Leviathan (Auster novel)
Leviathan is American writer Paul Auster’s seventh novel, published by Viking Press in 1992. The novel follows the life and crimes of a man who decides to take action over words to deliver his message to the world, as told by his estranged best friend; the novel opens like a detective story as the narrator begins, Six days ago, a man blew himself up by the side of a road in northern Wisconsin. There were no witnesses, but it appears that he was sitting on the grass next to his parked car when the bomb he was building accidentally went off. According to the forensic reports that have just been published, the man was killed instantly, his body burst into dozens of small pieces, fragments of his corpse were found as far as fifty feet away from the site of the explosion. —Leviathan Through his own investigations, the narrator attempts to answer questions as to who the man was who blew himself up, why he was found with a homemade bomb, what circumstances brought him to a violent end. "Leviathan" is borrowed from the biblical sea monster that Thomas Hobbes used as a metaphor for the State in his own book of that title.
As the "Phantom of Liberty", blowing up replicas of the Statue of Liberty around the country – the novel's protagonist is a Hobbesian hero whose nemesis is the State. Auster is known for placing his fictional characters in real-time contexts with real events as backdrop to his narratives. There are parallels with the "Unabomber," the academic urban terrorist, Theodore Kaczynski, active for a similar length of time from the late 1970s to the mid-90's; the story is told by Peter Aaron about the victim, Benjamin Sachs, his best friend whom he first meets as a fellow writer in a Greenwich Village bar in 1975. Peter decides to try to piece together the story of Ben's other life after agents from the F. B. I. approach him in the course of their investigation. Of their friendship, Peter acknowledges Ben’s lost years of suffering and painful inner state, saying — In 15 years, Sachs travelled from one end of himself to the other, by the time he came to that last place, I doubt he knew who he was anymore.
So much distance had been covered by it wouldn't have been possible for him to remember where he had begun. The two first meet as struggling novelists, Peter with the “wheeling” mind and the provocative Ben with his perfect marriage to the beautiful Fanny. Both have a wish to make a difference in the real world. Ben himself is full of doubts and his marriage is showing cracks, when one night at a drunken party by freakish chance, he tumbles from a fourth-floor fire escape, nearly losing his life; the fall is both metaphorical. For days afterward he refuses to speak and on recovery he is strangely remote. Within a week of turning 41, Ben expresses a desire to end the life. Feeling that his life has been a waste, he declares he wants everything to change, serving himself with an all-or-nothing ultimatum, decides he must take control or fail. In evincing this change, he leaves Fanny, moves to a cabin in Vermont where he begins to work on a book – vanishes, his cabin and its contents are deserted, including titled Leviathan.
There is one final meeting with Peter where he confesses all. Peter pieces together Ben’s life and relationships with Maria, an artist, her friend Lillian. A random, violent encounter with Lillian's husband, a Vietnam War veteran named Reed sends Ben in a radically new direction. Austerian themes in the novel explore failure, chance and the evasive nature of truth. Maria, the character who follows strangers to photograph them is based on Sophie Calle, a French performance artist who recreated her own life by photographing actual people while creating fictions about them. Calle is acknowledged in the novel’s introduction. Ben, the novel’s central character meets Maria at the point where he begins to recreate his own life; the contrast is that while Calle/Maria parlayed her fictions into a career, Ben creates a life that finishes him. Stylistically, Auster proves his themes through circuitous multi-layered writing, reporting conflicting personal accounts to inscribe subjective kinds of truth. Peter Aaron and narrator Benjamin Sachs, war protester, urban terrorist Fanny Sachs, Ben’s wife Maria Turner, photographer Lillian Stern, ex-sex worker, Maria’s best friend Maria Dimaggio, Lillian's little daughter Reed Dimaggio, Lillian’s husband Agnes Darwin, party guest causes Ben's accident Auster references themes of coincidence and chance that began with the hero of his 1985 novel, City of Glass who believed that “nothing was real except chance”.
