remaining texts were translated in the 2nd century BCE. Considered the primary Greek translation of the Old Testament, it is quoted a number of times in the New Testament,particularly in the Pauline epistles,by the Apostolic Fathers, by the Greek Church Fathers; the full title in Ancient Greek: Ἡ τῶν Ἑβδομήκοντα μετάφρασις "The Translation of the Seventy", derives from the story recorded in the Letter of Aristeas that the Septuagint was translated at the request of Ptolemy II Philadelphus by 70 Jewish scholars who independently produced identical translations. The miraculous character of the Aristeas legend is indicative of the esteem in which the translation was held in the ancient Jewish diaspora and early Christian circles, it is clear that a Greek translation was in circulation among the Alexandrian Jews who were not fluent in Hebrew, but in Greek.
The evidence of Egyptian papyri from the period have led most scholars to view as probable Aristeas's dating of the translation of the Pentateuch to the third century BCE. Whatever share the Ptolemaic court may have had in the translation, it satisfied a need felt by the Jewish community, among whom a knowledge of Hebrew was waning before the demands of every-day life." While there are other contemporaneous Greek versions of the Old Testament, most did not survive except as fragments. Modern critical editions of the Septuagint are based on the Codices Vaticanus and Alexandrinus; the Septuagint derives its name from the Latin versio septuaginta interpretum, "translation of the seventy interpreters", Greek: ἡ μετάφρασις τῶν ἑβδομήκοντα, hē metáphrasis tōn hebdomḗkonta, "translation of the seventy". However, it was not until the time of Augustine of Hippo that the Greek translation of the Jewish scriptures came to be called by the Latin term Septuaginta; the Roman numeral LXX is used as an abbreviation G or G. Seventy-two Jewish scholars were asked by the Greek King of Egypt Ptolemy II Philadelphus to translate the Torah from Biblical Hebrew into Greek, for inclusion in the Library of Alexandria.
This narrative is found in the pseudepigraphic Letter of Aristeas to his brother Philocrates, is repeated by Philo of Alexandria, Josephus and by various sources, including St. Augustine; the story is found in the Tractate Megillah of the Babylonian Talmud: King Ptolemy once gathered 72 Elders. He placed them in 72 chambers, each of them in a separate one, without revealing to them why they were summoned, he entered each one's room and said: "Write for me the Torah of Moshe, your teacher". God put it in the heart of each one to translate identically. Philo of Alexandria, who relied extensively on the Septuagint, says that the number of scholars was chosen by selecting six scholars from each of the twelve tribes of Israel. According to rabbinic tradition, the Septuagint was handed in to Ptolemy on the date of an annual fast and mourning for the Jewish people; the date of the 3rd century BCE is supported by a number of factors, including the Greek being representative of early Koine, citations beginning as early as the 2nd century BCE, early manuscripts datable to the 2nd century.
After the Torah, other books were translated over the next two to three centuries. It is not altogether clear, translated when, or where; the quality and style of the different translators varied from book to book, from the literal to paraphrasing to interpretative. The translation process of the Septuagint itself and from the Septuagint into other versions can be broken down into several distinct stages, during which the social milieu of the translators shifted from Hellenistic Judaism to Early Christianity; the translation of the Septuagint itself began in the 3rd century BCE and was completed by 132 BCE in Alexandria, but in time elsewhere as well. The Septuagint is the basis for the Old Latin, Syriac, Old Armenian, Old Georgian and Coptic versions of the Christian Old Testament; the Septuagint is written in Koine Greek. Some sections of the Septuagint may show Semiticisms, or idioms and phrases based on Semitic languages like Hebrew and Aramaic. Other books, such as Daniel and Proverbs, show Greek influence more strongly.
The Septuagint may elucidate pronunciation of pre-Masoretic Hebrew: many proper nouns are spelled out with Greek vowels in the translation, while contemporary Hebrew texts lacked vowel pointing. However, it is unlikely; as the work of translation progressed, the canon of the Greek Bible expanded. The Hebrew bible called Tanakh, has three divisions: the Torah, the Neviʾim, the Ketuvim; the Septuagint has four: law, history and prophets, with the books of the Apocrypha inserted where appropriate. The Torah has held pre-eminence as the basis of the canon.
