Ethnologue, Languages of the World is a web-based publication that contains information about the 7,099 living languages in its 20th edition, which was released in 2017. The publication is well respected and widely used by linguists, Ethnologue is published by SIL International, a Christian linguistic service organization with an international office in Dallas, Texas. Ethnologue follows general linguistic criteria, which are based primarily on mutual intelligibility, shared language intelligibility features are complex, and usually include etymological and grammatical evidence that is agreed upon by experts. These lists of names are not necessarily complete, in 1984, Ethnologue released a three-letter coding system, called an SIL code, to identify each language that it described. This set of codes significantly exceeded the scope of other standards, e. g. ISO 639-1, the 14th edition, published in 2000, included 7,148 language codes. In 2002, Ethnologue was asked to work with the International Organization for Standardization to integrate its codes into an international standard.
The 15th edition of Ethnologue was the first edition to use this standard and this standard is now administered separately from Ethnologue according to rules established by ISO, and since Ethnologue relies on the standard to determine what is listed as a language. e. A language with which no-one retains a sense of ethnic identity, in December 2015, Ethnologue launched a soft paywall, users in high-income countries who want to refer to more than seven pages of data per month must buy a paid subscription. Ethnologues 18th edition describes 228 language families and six typological categories, in 1986, William Bright, editor of the journal Language, wrote of Ethnologue that it is indispensable for any reference shelf on the languages of the world. In 2008 in the journal, Lyle Campbell and Verónica Grondona said, Ethnologue. has become the standard reference. However, he concluded that, on balance, Ethnologue is a comprehensive catalogue of world languages. Starting with the 17th edition, new editions of Ethnologue are to be published every year, linguasphere Observatory Register Glottolog Lists of languages List of language families Martin Everaert, Simon Musgrave, Alexis Dimitriadis, eds.
The Use of Databases in Cross-Linguistic Studies, linguistic Genocide in Education-or Worldwide Diversity and Human Rights. Evaluating language statistics, the Ethnologue and beyond
The Bible is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans. Many different authors contributed to the Bible, what is regarded as canonical text differs depending on traditions and groups, a number of Bible canons have evolved, with overlapping and diverging contents. The Christian Old Testament overlaps with the Hebrew Bible and the Greek Septuagint, the New Testament is a collection of writings by early Christians, believed to be mostly Jewish disciples of Christ, written in first-century Koine Greek. These early Christian Greek writings consist of narratives, among Christian denominations there is some disagreement about the contents of the canon, primarily the Apocrypha, a list of works that are regarded with varying levels of respect. Attitudes towards the Bible differ amongst Christian groups and this concept arose during the Protestant Reformation, and many denominations today support the use of the Bible as the only source of Christian teaching.
With estimated total sales of over 5 billion copies, the Bible is widely considered to be the book of all time. It has estimated sales of 100 million copies, and has been a major influence on literature and history, especially in the West. The English word Bible is from the Latin biblia, from the word in Medieval Latin and Late Latin. Medieval Latin biblia is short for biblia sacra holy book, while biblia in Greek and it gradually came to be regarded as a feminine singular noun in medieval Latin, and so the word was loaned as a singular into the vernaculars of Western Europe. Latin biblia sacra holy books translates Greek τὰ βιβλία τὰ ἅγια ta biblia ta hagia, the word βιβλίον itself had the literal meaning of paper or scroll and came to be used as the ordinary word for book. It is the diminutive of βύβλος byblos, Egyptian papyrus, possibly so called from the name of the Phoenician sea port Byblos from whence Egyptian papyrus was exported to Greece, the Greek ta biblia was an expression Hellenistic Jews used to describe their sacred books.
Christian use of the term can be traced to c.223 CE, bruce notes that Chrysostom appears to be the first writer to use the Greek phrase ta biblia to describe both the Old and New Testaments together. The division of the Hebrew Bible into verses is based on the sof passuk cantillation mark used by the 10th-century Masoretes to record the verse divisions used in oral traditions. The oldest extant copy of a complete Bible is an early 4th-century parchment book preserved in the Vatican Library, the oldest copy of the Tanakh in Hebrew and Aramaic dates from the 10th century CE. The oldest copy of a complete Latin Bible is the Codex Amiatinus and he states that it is not a magical book, nor was it literally written by God and passed to mankind. In Christian Bibles, the New Testament Gospels were derived from traditions in the second half of the first century CE. Riches says that, Scholars have attempted to reconstruct something of the history of the oral traditions behind the Gospels, the period of transmission is short, less than 40 years passed between the death of Jesus and the writing of Marks Gospel.