In 2009, Audible.com produced an audio version of Leviathan, narrated by Peter Ganim, as part of its Modern Vanguard line of audiobooks. Leviathan, Paul Auster, New York, 1992. Paul Auster Sophie Calle Thomas Hobbes Theodore Kaczynski
The Meursault Investigation
The Meursault Investigation is the first novel by Algerian writer and journalist Kamel Daoud. It is a retelling of The Stranger. First published in Algeria by Barzakh Editions in October 2013, it was reissued in France by Actes Sud, its publication in France was followed by nominations for many awards. Meursault, the protagonist of Albert Camus' novel The Stranger murders a character known only as "the Arab", saying, in his trial, that the murder was a meaningless gesture caused by sunstroke or God's absence. Camus left Meursault's victim nameless; the Meursault Investigation revisits these events, but from the point of view of Harun, Musa's brother. Giving a name to Meursault's nameless victim, for Daoud, is about more than just revisiting a minor character. In an interview with the Los Angeles Review of Books, Daoud said: "Ever since the Middle Ages, the white man has the habit of naming Africa and Asia's mountains and insects, all the while denying the names of the human beings they encounter.
By removing their names, they render banal murder and crimes. By claiming your own name, you are making a claim of your humanity and thus the right to justice."In the same interview, when asked what prompted him to write the book, Daoud stressed the centrality of The Stranger to his identity as an Algerian Francophone writer. In other outlets, Daoud has confirmed the integral role that The Stranger played in the genesis of The Meursault Investigation, describing his novel as "a dialogue with Camus."Another of Camus's novels, The Fall, is referenced in Daoud's book through the narrative style. After the book was translated into English by John Cullen and published by Other Press in 2015, it received positive reviews in the English-language publications. Azadeh Moaveni, writing for the Financial Times, called it "perhaps the most important novel to emerge out of the Middle East in recent memory." Writing for the New York Times Book Review, Laila Lalami described it as Daoud's "rich and inventive new novel."Michiko Kakutani called it "stunning."
In April 2015, an excerpt of The Meursault Investigation was featured in The New Yorker. On December 16, 2014, a death threat against Daoud was issued from a Facebook page, now locked. Abdelfattah Hamadache, the radical Islamist preacher who issued the fatwa, leads a Salafist group called the Islamic Awakening Front. Hamadache has labeled Daoud an apostate, "an enemy of religion," a "deviant creature" and a "collaborator." He called on the Algerian state to execute Daoud, on the grounds that he is leading a "war against God and the prophet."Daoud has filed a complaint for incitement with the ministry of religious affairs. Various individuals and groups have signed petitions and published open letters in support of Daoud. Defending himself against the charge of blasphemy in a TV interview, Daoud said: "It was a fictional character in the novel who said these things, not me. If we judge people on the basis of characters in their books, we will be facing dark times in Algeria." Meursault, contre-enquête won the 2015 Goncourt first novel prize, the 2014 Prix François-Mauriac and the 2014 Prix des cinq continents de la Francophonie.
It was shortlisted for the 2014 Goncourt prize. Daoud, Kamel. Translated into English by John Cullen. "Musa". New Yorker. April 6, 2015. Retrieved on December 7, 2015
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, the Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust; the trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to shareholders; the current editor is Katharine Viner: she succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. Since 2018, the paper's main newsprint sections have been published in tabloid format; as of November that year, its print edition had a daily circulation of 136,834.
The newspaper has an online edition, TheGuardian.com, as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US. The paper's readership is on the mainstream left of British political opinion, its reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often-pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or "politically correct" tendencies. Frequent typographical errors in the paper led Private Eye magazine to dub it the "Grauniad" in the 1960s, a nickname still used today. In an Ipsos MORI research poll in September 2018 designed to interrogate the public's trust of specific titles online, The Guardian scored highest for digital-content news, with 84% of readers agreeing that they "trust what see in it". A December 2018 report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK in the period from October 2017 to September 2018.
