Acid-free paper

Acid-free paper is paper that if infused in water yields a neutral or basic pH. It can be made from any cellulose fiber as long as the active acid pulp is eliminated during processing, it is lignin- and sulfur-free. Acid-free paper addresses the problem of preserving documents and preserving artwork for long periods. Paper made from wood-based pulp that has not had its lignin removed turns yellow, becomes brittle, deteriorates over time; when exposed to light and/or heat, the molecules in the acidic paper will break down faster. Acidic wood-pulp paper became commonplace in the late 19th century, in the 1930s William Barrow published a report about the deterioration of acidic paper in the libraries. For fear of the gradual disintegration of written materials, measures have since been taken to improve the quality of paper. During production, acid-free paper may be treated with a mild base to neutralize the natural acids occurring in wood pulp, it may be buffered to prevent the formation of additional acids.

The bicarbonate is added in excess, to supply the paper with an alkaline reserve to provide protection from further attack by acids remaining in the paper or supplied by the environment. The bicarbonate during drying loses carbon dioxide and water and is converted to calcium carbonate or magnesium carbonate. In order for paper to last at least 100 years it must have an alkaline reserve of 2% or more. Today, much of the commercially produced paper is acid-free, but this is the result of a shift from kaolin clay to precipitated calcium carbonate as the main filler material in the pulp: PCC reacts with acids, therefore requires the pulp to be chemically neutral or alkaline; the sizing additives mixed into the pulp and/or applied to the surface of the paper must be acid-free. Alkaline paper has a life expectancy of over 1,000 years for the best paper and 500 years for average grades; the making of alkaline paper has several other advantages in addition to the preservation benefits afforded to the publications and documents printed on it.

Because there are fewer corrosive chemicals used in making alkaline paper, the process is much easier on the machinery, reducing downtime and maintenance, extending the machinery's useful life. The process is significantly more environmentally friendly. Waste water and byproducts of the papermaking process can be recycled; the company Hercules Incorporated developed the first alkaline sizing in the 1950s that made acid-free paper possible. Despite the advances in paper making and the identification of and concern around the brittle book problem, it took decades before the adoption of ANSI NISO Standard Z39.48-1984 - Permanence of Paper for Publications and Documents in Libraries in 1984. This voluntary standard covered pH value, tear resistance, alkaline reserve, lignin thresholds for paper to last thousands of years and was developed to encourage the use of acid-free paper in library materials; the development of the initial standard was a result of the work of the Council on Library Resources, which lobbied ANSI to adopt the guidelines.

In 1986, Standards Committee II of NISO was established to expand Z39.48-1984 to develop standards for coated paper, was again called upon in 1988 to review and revise the standards for uncoated paper. There are various standards with differing requirements. In some quarters, slightly-acidic paper having a pH between 6 and 7 is also considered "acid-free". Acid-free paper that additionally is uncoated and meets certain standards for folding and tearing is authorized by the American National Standards Institute to carry the following notice: "The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of the American National Standard for Information Sciences—Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, ANSI/NISO Z39.48-1992." The objective of ANSI Z39.48-1992 "is to establish criteria for coated and uncoated paper to last several hundred years" under optimal conditions in libraries and archives. The desired outcome of the standard is to reduce future preservation problems; the scope of the standard is to cover publications and documents bought and maintained by libraries and archives.

Such works include scholarly journals, monographs, government documents, original documents, significant works in fiction and non-fiction. An equivalent international standard, ISO 9706, was published in 1994. Manufacturers of acid-free paper can indicate the compliance of their product with the test requirements of the ISO 9706 or ANSI Z39.48-1992 standards using a circled infinity symbol. Archival paper is an permanent, durable acid-free paper. Archival paper is meant to be used for publications of historical, or significant value. In the USA, such paper must be approved in accordance with the ANSI standards; the international standard for "permanent" paper is ISO 9706 and for "archival" paper, the standard is ISO 11108. Cotton rag paper is used for archival purposes, as it is not made from wood-based pulp. Thus, "archival paper" is sometimes broken down into two categories: Conservation-grade — acid-free, buffered paper made from wood-based pulp. Archival-grade — cotton rag paper made from cotton pulp.

Mass deacidification Paper chemicals Preservation Print permanence Slow fire United States Permanent Paper Law Media related to ISO 9706 at Wikimedia Commons ASTM D1994-07 Standard Test Method for Determ

Nationals (Glee)

"Nationals" is the twenty-first episode of the third season of the American musical television series Glee, the sixty-fifth overall. Written by Ali Adler and directed by Eric Stoltz, the episode is the second of two new episodes that aired back-to-back on Fox in the United States on May 15, 2012, it features New Directions facing off against Vocal Adrenaline at the Nationals show choir competition in Chicago, several special guest stars: Whoopi Goldberg as NYADA dean Carmen Tibideaux, Jonathan Groff as Vocal Adrenaline director Jesse St. James, Lindsay Lohan as herself judging the competition and Rex Lee playing a Chicago alderman, another of the judges; the episode received positive reviews, both in general and for the musical performances in particular. While reviewers were not impressed with the judging scene and critical of the inclusion of Emma and Will's having sex for the first time as part of the post-victory sequence, the overall quality was lauded by many; the musical numbers were praised, although some critics felt that Vocal Adrenaline gave better performances than New Directions, the three main competition soloists—Rachel and Unique —were singled out for encomiums.

