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Mathematics
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Mathematics is the study of topics such as quantity, structure, space, and change. There is a range of views among mathematicians and philosophers as to the exact scope, Mathematicians seek out patterns and use them to formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof, when mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, then mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation, measurement, practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back as written records exist. The research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or even centuries of sustained inquiry, rigorous arguments first appeared in Greek mathematics, most notably in Euclids Elements. Galileo Galilei said, The universe cannot be read until we have learned the language and it is written in mathematical language, and the letters are triangles, circles and other geometrical figures, without which means it is humanly impossible to comprehend a single word. Without these, one is wandering about in a dark labyrinth, carl Friedrich Gauss referred to mathematics as the Queen of the Sciences. Benjamin Peirce called mathematics the science that draws necessary conclusions, David Hilbert said of mathematics, We are not speaking here of arbitrariness in any sense. Mathematics is not like a game whose tasks are determined by arbitrarily stipulated rules, rather, it is a conceptual system possessing internal necessity that can only be so and by no means otherwise. Albert Einstein stated that as far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality, they are not certain, Mathematics is essential in many fields, including natural science, engineering, medicine, finance and the social sciences. Applied mathematics has led to entirely new mathematical disciplines, such as statistics, Mathematicians also engage in pure mathematics, or mathematics for its own sake, without having any application in mind. There is no clear line separating pure and applied mathematics, the history of mathematics can be seen as an ever-increasing series of abstractions. The earliest uses of mathematics were in trading, land measurement, painting and weaving patterns, in Babylonian mathematics elementary arithmetic first appears in the archaeological record. Numeracy pre-dated writing and numeral systems have many and diverse. Between 600 and 300 BC the Ancient Greeks began a study of mathematics in its own right with Greek mathematics. Mathematics has since been extended, and there has been a fruitful interaction between mathematics and science, to the benefit of both. Mathematical discoveries continue to be made today, the overwhelming majority of works in this ocean contain new mathematical theorems and their proofs. The word máthēma is derived from μανθάνω, while the modern Greek equivalent is μαθαίνω, in Greece, the word for mathematics came to have the narrower and more technical meaning mathematical study even in Classical times

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OCLC
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The Online Computer Library Center is a US-based nonprofit cooperative organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the worlds information and reducing information costs. It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded mainly by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services, the group first met on July 5,1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization. The group hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The goal of network and database was to bring libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the worlds information in order to best serve researchers and scholars. The first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26,1971 and this was the first occurrence of online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data, between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States. As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside of Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with networks, organizations that provided training, support, by 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on OCLC Members Council, in early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic, abstract and full-text information to anyone, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from public and private libraries worldwide. org, in October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. The Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988, a browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013, it was replaced by the Classify Service. S. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users and this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. OCLC has produced cards for members since 1971 with its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, e. g. CONTENTdm for managing digital collections, OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications and these publications, including journal articles, reports, newsletters, and presentations, are available through the organizations website. The most recent publications are displayed first, and all archived resources, membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding

3.
Scientific journal
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In academic publishing, a scientific journal is a periodical publication intended to further the progress of science, usually by reporting new research. There are thousands of journals in publication, and many more have been published at various points in the past. Most journals are highly specialized, although some of the oldest journals such as Nature publish articles, Scientific journals contain articles that have been peer reviewed, in an attempt to ensure that articles meet the journals standards of quality, and scientific validity. If the journals editor considers the paper appropriate, at least two researchers preferably from the same field check the paper for soundness of its scientific argument, although scientific journals are superficially similar to professional magazines, they are actually quite different. Issues of a scientific journal are rarely read casually, as one would read a magazine, the publication of the results of research is an essential part of the scientific method. If they are describing experiments or calculations, they must supply enough details that an independent researcher could repeat the experiment or calculation to verify the results, each such journal article becomes part of the permanent scientific record. Over a thousand, mostly ephemeral, were founded in the 18th century, articles in scientific journals can be used in research and higher education. Scientific articles allow researchers to keep up to date with the developments of their field, an essential part of a scientific article is citation of earlier work. The impact of articles and journals is often assessed by counting citations, some classes are partially devoted to the explication of classic articles, and seminar classes can consist of the presentation by each student of a classic or current paper. Schoolbooks and textbooks have been written only on established topics, while the latest research. In a scientific research group or academic department it is usual for the content of current scientific journals to be discussed in journal clubs, the standards that a journal uses to determine publication can vary widely. Some journals, such as Nature, Science, PNAS, and it is also common for journals to have a regional focus, specializing in publishing papers from a particular country or other geographic region, like African Invertebrates. Articles tend to be technical, representing the latest theoretical research. They are often incomprehensible to anyone except for researchers in the field, in some subjects this is inevitable given the nature of the content. Usually, rigorous rules of writing are enforced by the editors, however. Articles are usually either original articles reporting new results or reviews of current literature. There are also publications that bridge the gap between articles and books by publishing thematic volumes of chapters from different authors. Research notes are short descriptions of current research findings that are considered less urgent or important than Letters, supplemental articles contain a large volume of tabular data that is the result of current research and may be dozens or hundreds of pages with mostly numerical data

