A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
Split Enz were a rock band from New Zealand, popular during the late 1970s and early 1980s. It was founded in 1973 by Tim Finn and Phil Judd, had a variety of other members during its existence. Split Enz had eight songs listed in the APRA Top 100 New Zealand Songs of All Time, more than any other band. Split Enz had ten albums reach the top ten of the Official New Zealand Music Chart. From 1980 to 1982, the band had four number-one albums in three in Australia, it had two albums break the top ten of the Canadian Albums Chart, two break the top fifty of the Billboard 200, one break the top fifty of the UK Albums Chart. The only number-one single for Split Enz was "I Got You", which topped the charts in both New Zealand and Australia. Other top-ten singles include "One Step Ahead", "History Never Repeats", "Dirty Creature", "Six Months in a Leaky Boat". In late 1972, university friends Tim Finn and Phil Judd founded a acoustic band called Split Ends in Auckland, New Zealand. Finn played piano, while Judd sang and played guitar.
Both wrote songs. They were accompanied by Tim's old school friend Mike Chunn on bass, Miles Golding on violin, Mike Howard on flute. Finn and Judd became close friends. Another key personality in this period was Phil Judd's university friend Noel Crombie, who performed with them over the next few years. Another powerful creative influence was Phil and Tim's love for British author and artist Mervyn Peake, whose Gormenghast novels inspired a number of their early songs. Named "Split Ends" they were an odd and eclectic mix for a pop band, Golding having been educated in classical music and Finn influenced by the Beatles, the Move, the Kinks. With financial backing from friend and fan Barry Coburn they issued their first single, "For You"/"Split Ends", in April 1973 and undertook their first short first tour, supporting British blues legend John Mayall, it was at this point that Mike Chunn's brother Geoff Chunn was brought in to replace their original drummer Div Vercoe. Golding and Howard left soon after, Chunn wanted the band to become electric, so extra members were added: guitarist Wally Wilkinson, saxophonist Robert Gillies.
By this time Split Ends had become Tim's primary focus and he dropped out of university to concentrate on the band. In late 1973 Split Ends entered the New Faces television talent contest, in preparation for their performance they recorded two new Judd-Finn songs: "129" and "Home Sweet Home". Soon after, they recorded "Sweet Talking Spoon Song", which would become the second single. In the event - and much to the dismay of the Finn family watching at home - Split Ends finished second-last in the contest. Although this first television appearance was not recorded by TVNZ, the Finn family still have the shaky, silent 8mm b/w home movie footage they shot directly off the TV screen and a portion of, included in the Split Enz documentary Spellbound. Despite their loss on New Faces, the group made a sufficiently strong impression to secure them a 30-minute concert special for Television New Zealand, recorded soon after. Typical of the time, the performances were mimed to pre-recorded backing tracks, so the band put down four more songs including "No Bother To Me", "Malmsbury Villa" and "Spellbound".
It was around this time. In November 1973, EMI NZ issued the band's second single, "129" / "Sweet Talking Spoon Song". Over the next eighteen months Split Enz honed their material and performances; the TV special exposure enabled them to undertake their first national concert tour, although Phil Judd did not take part. He disliked performing live, was uncomfortable with negative reactions to the band, felt that their developing music was too complex for successful stage presentation, so he decided to stay at home to write and record new material while the rest of the band toured, although he returned to make occasional live appearances and rejoined full-time. In early 1974 the group's sound took a major step forward when Tim acquired a Mellotron and in February keyboard player Eddie Rayner joined the band. Rayner's accomplished playing soon became a crucial part of the group's sound and he was one of two members who remained with the band for its entire subsequent career, the other being percussionist Noel Crombie.
The latter joined that year, along with Paul Crowther, while Geoff Chunn and Rob Gillies departed. Early in their career, the group made the decision to treat records, live shows, publicity photos, stage design, costumes and makeup as a total package, this was assisted by their wide-ranging interests in literature and the visual arts: Judd was an accomplished painter and subsequently created cover paintings for two Enz albums, his artist friend Noel Crombie was soon roped in to become the group's "stylist" and Noel went on to create all the extraordinary costumes, hairstyles and stage sets which soon became their trademark, as well as coordinating all their single and album artwork and associated promotional material, he directed all their music videos. In early 1974 Split Enz undertook a series of radio-sponsored "Buck-A-Head" shows which played in theatres rather than in pubs or clubs. Taking advantage of this and Tim de
The fingerboard is an important component of most stringed instruments. It is a thin, long strip of material wood, laminated to the front of the neck of an instrument; the strings run over the fingerboard, between the bridge. To play the instrument, a musician presses strings down to the fingerboard to change the vibrating length, changing the pitch; this is called stopping the strings. Depending on the instrument and the style of music, the musician may pluck, strum or bow one or more strings with the hand, not fretting the notes. On some instruments, notes can be sounded by the fretting hand alone, such as with hammer ons, an electric guitar technique; the word "fingerboard" in other languages sometimes occurs in musical directions. In particular, the direction sul tasto for bowed string instruments to play with the bow above the fingerboard; this reduces the prominence of upper harmonics. A fingerboard may be fretted, having raised strips of hard material perpendicular to the strings, which the player presses the strings against to stop the strings.