This means that there was time for oral traditions to assume fixed form
Veluws is a Dutch Low Saxon dialect which is spoken on the Veluwe. Veluws is spoken in the Central Netherlands, in the Northwest of Gelderland, the language was recognized by the government of the Netherlands in 1996. Veluws is usually divided into two dialects, West-Veluws and Oost-Veluws, these two dialects are reasonably similar but differ in grammar. For example, in Oost-Veluws they say ie warkt/wärkt and in West-Veluws jie warken/waarken, West-Veluws is more influenced by Dutch. The closer one gets to the border with Oost-Veluws, the more the dialects differ from Standard Dutch, the North Eastern part where Oost-Veluws is spoken has a heavy Sallandic influence
Dutch Low Saxon
Dutch Low Saxon are the Low Saxon dialects that are spoken in the northeastern Netherlands. The rest of the Netherlands speaks Dutch, Frisian or Low Franconian languages and they do not form a coherent language family. The classification of Dutch Low Saxon is not unanimous, from a diachronic point of view, the Dutch Low Saxon dialects are merely the West Low German dialects native to areas in the Netherlands, as opposed to areas beyond the national border with Germany. Some Dutch Low Saxon dialects like Tweants show features of Westphalian, from a strictly synchronic point of view, some linguists classify Dutch Low Saxon as a variety of Dutch. Also, as a matter, Dutch Low Saxon, since the 17th century, has been influenced by Standard Dutch. Recent studies have, shown that mutual intelligibility is not necessarily impaired, shortly after the Second World War, linguists claimed that speaking a dialect other than the standard language would impair childrens learning abilities. It brought about a general opinion among speakers of Low Saxon that having the slightest accent, in Dutch, would reduce job opportunities and social status.
Throughout the 1960s, the language inspired many to form dialect preservation circles and groups. Many of them were interested in preserving rather than promoting the language. The prevailing tone was one of melancholy and nostalgia and their focus was often on preserving cultural traits considered typical to speakers of the language, such as rural life and traditional practices and costumes. That merely confirmed many of the stereotypes about speakers of the language. Another tone was rather literary in nature, though well-intended, it caused even more estrangement with younger generations. At the same time, knowledge of and appreciation for related varieties was poor and that resulted in little co-operation and no nationwide coordination. Other attempts to unite the different dialect circles were met with cynicism, the conception prevailed that the dialects were too different to unite. In 1975, the rock n roll band Normaal boldly shook all perceptions of Low Saxon, until then, Low Saxon was mostly restricted to traditional folklore music.
Normaal openly denounced all Dutch disdain, praised farmers and local life and boldly used Achterhooks Low Saxon, voicing the opinion. Their hit song Oerend Hard, a song about two bikers who lose their lives in an accident, took the charts by storm, and it quickly garnered them a large fan base, even in non-Low Saxon areas, such as Fryslân and Limburg. In 1996, Dutch Low Saxon was added to the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, Dutch provinces now receive minor funds for preserving and promoting the use of Low Saxon
Zeelandic is a West Flemish dialect of Dutch spoken in the Dutch province of Zeeland and on the South Holland island of Goeree-Overflakkee. It has notable differences mainly in pronunciation but in grammar and vocabulary, in the Middle Ages and early modern age, Zeeland was claimed by the Count of Holland as well as the Count of Flanders, and the area was exposed to influence from both directions. The dialects clearly show an increase of Hollandic elements as one goes northwards. Yet Zeelandic is fairly coherent with easily defined borders, as the broad sea-arms form strong isoglosses, the present table illustrates these differences, The province of Zeeland consists of several former islands which were difficult to reach until well into the 20th century. As a result, there is one dialect per island. The respective dialects differ clearly, but only slightly, the Goeree-Overflakkee dialect, for example, does not drop the h, and the Walcheren and Zuid-Beveland dialects have umlauted words where the northern ones do not (for example, beuter against boter.