Othniel was the first of the Biblical judges. The etymology of his name is uncertain, but may mean "God/El is my strength" or "God has helped me"; the Hebrew Bible refers to Othniel as "Othniel the son of Kenaz, the brother of Caleb". The expression is inconclusive in Hebrew, has been taken to mean either that Othniel himself was the brother of Caleb, or that Othniel's father Kenaz was the brother of Caleb; the Talmud argues. When Caleb promises the hand of his daughter Achsah to whoever conquers the land of Debir, it is Othniel who rises to the challenge, thus becoming Caleb's son-in-law; the historical reality of events described in the Book of Judges is the subject of ongoing dispute among scholars, who vary in their opinions about how much of the book is historical. As to the story of Othniel in particular, biblical scholar Mark Zvi Brettler states, "The Ehud and Othniel stories contain clues that they are not meant to be read as depictions of the real past."According to the biblical account, some time after the death of Joshua, the Israelites once again turned to sin and fell under the subjection of Chushan-rishathaim, the king of Aram-Naharaim in Mesopotamia, because of the transgressions against God.
He oppressed them for eight years. He is the only Judge mentioned connected with the Tribe of Judah. Under Othniel, peace lasted for forty years. After these forty years, Israel fell under the subjection of Eglon, a king of Moab who defeated Israel with help from Ammon and Amalek. A tomb traditionally regarded as belonging to Othniel Ben Knaz is located in Hebron in a traditional burial cave. Located 200 meters west of the Beit Hadassah building, it has been revered as a site for prayers for generations; the structure of the tomb corresponds to the way Jewish burial sites were made in the times of the Mishnah, as a family burial cave with compartments in the sides. Menachem Mendel of Kamenitz, the first hotelier in the Land of Israel references his visit to the Tomb of Othniel in his 1839 book Sefer Korot Ha-Itim, he states, "outside of the city I went to the grave of Othniel ben Kenaz and, next to him, are laid to rest 9 students in niches in the wall of a shelter standing in a vineyard. I gave 20 pa’res to the owner of the vineyard."
The author and traveler J. J. Benjamin mentioned visiting the tomb in his 1859 book Eight Years in Asia and Africa, he states, "Likewise outside the city, towards the south, in a vineyard, purchased by the Jews, are the graves of the father of King David and of the first Judge, the son of Kinah." In recent years prayer services have been organized for the holiday of Lag Ba'Omer and for Tisha B'Av. Biblical Judges Book of Judges Book of Judges article of the Jewish Encyclopedia Reference to Othniel in the Book of Judges full text from Chabad Reference to Othniel in the Book of Judges full text from Mechon-Mamre Tomb of Othniel page on Hebron.com Video of visit to Tomb of Othniel in 2011 Video of visit to Tomb of Othniel in 2013 Photos of Tomb of Othniel from old Hebron website Photos of Tomb of Othniel from Hebron Fund website Photos and information on Tomb of Othniel from Shavei Hevron website
The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, better known as Easton's Bible Dictionary, is a reference work on topics related to the Christian Bible compiled by Matthew George Easton. The first edition was published in 1893, a revised edition was published the following year; the most popular edition, was the third, published by Thomas Nelson in 1897, three years after Easton's death. The last contains nearly 4,000 entries relating to the Bible. Many of the entries in Easton's are encyclopedic in nature, although there are short dictionary-type entries; because of its age, it is now a public domain resource. Bauer lexicon Smith's Bible Dictionary, another popular 19th century Bible dictionary Easton, Matthew George, ed. Illustrated Bible Dictionary... New York: Harper & Bros. Easton, M. G. ed. Illustrated Bible Dictionary... London: T. Nelson & Sons Easton, M. G. ed. Illustrated Bible Dictionary... London: T. Nelson & Sons Easton, Matthew George. "Table of contents". Easton's Bible Dictionary. T. Nelson and Sons.
