Act of Parliament

Acts of parliament called primary legislation, are statutes passed by a parliament. Act of the Oireachtas is an equivalent term used in the Republic of Ireland where the legislature is known by its Irish name, Oireachtas; the United States Act of Congress is based on it. A draft Act of Parliament is known as a bill. In other words a bill is a proposed law that needs to be discussed in the parliament before it can become a law. In territories with a Westminster system, most bills that have any possibility of becoming law are introduced into parliament by the government; this will happen following the publication of a "white paper", setting out the issues and the way in which the proposed new law is intended to deal with them. A bill may be introduced into parliament without formal government backing. In territories with a multicameral parliament, most bills may be first introduced in any chamber. However, certain types of legislation are required, either by constitutional convention or by law, to be introduced into a specific chamber.

For example, bills imposing a tax, or involving public expenditure, are introduced into the House of Commons in the United Kingdom, Canada's House of Commons, Lok Sabha of India and Ireland's Dáil as a matter of law. Conversely, bills proposed by the Law Commission and consolidation bills traditionally start in the House of Lords. Once introduced, a bill must go through a number of stages. In theory, this allows the bill's provisions to be debated in detail, for amendments to the original bill to be introduced and agreed to. In bicameral parliaments, a bill, approved by the chamber into which it was introduced sends the bill to the other chamber. Broadly speaking, each chamber must separately agree to the same version of the bill; the approved bill receives assent. In some countries, such as in France, Luxembourg and Portugal, the term for a bill differs depending on whether it is initiated by the government, or by the Parliament. In Australia, the bill passes through the following stages: First reading: This stage is a mere formality, it involves the reading of the title of the proposed bill and distribution of the bill to members of parliament Second reading: As in the UK, the stage involves a debate on the general principles of the bill and is followed by a vote.

Again, the second reading of a government bill is approved. A defeat for a government bill on this reading signifies a major loss. If the bill is read a second time, it is considered in detail Consideration in detail: This takes place on the floor of the House. Committees sit on the floor of the House and consider the bill in detail. Third reading: A debate on the final text of the bill, as amended. Do debates occur during this stage. Passage: The bill is sent to the other House, which may amend it. If the other House amends the bill, the bill and amendments are posted back to the original House for a further stage; the State of Queensland's Parliament skips this and the rest of the stages. Consideration of Senate/Representatives amendments: The House in which the bill originated considers the amendments made in the other House, it may amend them, propose other amendments in lieu, or reject them. However, the Senate may not amend money bills. A bill may pass backwards and forwards several times at this stage, as each House amends or rejects changes proposed by the other.

If each House insists on disagreeing with the other, the Bill is lost. Disagreement between the Houses: Often, when a bill cannot be passed in the same form by both Houses, it is "laid aside", i.e. abandoned. There is a special constitutional procedure allowing the passage of the bill without the separate agreement of both houses. If the House twice passes the same bill, the Senate twice fails to pass that bill the Governor-General may dissolve both Houses of Parliament and call an election for the entire Parliament; this is called a double dissolution. After the election, if the House again passes the bill, but the deadlock between the Houses persists the Governor-General may convene a joint sitting of both Houses, where a final decision will be taken on the bill. Although the House and the Senate sit as a single body, bills passed at a joint sitting are treated as if they had been passed by each chamber separately; the procedure only applies. Six double dissolutions have occurred, though a joint sitting was only held once, in 1974.

The bill is sent to the viceroy for the royal assent. Certain bills must be reserved by the viceroy for the Queen's personal assent. Acts in the Australian Capital Territory do not require this step. In Canada, the bill passes through the following stages: First reading: This stage is a mere formality. Second reading: As in the UK, the stage involves a debate on the general principles of the bill and is followed by a vote. Again, the second reading of a government bill is approved. A defeat for a Government bill on this reading signifies a major loss. If the bill is read a second time it progresses to the committee

Rrahman Halla├ži

Rahman Hallaçi is an Albanian professional football coach and former player, the current assistant-manager of Kukësi. Hallaçi started his professional career with Partizani Tirana in 2002, he won his first career silverware on 19 May 2004, the Albanian Cup, after the team won 0–2 against Tirana to clinch the cup for a record 15th time. His second trophy came that year, where Partizani won again against Tirana to win the Albanian Supercup, he left the club after eight years in the winter of 2008 after falling out with president Albert Xhani due to unpaid wages. On 9 January 2009, Hallaçi completed a transfer to fellow top flight side Elbasani by signing a contract until the end of the season, he made 15 league appearances and two cup appearances for a total of 17 appearances. Hallaçi joined Vllaznia Shkodër on 25 June 2009 as a free agent, he there joined his ex-Partizani manager Hasan Lika. He was included in the UEFA Europa League squad. Hallaçi made his competitive debut on 2 July in the competition's first leg of first qualifying round versus Sligo Rovers as Vllaznia won 1–2 at The Showgrounds.

He played in the returning leg to help the team earn a 1–1 draw which ensured progression to second qualifying round. Hallaçi played in both matches of second qualifying round as Vllaznia was eliminated 0–8 on aggregate by Rapid Wien, he finished. On 20 January 2010, Hallaçi returned to his first club Partizani Tirana, now competing in Albanian First Division, by penning a contract until the end of the season. During the second part of 2009–10 season he played 11 league matches and Partizani finished 5th in the championship, missing promotion play-offs for only 3 points. In 2010, Hallaçi signed with Tirana for the 2010 -- 11 season. Hallaçi returned to his boyhood club Kukësi on 7 July 2012 by signing a one-year contract in club's first top flight season, his transfer was required by the fans. He was named the team captain and made his competitive debut on 27 August by playing as starter in the club's first top flight match, a goalless home draw versus Luftëtari Gjirokastër. Hallaçi's first cup appearance for Kukësi occurred on 24 October in the first leg of second round against Tirana which ended in a historic 4–0 win.