On modern guitars, frets are made of metal. Frets let the player stop the string in the same place, which enables the musician to play notes with the correct intonation; as well, frets do not dampen string vibrations as much as fingers alone on an unfretted fingerboard. Frets may be fixed, mandolin, or movable, as on a lute. Fingerboards may be unfretted, as they are on bowed instruments, where damping by the finger is of little consequence because of the sustained stimulation of the strings by the bow. Unfretted fingerboards allow a musician more control over subtle changes in pitch than fretted boards, but are considered harder to master. Fingerboards may be, though uncommon, a hybrid of these two; such a construction is seen on the sitar, where arched frets attach at the edges of a smooth fingerboard. The fret arches are sufficiently high that the exterior strings can be fretted without making the finger making contact with the interior strings, Frets may be marked by inlays to make navigating the fingerboard easier.
On six-string guitars and bass guitars, markers are single smallish dots on the fingerboard and on its side that indicate the 3rd, 5th, 7th and 9th frets—and the octaves of those positions higher up the neck. A double dot or some other variation marks 24th frets. Variations on the standard dot shape can make a guitar more distinctive. Position markers are sometimes made luminescent to make them more visible on stage. Position markers are sometimes repeated on the edge of the fingerboard for easy viewing. Over time, strings wear frets down, which can deaden the sound. Fixing this requires replacing the frets—but more they just need "dressing". In fret dressing, a luthier levels and polishes the frets, crowns the ends and edges. Stainless steel guitar frets may never need dressing, because of the density of the material. Not having frets and properly aligned with the fingerboard can cause severe intonation issues and constant detuning; the ultimate way of determining the source of a buzz and detuning problem is to measure the levelness of the frets.
A straightedge positioned on the neck in the "lie" of one of the strings should show nearly level frets. On bowed string instruments, the fingerboard is made of ebony, rosewood or other hardwood. On some guitars a maple neck and fingerboard are made from one piece of wood. A few modern luthiers have used lightweight, non-wood materials such as carbon-fiber in their fingerboards; the fingerboard is a long plank with a rectangular profile. On a guitar, ukulele, or similar plucked instrument, the fingerboard appears flat and wide, but may be curved to form a cylindrical or conical surface of large radius compared to the fingerboard width; the radius quoted in the specification of a string instrument is the radius of curvature of the fingerboard at the head nut. Most bowed string instruments use a visibly curved fingerboard and bridge to provide bow clearance for each individual string; the length, width and density of a fingerboard can affect timbre. Most fingerboards can be described by these parameters: w1 — width at nut w2 — width at half of scale length h1 — profile height at nut h2 — profile height at half of scale length r — radius Depending on values of radius r and their transition over the length of the fingerboard, all fingerboards fit into one of the following four categories: Notes: l is a scale.
X designates a place on fingerboard, changes from 0 to l. R describes radius depending on place on fingerboard. F is a non-linear function. Classical guitars, some 12-string guitars, dobros, pedal steel, a few steel stringed acoustic guitars have flat fingerboards. All other guitars have at least some curvature; however some recent five and six string electric basses have flat fingerboards
The Financial Times is an English-language international daily newspaper owned by Nikkei Inc, headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news. The paper was founded in 1888 by James Sheridan and Horatio Bottomley, merged in 1945 with its closest rival, the Financial News; the Financial Times has over 740,000 digital subscribers. On 23 July 2015, Nikkei Inc. agreed to buy the Financial Times from Pearson for £844m and the acquisition was completed on 30 November 2015. The FT was launched as the London Financial Guide on 10 January 1888, renaming itself the Financial Times on 13 February the same year. Describing itself as the friend of "The Honest Financier, the Bona Fide Investor, the Respectable Broker, the Genuine Director, the Legitimate Speculator", it was a four-page journal; the readership was the financial community of the City of London, its only rival being the older and more daring Financial News. On 2 January 1893 the FT began printing on light salmon-pink paper to distinguish it from the named Financial News: at the time it was cheaper to print on unbleached paper, but nowadays it is more expensive as the paper has to be dyed specially.