Caleb, sometimes transliterated as Kaleb, is a figure who appears in the Hebrew Bible as a representative of the Tribe of Judah during the Israelites' journey to the Promised Land. A reference to him is found in the Quran, although his name is not mentioned. According to the Jewish Encyclopedia, "since'Caleb' signifies dog, it has been thought that the dog was the totem of clan"; the New American Standard Exhaustive Concordance states that the name Kaleb is related to the word for "dog". The Bible was written down centuries before Hebrew diacritics were introduced, there is no certain knowledge of how the name was pronounced when the biblical text was written. In Hebrew, the name is pronounced or. Caleb, son of Jephunneh is not to be confused with great-grandson of Judah through Tamar; this other Caleb was the son of Hezron, his wife was Azubah. According to Numbers 13, the son of Jephunneh, was one of the twelve spies sent by Moses into Canaan, their task, over a period of 40 days, was to explore the Negev and surrounding area, to make an assessment of the geographical features of the land, the strength and numbers of the population, the agricultural potential and actual performance of the land, settlement patterns, forestry conditions.
Moses asked them to be courageous and to return with samples of local produce. In the Numbers 13 listing of the heads of each tribe, verse 6 reads "Of the tribe of Judah, Caleb the son of Jephunneh." Caleb's report balanced the appeal of the land and its fruits with the challenge of making a conquest. Verse 30 of chapter 13 reads "And Caleb stilled the people toward Moses, said:'We should go up at once, possess it. Caleb and Joshua said the people should go into the land. Caleb the spy is the son of Jephunneh. Jephunneh is called a Kenizzite; the Kenizzites are listed as one of the nations who lived in the land of Canaan, at the time that God covenanted with Abram to give that land to his descendants forever. However, Caleb is mentioned alongside the descendants of Judah recorded in 1 Chronicles 4: "And the sons of Caleb the son of Jephunneh: Iru and Naam. Numbers 13:6 lists Caleb as a tribal leader in Judah; the Kenizzites are considered an Edomite clan. In the aftermath of the conquest, Caleb asks Joshua to give him a mountain in property within the land of Judah, Joshua blesses him as a sign of God's blessing and approval, giving him Hebron.
Since Hebron itself was one of the Cities of Refuge to be ruled by the Levites, it is explained that Caleb was given the outskirts. Caleb promised his daughter Achsah in marriage to whoever would conquer the land of Debir from the giants; this was accomplished by Othniel Ben Kenaz, Caleb's nephew, who became Caleb's son-in-law as well. 1 Samuel 25:3 states that Nabal, the husband of Abigail before David, was "a Calebite". It is not stated whether this refers to one of the Calebs mentioned in the Bible, or another person bearing the same name. Traditional Jewish sources record a number of stories about Caleb which expand on the biblical account. One account records that Caleb wanted to bring produce from the land, but that the other spies discouraged him from doing so in order to avoid giving the Israelites a positive impression of Canaan, they only agreed to carry in samples of produce after Caleb brandished a sword and threatened to fight over the matter. A Midrash refers to Caleb being devoted to the Lord and to Moses, splitting from the other scouts to tour Hebron on his own and visit the graves of the Patriarchs.
While in Canaan with the spies, Caleb's voice was so loud that he succeeded in saving the other spies by frightening giants away from them. Caleb is alluded to in the 5th Surah of the Quran; the two men alluded to here are Caleb and Joshua: 20 And when Moses said to his people: O my people, remember the favour of Allah to you when He raised prophets among you and made you kings and gave you what He gave not to any other of the nations. 21 O my people, enter the Holy Land which Allah has ordained for you and turn not your backs, for you will turn back losers. 22 They said: O Moses, therein are a powerful people, we shall not enter it until they go out from it. 23 Two men of those who feared, on whom Allah had bestowed a favour, said: Enter upon them by the gate, for when you enter it you will be victorious. 24 They said: O Moses, we will never enter it so long as they are in it. 25 He said: My Lord, I have control of none but my own self and my brother. 26 He said: It will be forbidden to them for forty years -- they will wander about in the land.