However, none of the episode's seven songs charted on the Billboard Hot 100, though two of the New Directions competition songs, Rachel's "It's All Coming Back to Me Now" and the group number featuring Finn and her, "Paradise by the Dashboard Light", did chart on the Billboard Canadian Hot 100. Upon its initial airing, this episode was viewed by 6.03 million American viewers and received a 2.5/7 Nielsen rating/share in the 18–49 demographic. The total viewership was down from "Props" in the previous hour, more down from "Prom-asaurus" the week before; the New Directions glee club is in Chicago for the national show choir competition, but Mercedes is sick in her hotel bed with a bad fever and stomach pains due to food poisoning. Will drafts Quinn and Tina into the Troubletones number to add vocal heft with Mercedes sidelined, Sue starts medical measures to restore her to health. During final rehearsals, fights break out among the New Directions members, but are resolved because the intensity of their focus is on winning.

On the day of the show, Rachel is accosted by Jesse St. James, her former boyfriend and current director of rival show choir Vocal Adrenaline. Jesse tries to hurt her confidence by bringing up her failed NYADA audition before Carmen Tibideaux, but she realizes his intent and that his own uncertainty is showing; the Nationals judges are introduced: Lindsay Lohan, Perez Hilton, Chicago alderman Martin Fong. New Directions is the first group to compete, Mercedes arrives just in time to go onstage with the group, healthy again thanks to Sue; the Troubletones lead off with "The Edge of Glory". Rachel performs "It's All Coming Back to Me Now". Carmen arrives during the number; the finale is "Paradise by the Dashboard Light", which brings the audience to its feet, gets an approving whistle from Carmen. In the lobby, Jesse approaches Carmen and recommends Rachel for NYADA. Mercedes and Kurt go to the Vocal Adrenaline dressing room to wish lead singer Wade "Unique" Adams good luck, but he tells them that he that he has chosen not to perform because he can no longer take the pressure of his new celebrity status.

Kurt suggests that Unique, Wade's transgender alter ego, might be able to handle what Wade is unable to, the teen starts to get ready. On stage and Vocal Adrenaline perform "Starships" and "Pinball Wizard"; the judges name Unique the Nationals MVP, but they award the Nationals trophy to New Directions, with Vocal Adrenaline in second place. Back at McKinley, the glee club members are treated as heroes by the school. Sue is restored as sole coach of displacing co-coach Roz Washington. At their apartment and Will have sex for the first time. Principal Figgins arranges with Finn and Rachel for New Directions to perform the next night at the Teacher of the Year ceremony, won by Will; the group congratulates Will and performs "We Are the Champions". The episode was directed by Eric Stoltz. Shooting of the episode had begun by April 18, 2012, continued at least through April 27, 2012; the final day of shooting the Nationals competition scenes, April 26, 2012, was the day that the show celebrated filming its 400th musical performance.

The New Directions portion of the competition includes three songs: Lady Gaga's "The Edge of Glory" performed by the Troubletones, Celine Dion's "It's All Coming Back to Me Now" sung by Michele, a group performance of Meat Loaf's "Paradise by the Dashboard Light" with Monteith and Michele as primary leads. These three songs were released as singles for digital download, along with an additional four from the episode: Nicki Minaj's "Starships" and The Who's "Pinball Wizard", both performed by Newell with Vocal Adrenaline, as well as Queen's "We Are the Champions" performed by New Directions featuring Monteith, Agron, Naya Rivera and Mark Salling, Grouplove's "Tongue Tied" by New Directions. "The Edge of Glory" and "We Are the Champions" are featured on the soundtrack album Glee: The Music, The Graduation Album, with the former song retitled "Edge of Glory" in both single and album releases. Special guest stars include Goldberg as NYADA dean Carmen Tibideaux, Gr

Axel Michaels

Axel Michaels is a Professor of Classical Indology and Religious Studies at Heidelberg University and Co-Director of the Cluster of Excellence "Asia and Europe in a Global Context". He is the Speaker of the Collaborative Research Centre SFB 619 “Ritual Dynamics”. Axel Michaels studied Indology and Law in Munich, Freiburg and Benares. After he completed his dissertation in 1978 summa cum laude, Michaels worked as a research assistant at the Museum of Ethnology in Hamburg and at the University of Münster, he worked as an Assistant Professor at the Department of Indology at the University of Kiel. From 1981 to 83, he was Director of the Nepal Research Centre, from 1983 to 1992 Assistant Professor at the University of Kiel, from 1992 to 1996 Professor of Religious Studies at the University of Bern. In 1986, he was Spalding Visiting Fellow at the Wolfson Oxford. Since 1996, Michaels is Professor of Classical Indology at Heidelberg University’s South Asia Institute, which he managed as Director from 1999 to 2002.