After 57 years of rivalry the Financial Times and the Financial News were merged in 1945 by Brendan Bracken to form a single six-page newspaper. The Financial Times brought a higher circulation while the Financial News provided much of the editorial talent; the Lex column was introduced from Financial News. Pearson bought the paper in 1957. Over the years the paper grew in size and breadth of coverage, it established correspondents in cities around the world, reflecting a renewed impetus in the world economy towards globalisation. As cross-border trade and capital flows increased during the 1970s, the FT began international expansion, facilitated by developments in technology and the growing acceptance of English as the international language of business. On 1 January 1979 the first FT was printed in Frankfurt. Since with increased international coverage, the FT has become a global newspaper, printed in 22 locations with five international editions to serve the UK, continental Europe, the U. S.
Asia and the Middle East. The European edition is distributed in continental Africa, it is printed Monday to Saturday at five centres across Europe reporting on matters concerning the European Union, the Euro and European corporate affairs. In 1994 FT launched a luxury lifestyle magazine. In 2009 it launched a standalone website for the magazine. On 13 May 1995 the Financial Times group made its first foray into the online world with the launch of FT.com. This provided a summary of news from around the globe, supplemented in February 1996 with stock price coverage; the site was funded by advertising and contributed to the online advertising market in the UK in the late 1990s. Between 1997 and 2000 the site underwent several revamps and changes of strategy, as the FT Group and Pearson reacted to changes online. FT introduced subscription services in 2002. FT.com is one of the few UK news sites funded by individual subscription. In 1997 the FT launched a U. S. edition, printed in New York, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Atlanta and Washington, D.
C. although the newspaper was first printed outside New York City in 1985. In September 1998 the FT became the first UK-based newspaper to sell more copies internationally than within the UK. In 2000 the Financial Times started publishing a German-language edition, Financial Times Deutschland, with a news and editorial team based in Hamburg, its initial circulation in 2003 was 90,000. It was a joint venture with a German publishing firm, Gruner + Jahr. In January 2008 the FT sold its 50% stake to its German partner. FT Deutschland never made a profit and is said to have accumulated losses of €250 million over 12 years, it closed on 7 December 2012. The Financial Times launched a new weekly supplement for the fund management industry on 4 February 2002. FT fund management was and still is distributed with the paper every Monday. FTfm is the world's largest-circulation fund management title. Since 2005 the FT has sponsored the annual"Financial Times" and Goldman Sachs Business Book of the Year Award.
On 23 April 2007 the FT unveiled a "refreshed" version of the newspaper and introduced a new slogan, "We Live in Financial Times."In 2007 the FT pioneered a metered paywall, which lets visitors to its site read a limited number of free articles during any one month before asking them to pay. Four years the FT launched its HTML5 mobile internet app. Smartphones and tablets now drive 19 % of traffic to FT.com. In 2012 the number of digital subscribers surpassed the circulation of the newspaper for the first time and the FT drew half of its revenue from subscriptions rather than advertising. Since 2010 the FT has been available on Bloomberg Terminal. Since 2013 the FT has been available on Wisers platform. In 2016, the Financial Times acquired a controlling stake in Alpha Grid, a London-based media company specialising in the development and production of quality branded content across a range of channels, including broadcast, digital and events. In 2018, the Financial Times acquired a controlling stake in Longitude, a specialist provider of thought leadership and research services to a multinational corporate and institutional client base.
This investment builds on the Financial Times’ recent growth in sev
American Songwriter is a bimonthly magazine, established in 1984 covering every aspect of the craft and art of songwriting. It features interviews, songwriting tips, news and lyric contest; the magazine is based in Tennessee. The American Songwriter staff concentrates on fulfilling the original objective of the magazine as set forth in the first issue in August 1984: producing an insightful, intellectually intriguing magazine about the art and stories of songwriting. American Songwriter covers all musical genres. Over the years, issues have featured Garth Brooks, Bob Dylan, Clint Black, John Denver, Smokey Robinson, Bon Jovi, Willie Nelson, Billy Joel, Kris Kristofferson, John Mellencamp, Richard Marx, Drive-By Truckers, Paul McCartney, Elton John, Dolly Parton, Eric Clapton, R. E. M. Weezer, Death Cab for Cutie, Ryan Adams, Jimmy Buffett, Merle Haggard, Rob Thomas, Toby Keith, Eddie Rabbitt, Roger Miller, Public Enemy, Sheryl Crow, James Taylor, Ray LaMontagne, Tom Petty, Neil Diamond, Zac Brown Band, Kings of Leon, Neil Young, My Morning Jacket, Taylor Swift and others.