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
The Negev is a desert and semidesert region of southern Israel. The region's largest city and administrative capital is Beersheba, in the north. At its southern end is the Gulf of Aqaba and the resort city of Eilat, it contains several development towns, including Dimona and Mitzpe Ramon, as well as a number of small Bedouin cities, including Rahat and Tel as-Sabi and Lakyah. There are several kibbutzim, including Revivim and Sde Boker; the desert is home to the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, whose faculties include the Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research and the Albert Katz International School for Desert Studies, both located on the Midreshet Ben-Gurion campus adjacent to Sde Boker. Although a separate region, the Negev was added to the proposed area of Mandatory Palestine to become Israel, on 10 July 1922, having been conceded by British representative St John Philby ”in Trans-Jordan’s name”. In October 2012, global travel guide publisher Lonely Planet rated the Negev second on a list of the world's top ten regional travel destinations for 2013, noting its current transformation through development.
The origin of the word'negev' is from the Hebrew root denoting'dry'. In the Bible, the word Negev is used for the direction'south'. In Arabic, the Negev is known as al-Naqab or an-Naqb, though it was not thought of as a distinct region until the demarcation of the Egypt-Ottoman frontier in the 1890s and has no traditional Arabic name. During the British Mandate, it was called Beersheba sub-district; the Negev covers more than half of Israel, over some 13,000 km² or at least 55% of the country's land area. It forms an inverted triangle shape whose western side is contiguous with the desert of the Sinai Peninsula, whose eastern border is the Arabah valley; the Negev has a number of interesting geological features. Among the latter are three enormous, craterlike makhteshim, which are unique to the region: Makhtesh Ramon, HaMakhtesh HaGadol, HaMakhtesh HaKatan; the Negev is a rocky desert. It is a melange of brown, dusty mountains interrupted by wadis and deep craters, it can be split into five different ecological regions: northern and central Negev, the high plateau and the Arabah Valley.
The northern Negev, or Mediterranean zone, receives 300 mm of rain annually and has fertile soils. The western Negev receives 250 mm of rain per year, with light and sandy soils. Sand dunes can reach heights of up to 30 metres here. Home to the city of Beersheba, the central Negev has an annual precipitation of 200 mm and is characterized by impervious soil, known as loess, allowing minimum penetration of water with greater soil erosion and water runoff; the high plateau area of Negev Mountains/Ramat HaNegev stands between 370 metres and 520 metres above sea level with extreme temperatures in summer and winter. The area gets 100 mm of rain per year, with inferior and salty soils; the Arabah Valley along the Jordanian border stretches 180 km from Eilat in the south to the tip of the Dead Sea in the north. The Arabah Valley is arid with 50 mm of rain annually, it has inferior soils. Vegetation in the Negev is sparse, but certain trees and plants thrive there, among them Acacia, Retama, Urginea maritima and Thymelaea.
A small population of Arabian leopards, an endangered animal in the Arabian peninsula, survives in the southern Negev. The Negev Tortoise is a critically endangered species that lives only in the sands of the western and central Negev Desert; the Negev shrew is a species of mammal of the family Soricidae found only in Israel. Hyphaene thebaica or doum palm can be found in the Southern Negev. Evrona is the most northerly point in the world; the Negev region is arid, receiving little rain due to its location to the east of the Sahara, extreme temperatures due to its location 31 degrees north. However the northernmost areas of the Negev, including Beersheba, are semi-arid; the usual rainfall total from June through October is zero. Snow and frost are rare in the northern Negev, snow and frost are unknown in the vicinity of Eilat in the southernmost Negev. Nomadic life in the Negev dates back at least 4,000 years and as much as 7,000 years; the first urbanized settlements were established by a combination of Canaanite, Amorite and Edomite groups circa 2000 BC.
Pharaonic Egypt is credited with introducing copper mining and smelting in both the Negev and the Sinai between 1400 and 1300 BC. In the Bible, the term Negev only relates to the northern, semiarid part of what we call Negev today, located in the general area of the Arad-Beersheba Valley. According to the Book of Genesis chapter 13, Abraham lived for a while in the Negev after being banished from Egypt. During the Exodus journey to the promised land, Moses sent twelve scouts into the Negev to assess the land and population; the northern part of biblical Negev was inhabited by the Tribe of Judah and the southern part of biblical Negev by the Tribe of Simeon. The Negev was part of the Kingdom of Solomon, with varied extension to the s