Besides, he was Speaker of the interdisciplinary project “Cartography Programme on Benares”. In 2001, he was elected as the Speaker of the Collaborative Research Centre SFB 619 “Ritual Dynamics”. During the years 2004 to 2011, he was Speaker of the German Research Foundation Council “Cultural Anthropology, Religious Studies, Non-European Cultures”. Axel Michaels is Co-Founder and Co-Director of the Cluster of Excellence “Asia and Europe in a Global Context” since 2007. Furthermore, he became Head Coordinator of the Heidelberg Center South Asia and Member of AG Zukunft II at Heidelberg University in 2010. Starting 2012, he is Heidelberg University Rector’s delegate for cooperation with India. Axel Michaels is full member of the Heidelberg Academy of Humanities. From 1983 to 1984, Michaels was involved in a project about the initiation rites in Nepal in collaboration with the German Research Foundation. A further project in Nepal between 1984 and 1991 focused on rituals at the Pashupatinatha-Temple.

From 1998 to 2002, Axel Michaels was engaged in the project “Text and Context of the Mahima-Dharma-Movement in Orissa”. This project was followed by a research on divine maps of Benares. Both projects were supported by the German Research Foundation, his current research, a co-operation with Niels Gutschow, started in 2002 and examines life cycle rituals in Nepal. Connected to the project was the shooting and production of the films Handling Death and Belfruit and loincloth, realized in collaboration with Niels Gutschow and Christian Bau. Axel Michaels’ fields of research include Ethno-Indology, Ritual studies and Legal History of Hinduism, Cultural History and Religion of Nepal. Selected Publications Getting Married – Hindu and Buddhist Marriage Rituals among Newars of Bhaktapur und Patan, Nepal. With Niels Gutschow. Includes a Film on DVD by Christian Bau. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag. 2012. Buddha – Leben, Legende. München: C. H. Beck. 2011. ManusmrtiManus Gesetzbuch. Berlin: Verlag der Weltreligionen.

2010. Śiva in Trouble – Festivals and Rituals at the Paśupatinātha Temple of Deopatan. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. 2008. Growing Up – Hindu and Buddhist Initiation Rituals among Newar Children in Bhaktapur, Nepal. With Niels Gutschow. Includes a Film on DVD by Christian Bau. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag. 2008. The Price of Purity: The Religious Judge in 19th Century Nepal. Containing the Edition and Translation of the Chapters on the Dharmādhikārin in Two Ains. Torino: CESMEO. 2006. Encountering Jesus & Buddha: Their Lives and Teachings. With Ulrich Luz. Translated by Linda M. Maloney. Minneapolis: Fortress. 2006. Handling Death; the Dynamics of Death and Ancestor Rituals Among the Newars of Nepal. With Niels Gutschow. With Contributions by Johanna Buss and Nutan Sharma and a Film on DVD by Christian Bau. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag. 2005. Die Kunst des einfachen Lebens. Eine Kulturgeschichte der Askese. München: C. H. Beck. 2004. Hinduism. Past and Present. Transl. by Barbara Harshaw. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

2004.. Reisen der Götter. Der nepalische Pashupatinatha-Tempel und sein rituelles Umfeld. 2 Pts. With A. Michaels, G. Tandan. With drawings by Harald Fritzenkötter, Pashupatikshetra - Maps of Deoptan. Bonn: VGH Wissenschaftsverlag. 2004. Benares - Tempel und religiöses Leben in der heiligen Stadt der Hindus. With Niels Gutschow. Köln: DuMont Buchverlag. 1993. The Making of a Statue. Lost-wax Casting in Nepal. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag. 1988. Beweisverfahren in der vedischen Sakralgeometrie - Ein Beitrag zur Entstehungsgeschichte von Wissenschaft. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag. 1978. Edited Books Emotions in Rituals and Performance. With Christoph Wulf. London, New York, New Delhi: Routledge. 2012. Images of the Body in India. With Christoph Wulf. London, New York, New Delhi: Routledge. 2011. Ritual Dynamics and the Science of Ritual. 5 vols. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.. 2010/11. Grammar and Morphology of Ritual, Section I of Grammars and Morphologies of Ritual Practices in Asia. With Anand Mishra Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

3-353. 2010. Sacred Landscape of the Himalaya. With Niels Gutschow, Charles Ramble and Ernst Steinkellner. Vienna: Aus