Zeelandic bears the burden of being associated with the rural population. The town dialects of Middelburg and Vlissingen are both closer to Hollandic than the rural variants and on the edge of extinction. Surveys held in the nineties showed that at least 60% of the Zeeland population still use Zeelandic as their everyday language. On the other hand, in villages that have seen much immigration. There is a lobby for recognising the Zeelandic regional language under the European charter for minority languages, as of 2005, they failed so far to achieve this status
Gelderland is a province of the Netherlands, located in the central eastern part of the country. With a land area of nearly 5,000 km2, it is the largest province of the Netherlands and shares borders with six other provinces, both Nijmegen and Apeldoorn are larger cities, Nijmegen being the largest with nearly 170,000 inhabitants. Other major regional centres in Gelderland are Ede, Zutphen, Wageningen, Gelderland had a population of just over two million in 2015. According to the Wichard saga, the city was named by the Lords of Pont who fought and they named the town they founded after the death rattle of the dragon, Gelre. Historically, the dates from states of the Holy Roman Empire. The County of Guelders arose out of the Frankish pagus Hamaland in the 11th century around castles near Roermond, the counts of Gelre acquired the Betuwe and Veluwe regions and, through marriage, the County of Zutphen. Thus the counts of Guelders laid the foundation for a power that, through control of the Rhine, Meuse.
Further enlarged by the acquisition of the city of Nijmegen in the 13th century. After 1379, the duchy was ruled from Jülich and by the counts of Egmond, the duchy resisted Burgundian domination, but William, Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg was forced to cede it to Charles V in 1543, after which it formed part of the Burgundian-Habsburg hereditary lands. The duchy revolted with the rest of the Netherlands against Philip II of Spain, after the deposition of Philip II, its sovereignty was vested in the States of Gelderland, and the princes of Orange were stadtholders. In 1672, the province was occupied by Louis XIV and, in 1713. Part of the Batavian Republic, of Louis Bonaparte’s Kingdom of Holland, during the Second World War, it saw heavy fighting between Allied Paratroopers, British XXX Corps and the German II SS Panzer Corps, at the Battle of Arnhem
Luxembourgish, Luxemburgish or Letzeburgesch is a West Germanic language that is spoken mainly in Luxembourg. Worldwide, about 390,000 people speak Luxembourgish. To communicate, all luxembourgees have to learn 4 different languages in the school, german, french. Since the migration of 70% of the luxembourgees to the US, despite the lack of a sharp boundary between Luxembourgish and the neighboring German dialects, this has led several linguists to regard it as a separate, yet closely related language. Luxembourgish belongs to the West Central German group of High German languages and is the example of a Moselle Franconian language. Luxembourgish is the language of Luxembourg and one of three administrative languages, alongside French and German. Luxembourgish is spoken in the Arelerland region of Belgium and in parts of Lorraine in France. In the German Eifel and Hunsrück regions, and in Lorraine, Moselle Franconian dialects outside the Luxembourg state border tend to have far fewer French loan words, and these mostly remain from the French Revolution.
There are several distinct forms of Luxembourgish including Areler, Kliärrwer, Stater, Veiner and Weelzer. Further small vocabulary differences may be even between small villages. There is no distinct boundary between the use of Luxembourgish and the use of other closely related High German dialects, it instead forms a dialect continuum of gradual change. Spoken Luxembourgish is relatively hard to understand for speakers of German who are not familiar with Moselle Franconian dialects. However, they can read the language to some degree. For those Germans familiar with Moselle Franconian dialects, it is easy to understand. However, the number of French loanwords in Luxembourgish may hamper communication about certain topics. There is no intelligibility between Luxembourgish and French or any of the Romance dialects spoken in the adjacent parts of Belgium, erna Hennicot-Schoepges, President of the Christian Social Peoples Party of Luxembourg 1995–2003, was active in promoting the language beyond Luxembourgs borders.