He played in the returning leg as Kukësi lost 2–3 but progressed 6–3 on aggregate. Hallaçi finished in his season in Kukës by making 34 appearances between league and cup, as Kukësi finished runner-up to Skënderbeu in championship and was eliminated in the semi-finals of cup. In the summer of 2013, Hallaçi was part of Kukësi's squad that reached the play-off round of UEFA Europa League, he played 7 matches, collecting 630 minutes as the team eliminated Flora in the first round, Sarajevo in the second round and Metalurh Donetsk in the third round before being eliminated by Süper Lig outfit Trabzonspor in the play-off. They however become the first Albanian club to reach play-off of an UEFA club competition. On 31 August 2013, he agreed a new contract, signing until June 2014 with an option of a further one. In October 2013, Hallaçi gave up his duties by handing his captaincy, making Progni the club's captain for the remainder of the season. During the 2013–14 season Hallaçi played a personal best 46 matches in all competitions, as Kukësi finished runner-up once again in championship and lost the Albanian cup final to Flamurtari Vlorë.

He was sent-off in the last moments, leaving the team with 9 players, receiving his first red-card with Kukësi. Hallaçi played his 100th match for Kukësi on 24 January 2015 in the 1–2 win at Vllaznia Shkodër. Hallaçi begun the 2015–16 season by playing in the qualifying rounds of Europa League; the first leg of the third qualifying round at Qemal Stafa Stadium versus Legia Warsaw was abandoned in 52nd minute where the result was 1–2 after a Legia Warsaw player was hit in the head by an object thrown from the crowd. Following that incident, UEFA awarded Legia Warsaw with a 3 -- 0. In the second leg, Kukësi was eliminated 0 -- 4 on aggregate. With 15 matches in Europa League, Hallaçi become the Kukësi player with most UEFA appearances. Hallaçi played full-90 minutes in the Albanian Cup final on 22 May 2016 against Laçi; this win constituted. He concluded the 2015–16 season by making 44 appearances in all competitions, he scored his first Kukësi goal on 21 July 2016 in the second leg of 2016–17 UEFA Europa League second qualifying round versus Austria Wien.

Kukësi crashed out of competition 1 -- 5 on aggregate. Following the departure of captain Renato Malota to Partizani Tirana, Hallaçi was renamed the captain of the team. Hallaçi was one of the most important instruments of Ernest Gjoka's side that lead Kukësi to their maiden Albanian Superliga title during the 2016–17 season, he played 33 matches, missing only one as Kukësi clinched the title on 20 May 2017 after winning on controversial fashion versus Skënderbeu Korçë. It was his 200th appearance for Kukësi in all competitions. With only four yellow cards, he had the best disciplinary record; as Hallaçi's side won the league the previous season, he began the 2017–18 campaign playing in the second qualifying round of the Champions League where the te

Andersonville, Georgia

Andersonville is a city in Sumter County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 255, it is located in the southwest part of the state 60 miles southwest of Macon on the Central of Georgia railroad. During the American Civil War, it was the site of a prisoner-of-war camp, now Andersonville National Historic Site. Andersonville is part of the Americus Micropolitan Statistical Area; the hamlet of Anderson was named for John Anderson, a director of the South Western Railroad in 1853 when it was extended from Oglethorpe to Americus. It was known as Anderson Station until the US post office was established in November 1855; the government changed the name of the station from “Anderson” to “Andersonville” in order to avoid confusion with the post office in Anderson, South Carolina. During the Civil War, the Confederate army established Camp Sumter at Andersonville to house incoming Union prisoners of war; the overcrowded Andersonville Prison was notorious for its bad conditions, nearly 13,000 prisoners died there.

The town served as a supply depot during the war period. It included a post office, a depot, a blacksmith shop and stable, a couple of general stores, two saloons, a school, a Methodist church, about a dozen houses; until the establishment of the prison, the area was dependent on agriculture, supported by dark reddish brown sandy loams mapped as Greenville and Red Bay soil series. After the close of the prison and end of the war, the town continued economically dependent on agriculture the cultivation of cotton as a commodity crop, it was not until 1968, when the large-scale mining of kaolin, bauxitic kaolin, bauxite was begun by Mulcoa, Mullite Company of America, that the town was altered. This operation exploited 2,000 acres of scrub oak wilderness into a massive mining and refining operation; the company now ships more than 2000 tons of refined ore from Andersonville each week. In 1974, long-time mayor Lewis Easterlin and a group of concerned citizens decided to promote tourism in the town, redeveloping Main Street to look much as it did during the American Civil War.

The city of Andersonville and the Andersonville National Historic Site, location of the prison camp, are now tourist attractions. As of the census of 2000, there were 331 people, 124 households, 86 families residing in the city; the population density was 254.1 people per square mile. There were 142 housing units at an average density of 109.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 34.74 % African American. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.21% of the population. There were 124 households out of which 34.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.0% were married couples living together, 17.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.6% were non-families. 26.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.21. In the city, the population was spread out with 27.8% under the age of 18, 9.4% from 18 to 24, 31.4% from 25 to 44, 19.3% from 45 to 64, 12.1% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 105.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $29,107, the median income for a family was $30,972. Males had a median income of $26,591 versus $20,000 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,168. About 19.8% of families and 23.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.3% of those under age 18 and 13.5% of those age 65 or over. City website