In 2004 the magazine published by Jim Sharp, was sold to an investment group based in Mobile, Alabama. In 2011, Albie Del Favero took over the reins, "joining the team as Co-Publisher, President of its parent company ForASong Media, LLC. Del Favero’s extensive background in media includes being founding publisher of the Nashville Scene. More he served as Nashville-area group publisher at SouthComm, which owns The City Paper and the Nashville Scene." Since 2004, American Songwriter has grown from a 2,000 circulation to more than 30,000 as of November 2013, claims a readership of 90-95,000 per issue and 150-200,000 unique visitors to AmericanSongwriter.com each month. American Songwriter is distributed worldwide; the magazine holds six bi-monthly lyric contests. The winner of each contest receives a new Gibson acoustic guitar, a Shure SM58 microphone, a feature in the magazine. One annual grand-prize winner for the 2014 contest will win a co-writing session with Ashley Monroe, get a chance to record a demo at a leading Nashville studio.
A special section of the website, Songwriter U, focuses on the business of songwriting, includes articles on royalty collection, touring, guitar instruction and lyric technique. Advertisers include national instrument manufacturers, record companies who want to gain exposure for their singer/songwriters and bands, publishers who honor writer achievements, demo studios, recording software and a select group of non-musical companies who are positioning their products within the musical culture. American music magazines M Music & Musicians Website
Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice and augments regular speech by the use of sustained tonality, a variety of vocal techniques. A person who sings is called a vocalist. Singers perform music that can be sung without accompaniment by musical instruments. Singing is done in an ensemble of musicians, such as a choir of singers or a band of instrumentalists. Singers may perform as soloists or accompanied by anything from a single instrument up to a symphony orchestra or big band. Different singing styles include art music such as opera and Chinese opera, Indian music and religious music styles such as gospel, traditional music styles, world music, blues and popular music styles such as pop, electronic dance music and filmi. Singing arranged or improvised, it may be done as a form of religious devotion, as a hobby, as a source of pleasure, comfort or ritual, as part of music education or as a profession. Excellence in singing requires time, dedication and regular practice.
If practice is done on a regular basis the sounds can become more clear and strong. Professional singers build their careers around one specific musical genre, such as classical or rock, although there are singers with crossover success, they take voice training provided by voice teachers or vocal coaches throughout their careers. In its physical aspect, singing has a well-defined technique that depends on the use of the lungs, which act as an air supply or bellows. Though these four mechanisms function independently, they are coordinated in the establishment of a vocal technique and are made to interact upon one another. During passive breathing, air is inhaled with the diaphragm while exhalation occurs without any effort. Exhalation may be aided by lower pelvis/pelvic muscles. Inhalation is aided by use of external intercostals and sternocleidomastoid muscles; the pitch is altered with the vocal cords. With the lips closed, this is called humming; the sound of each individual's singing voice is unique not only because of the actual shape and size of an individual's vocal cords but due to the size and shape of the rest of that person's body.
Humans have vocal folds which can loosen, tighten, or change their thickness, over which breath can be transferred at varying pressures. The shape of the chest and neck, the position of the tongue, the tightness of otherwise unrelated muscles can be altered. Any one of these actions results in a change in pitch, timbre, or tone of the sound produced. Sound resonates within different parts of the body and an individual's size and bone structure can affect the sound produced by an individual. Singers can learn to project sound in certain ways so that it resonates better within their vocal tract; this is known as vocal resonation. Another major influence on vocal sound and production is the function of the larynx which people can manipulate in different ways to produce different sounds; these different kinds of laryngeal function are described as different kinds of vocal registers. The primary method for singers to accomplish this is through the use of the Singer's Formant, it has been shown that a more powerful voice may be achieved with a fatter and fluid-like vocal fold mucosa.