4.
Gang Tian
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Tian Gang is a Chinese-American mathematician and an academician of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He is known for his contributions to analysis and quantum cohomology especially Gromov-Witten invariants. He was born in Nanjing, and was a professor of mathematics at MIT from 1995–2006 and he with John Milnor involved as Senior Scholars of The Clay Mathematics Institute. Since 2011, Gang Tian become director of Sino-French Research Program in Mathematic in le Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique in Paris, since 2010, He became Scientific council for International Center for Theoretical Physics in Trieste in Italy. Tian graduated from Nanjing University in 1982, and received a degree from Peking University in 1984. In 1988, he received a Ph. D. in mathematics from Harvard University and this work was so exceptional he was invited to present it at the Geometry Festival that year. In 1998, he was appointed as a Cheung Kong Scholar professor at the School of Mathematical Sciences at Peking University, later his appointment was changed to Cheung Kong Scholar chair professorship. He was awarded the Alan T. Waterman Award in 1994, in 2004 Tian was inducted into the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Much of Tians earlier work was about the existence of Kähler–Einstein metrics on complex manifolds under the direction of Yau and he proved that a Kähler manifold with trivial canonical bundle has trivial obstruction space, known as the Bogomolov–Tian–Todorov theorem. Tian found a formula for Weil-Petersson metric on moduli space of polarized Calabi-Yau manifolds. Tian made foundational contributions to Gromov-Witten theory and he constructed virtual fundamental cycles of the moduli spaces of maps from curves in both algebraic geometry and symplectic geometry. He also showed that the cohomology ring of a semi-positive symplectic manifold is associative. He introduced the Analytical Minimal Model program which is known as Tian-Song program in birational geometry, in Kähler geometry he has a new theory which is known as Cheeger-Colding-Tians theory. Tians alpha-invariant introduced by him and later Kollár and Demailly gave an interpretation to Tians alpha-invariant. It was first solved by Chen, Donaldson and Sun in January 13,2014, later, Tian also gave a proof in August,2015. In 2006, together with John Morgan of Columbia University, amongst others, Gang Tian was once one of the five members of the Abel Prize Committee, which is sometimes considered to be the second most important prize in mathematics after the Fields medal. Gang Tian was also one of the five members of the Ramanujan Prize selection committee. Since 2012 he became member of Leroy P. Steele Prize Committee in AMS, Gang Tian is member of the editorial boards of a number of journals in Mathematics

5.
Peer review
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Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people of similar competence to the producers of the work. It constitutes a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a profession within the relevant field, peer review methods are employed to maintain standards of quality, improve performance, and provide credibility. In academia, scholarly peer review is used to determine an academic papers suitability for publication. Peer review can be categorized by the type of activity and by the field or profession in which the activity occurs, professional peer review focuses on the performance of professionals, with a view to improving quality, upholding standards, or providing certification. In academia, peer review is common in decisions related to faculty advancement, a prototype professional peer-review process was recommended in the Ethics of the Physician written by Ishāq ibn ʻAlī al-Ruhāwī. He stated that a physician had to make duplicate notes of a patients condition on every visit. Professional peer review is common in the field of health care, further, since peer review activity is commonly segmented by clinical discipline, there is also physician peer review, nursing peer review, dentistry peer review, etc. Many other professional fields have some level of peer review process, accounting, law, engineering, aviation, and even forest fire management. Peer review is used in education to achieve certain learning objectives and this may take a variety of forms, including closely mimicking the scholarly peer review processes used in science and medicine. The peer review helps the publisher decide whether the work should be accepted, considered acceptable with revisions, peer review requires a community of experts in a given field, who are qualified and able to perform reasonably impartial review. Peer review is generally considered necessary to academic quality and is used in most major scientific journals, the European Union has been using peer review in the Open Method of Co-ordination of policies in the fields of active labour market policy since 1999. In 2004, a program of peer reviews started in social inclusion and these usually meet over two days and include visits to local sites where the policy can be seen in operation. The meeting is preceded by the compilation of a report on which participating peer countries submit comments. The results are published on the web, the State of California is the only U. S. state to mandate scientific peer review. This requirement is incorporated into the California Health and Safety Code Section 57004, thus, the terminology has poor standardization and specificity, particularly as a database search term