A number of proposals for standardising the orthography of Luxembourgish can be documented, there was no officially recognised system, until the adoption of the OLO on 5 June 1946. The rules explicitly rejected certain elements of German orthography, new principles were adopted for the spelling of French loanwords. A more successful standard eventually emerged from the work of the committee of specialists charged with the task of creating the Luxemburger Wörterbuch, published in 5 volumes between 1950 and 1977
Urkers is the local language of the municipality and former island of Urk, located on the west coast of the Dutch province of Flevoland. Urk was an island until the middle of the 20th century and it was originally located in the Zuiderzee, a bay of the North sea, which became an inland sea called IJsselmeer when a dam was built to secure the Dutch coast against floods. Inhabitants of Urk had been fishermen and still predominantly make their living from North Sea fishing. Urkers is part of the continuum that links Dutch Low Saxon dialects in the North and East of Urk to the Lower Franconian dialects, mainly in the South, West. Standard Dutch, and Afrikaans are part of the Lower Franconian group, Urkers is considered a part of the Low Saxon group of languages despite the fact that it is quite extreme in that group and both geographically and linguistically at its edge. Lower Saxon has its distribution in Northern Germany in the federal states Lower Saxony, Schleswig-Holstein. For native speakers from those areas, it is unlikely to understand Urkers well, the author Gerrit Pasterkamp has written books in Urkers, including translations of the Jewish and Christian Psalms and belletristic works.
There is at least one band, that some of their songs sung in Urkers on CD. There is an online dictionary of Urkers and Dutch. The Urkers Dialect Circle has a website collecting data on Urkers. Urkers is not recognized as a minority language by the Dutch government, a request to have an ISO 639-3 code assigned to Urkers was deferred due to incomplete treatment of the scope the rest of Low Saxon
Western Europe, or West Europe, is the region comprising the western part of Europe. Below, some different geographic and geopolitical definitions of the term are outlined, prior to the Roman conquest, a large part of Western Europe had adopted the newly developed La Tène culture. This cultural and linguistic division was reinforced by the political east-west division of the Roman Empire. The division between these two was enhanced during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages by a number of events, the Western Roman Empire collapsed, starting the Early Middle Ages. By contrast, the Eastern Roman Empire, mostly known as the Greek or Byzantine Empire, survived, in East Asia, Western Europe was historically known as taixi in China and taisei in Japan, which literally translates as the Far West. The term Far West became synonymous with Western Europe in China during the Ming dynasty, the Italian Jesuit priest Matteo Ricci was one of the first writers in China to use the Far West as an Asian counterpart to the European concept of the Far East.
In his writings, Ricci referred to himself as Matteo of the Far West, the term was still in use in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Post-war Europe would be divided into two spheres, the West, influenced by the United States, and the Eastern Bloc. With the onset of the Cold War, Europe was divided by the Iron Curtain, behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Although some countries were neutral, they were classified according to the nature of their political. This division largely defined the popular perception and understanding of Western Europe, the world changed dramatically with the fall of the Iron Curtain in 1989. The Federal Republic of Germany peacefully absorbed the German Democratic Republic, COMECON and the Warsaw Pact were dissolved, and in 1991, the Soviet Union ceased to exist. Several countries which had part of the Soviet Union regained full independence. Although the term Western Europe was more prominent during the Cold War, it remains much in use, in 1948 the Treaty of Brussels was signed between Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom.
It was further revisited in 1954 at the Paris Conference, when the Western European Union was established and it was declared defunct in 2011, after the Treaty of Lisbon, and the Treaty of Brussels was terminated. When the Western European Union was dissolved, it had 10 member countries, six member countries, five observer countries. The CIA divides Western Europe into two smaller subregions, regional voting blocs were formed in 1961 to encourage voting to various UN bodies from different regional groups. The European Union is an economic and political union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe, some Western and Northern European countries of Iceland, Norway and Liechtenstein are members of EFTA, though cooperating to varying degree with the European Union
The Achterhoek is a region in the eastern part of the Netherlands. Its name is appropriate because the area lies in the easternmost part of Gelderland. The Achterhoek area lies between the rivers IJssel and Oude IJssel, and the borders with the province of Overijssel, the region is predominantly rural, with much open space and farms. The area around the town of Winterswijk is regarded as very beautiful, a well-known beer originates from this region, Grolsch beer was first brewed in Groenlo in 1615. The original language of the Achterhoek is Achterhooks, a variety of Low Saxon, the number of inhabitants whose sole language is Achterhooks has greatly declined over the last 60 years, inhabitants are raised with Dutch at school and the dialect is only spoken at home. Partly due to immigration from outside the Achterhoek region and the effects of national government, many old words have been forgotten and replaced by their Dutch-derived equivalents. The largest towns in the Achterhoek are, Winterswijk and Zutphen are old Hanseatic cities.