The more pliable the mucosa, the more efficient the transfer of energy from the airflow to the vocal folds. Vocal registration refers to the system of vocal registers within the voice. A register in the voice is a particular series of tones, produced in the same vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, possessing the same quality. Registers originate in laryngeal function, they occur. Each of these vibratory patterns appears within a particular range of pitches and produces certain characteristic sounds; the occurrence of registers has been attributed to effects of the acoustic interaction between the vocal fold oscillation and the vocal tract. The term "register" can be somewhat confusing; the term register can be used to refer to any of the following: A particular part of the vocal range such as the upper, middle, or lower registers. A resonance area such as chest voice or head voice. A phonatory process A certain vocal timbre or vocal "color" A region of the voice, defined or delimited by vocal breaks.
In linguistics, a register language is a language which combines tone and vowel phonation into a single phonological system. Within speech pathology, the term vocal register has three constituent elements: a certain vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, a certain series of pitches, a certain type of sound. Speech pathologists identify four vocal registers based on the physiology of laryngeal function: the vocal fry register, the modal register, the falsetto register, the whistle register; this view is adopted by many vocal pedagogues. Vocal resonation is the process by which the basic product of phonation is en
George Lowden is a luthier based in Downpatrick, County Down, Northern Ireland. He constructs steel and nylon string acoustic guitars by hand without CNC technology or any UV finishing as well as solid-body electric guitars. George Lowden was born in Bangor, Northern Ireland in 1952, he made his first guitar at the age of 10. Lowden founded George Lowden Guitars in 1974 at the age of 22 and soon completed Lowden guitar serial No.1. Lowden produced his first guitars with A-frame bracing but from 1976 he began producing them with his own modified A-bracing system with a dolphin voicing profile which in many ways established the Lowden guitar’s unique sound; the first Irish studio/workshop, in 6a High Street, Bangor employed four trainee guitar makers, Colin ‘Dusty’ Miller, Frank Kernaghan, Sam Irwin and Michael Hull. It produced 100 guitars during this period, which can be identified by small blue rectangular labels. Beginning in 1980, Lowden licensed manufacturing of his guitars to a small group of master luthiers in Japan, near Nagoya.
Four models were soon being produced within a few years this had risen up to 15 and by the mid 1980s up to 1,000 Lowdens were being produced in Japan. In 1985, as a result of the rise in interest for all electronic instruments in music, sales of acoustic instruments slumped worldwide and the owners of the Japanese factory decided to close it and move production of Lowden guitars to a larger factory where other rival brands were made. Lowden was concerned about this outcome, decided to try setting up a new factory in Ireland. With little capital and through the help of an investor, he rented a building in the Balloo Industrial Estate in Bangor, County Down and began to employ and train new craftsmen; the acoustic guitar market had begun to flourish again during the 1990s, but the company hampered by under-investment, had not been able to achieve its potential. In November 1998, keen to participate in a progressive plan to develop the business further, George Lowden, along with Steve McIlwrath and Alastair McIlveen set up a new holding company to buy a controlling interest in the Lowden Guitar Company.
Lowden’s vision was, “...that the company should become as good as the guitars themselves…” In November 1998, a visitor to the factory showed up, guitar case in hand, with the Lowden guitar serial No.1, the first guitar Lowden designed and built. This was an excellent reminder of; as a celebration of this long journey, Lowden designed the 25th anniversary limited edition model. “My aim with the design and build details was to make available in reasonable numbers, a guitar, as close as possible to the guitars which I am only able to build for a few players each year under my full name. I therefore included as many as I could of the construction and cosmetic details, found in my own guitars in this limited edition of 101 instruments.” By this time, the community of Lowden enthusiasts had grown considerably. Players were attracted by Lowden’s tone and quality, by the fact that they were not mass-produced. To fulfill requests for ‘special edition’ Lowdens, Lowden designed the Millennium Twins. “As a luthier, I find that designing a few ‘special’ guitars does stretch my creative abilities and I enjoy that challenge.
I believe. I introduced the limited edition Millennium twins with their matching sets of figured walnut back and sides and adjacent sets of redwood tops sourced from trees, which had fallen naturally.”In 2002 the company introduced the more affordable Avalon range. In 2003, the license with the Lowden Guitar Co ended and production of Lowden guitars at the Newtownards factory ceased at the end of December 2003. Since 2004, Lowden guitars have been manufactured by a family-run company in Co.. Down. Among the artists who have played Lowden guitars have been Jan Akkerman, Pierre Bensusan, David Gray, Michael Hedges, Jacques Stotzen and Richard Thompson. Official site George Lowden, Building Guitars His Own Way for 43 Years