Both have centres with well-preserved historical buildings
South Guelderish refers to the easternmost group of Dutch dialects spoken along the lower Rhine. South Guelderish — especially Rivierenlands — is sometimes included as part of Brabantic, a widely spoken Dutch dialect. Alternatively, it is considered to extend southward into Northern Limburg until the Uerdingen line and it is arguably more appropriate to group South Guelderish, North Limburgish and East Bergish into one dialect group—East Dutch. The status of East Dutch differs greatly between the Netherlands and Germany, on the Dutch side, East Dutch is subject to the influence of standard Dutch. Since it is a Dutch dialect, it is similar enough to the standard language. In Germany, however and East Bergish are in retreat under the pressure of standard German, to which they are distantly related. Furthermore, large-scale industrialization in the Cleves–Duisburg area in Germany during the late 19th and 20th century has reduced its use today. For example, in Duisburg it has died out. As noted before, South Guelderish is sometimes included within Brabantic and this is done because there exists no tight isogloss bundle between the Brabantic and South Guelderish dialects.
Instead, change occurs in two steps, the alt-oud isogloss between Groesbeek and Nijmegen and the ies-ijs isogloss west of Nijmegen. A dialect of South Guelderish origin spoken in the United States is Pella Dutch, the Limburgish band Rowwen Hèze sings in North Limburgish, a subdialect of South Gelderish. Meuse-Rhenish THE LOWER RHINE AND SOUTH SLESWICK, TWO BORDER REGIONS AND THEIR RELATION TO THEIR NEIGHBOURS AND MINORITIES
Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia that aims to allow anyone to edit articles. Wikipedia is the largest and most popular reference work on the Internet and is ranked among the ten most popular websites. Wikipedia is owned by the nonprofit Wikimedia Foundation, Wikipedia was launched on January 15,2001, by Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger. Sanger coined its name, a portmanteau of wiki and encyclopedia, There was only the English language version initially, but it quickly developed similar versions in other languages, which differ in content and in editing practices. With 5,377,348 articles, the English Wikipedia is the largest of the more than 290 Wikipedia encyclopedias, in 2005, Nature published a peer review comparing 42 science articles from Encyclopædia Britannica and Wikipedia, and found that Wikipedias level of accuracy approached Encyclopædia Britannicas. Other collaborative online encyclopedias were attempted before Wikipedia, but none were so successful, Wikipedia began as a complementary project for Nupedia, a free online English-language encyclopedia project whose articles were written by experts and reviewed under a formal process.
Nupedia was founded on March 9,2000, under the ownership of Bomis and its main figures were Jimmy Wales, the CEO of Bomis, and Larry Sanger, editor-in-chief for Nupedia and Wikipedia. Nupedia was licensed initially under its own Nupedia Open Content License, while Wales is credited with defining the goal of making a publicly editable encyclopedia, Sanger is credited with the strategy of using a wiki to reach that goal. On January 10,2001, Sanger proposed on the Nupedia mailing list to create a wiki as a project for Nupedia. Wikipedia was launched on January 15,2001, as a single English-language edition at www. wikipedia. com, Wikipedias policy of neutral point-of-view was codified in its first months. Otherwise, there were few rules initially and Wikipedia operated independently of Nupedia. Originally, Bomis intended to make Wikipedia a business for profit, Wikipedia gained early contributors from Nupedia, Slashdot postings, and web search engine indexing. By August 8,2001, Wikipedia had over 8,000 articles, on September 25,2001, Wikipedia had over 13,000 articles.
By the end of 2001, it had grown to approximately 20,000 articles and 18 language editions and it had reached 26 language editions by late 2002,46 by the end of 2003, and 161 by the final days of 2004. Nupedia and Wikipedia coexisted until the servers were taken down permanently in 2003. Citing fears of commercial advertising and lack of control in Wikipedia and these moves encouraged Wales to announce that Wikipedia would not display advertisements, and to change Wikipedias domain from wikipedia. com to wikipedia. org. Around 1,800 articles were added daily to the encyclopedia in 2006, a team at the Palo Alto Research Center attributed this slowing of growth to the projects increasing exclusivity and resistance to change. Others suggest that the growth is flattening naturally because articles that could be called low-hanging fruit—topics that clearly merit an article—have already been created, the Wall Street Journal cited the array of rules applied to editing and disputes related to such content among the reasons for this trend