It was reported to be the most-read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions. While The Guardian's print circulation is in decline, the report indicated that news from The Guardian, including that reported online, reaches more than 23 million UK adults each month. Chief among the notable "scoops" obtained by the paper was the 2011 News International phone-hacking scandal—and in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone; the investigation led to the closure of the News of the World, the UK's best-selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest-circulation newspapers in history. In June 2013, The Guardian broke news of the secret collection by the Obama administration of Verizon telephone records, subsequently revealed the existence of the surveillance program PRISM after knowledge of it was leaked to the paper by the whistleblower and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. In 2016, The Guardian led an investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing then-Prime Minister David Cameron's links to offshore bank accounts.
It has been named "newspaper of the year" four times at the annual British Press Awards: most in 2014, for its reporting on government surveillance. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle, a group of non-conformist businessmen, they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. Taylor had been hostile to the radical reformers, writing: "They have appealed not to the reason but the passions and the suffering of their abused and credulous fellow-countrymen, from whose ill-requited industry they extort for themselves the means of a plentiful and comfortable existence, they do not toil, neither do they spin, but they live better than those that do." When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the mill-owners' champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, all of the Little Circle wrote articles for the new paper.
The prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would "zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty warmly advocate the cause of Reform endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, all serviceable measures". In 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828; the working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian "the foul prostitute and dirty parasite of the worst portion of the mill-owners". The Manchester Guardian was hostile to labour's claims. Of the 1832 Ten Hours Bill, the paper doubted whether in view of the foreign competition "the passing of a law positively enacting a gradual destruction of the cotton manufacture in this kingdom would be a much less rational procedure." The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators: " if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone.
They live on strife "The Manchester Guardian was critical of US President Abraham Lincoln's conduct during the US Civil War, writing on the news that Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated: "Of his rule, we can never speak except as a series of acts abhorrent to every true notion of constitutional right and human liberty " C. P. Scott ma
Paul Benjamin Auster is an American writer and film director. His notable works include The New York Trilogy, Moon Palace, The Music of Chance, The Book of Illusions, The Brooklyn Follies, Sunset Park, Winter Journal, 4 3 2 1, his books have been translated into more than forty languages. Paul Auster was born in Newark, New Jersey, to Jewish middle-class parents of Polish descent and Samuel Auster, he grew up in South Orange, New Jersey and Newark and graduated from Columbia High School in Maplewood. After graduating from Columbia University with B. A. and M. A. degrees in 1970, he moved to Paris, France where he earned a living translating French literature. Since returning to the U. S. in 1974, he has published poems and novels, as well as translations of French writers such as Stéphane Mallarmé and Joseph Joubert. Following his acclaimed debut work, a memoir entitled The Invention of Solitude, Auster gained renown for a series of three loosely connected stories published collectively as The New York Trilogy.
Although these books allude to the detective genre they are not conventional detective stories organized around a mystery and a series of clues. Rather, he uses the detective form to address existential issues and questions of identity, space and literature, creating his own distinctively postmodern form in the process. According to Auster, "...the Trilogy grows directly out of The Invention of Solitude."The search for identity and personal meaning has permeated Auster's publications, many of which concentrate on the role of coincidence and random events or the relationships between people and their peers and environment. Auster's heroes find themselves obliged to work as part of someone else's inscrutable and larger-than-life schemes. In 1995, Auster co-directed the films Smoke and Blue in the Face. Auster's more recent works, from Oracle Night to 4 3 2 1, have met with critical acclaim, he was on the PEN American Center Board of Trustees from 2004 to 2009, Vice President during 2005 to 2007.
In 2012, Auster was quoted as saying in an interview that he would not visit Turkey, in protest of its treatment of journalists. The Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan replied: "As if we need you! Who cares if you come or not?" Auster responded: "According to the latest numbers gathered by International PEN, there are nearly one hundred writers imprisoned in Turkey, not to speak of independent publishers such as Ragıp Zarakolu, whose case is being watched by PEN Centers around the world". Auster's most recent book, A Life in Words, was published in October 2017 by Seven Stories Press, it brings together three years of conversations with the Danish scholar I. B. Siegumfeldt about each one of his works, both fiction and non-fiction, it is a primary source for understanding Auster's approach to his work. Auster is willing to give Iranian translators permission to write Persian versions of his works in exchange for a small fee. Much of the early scholarship about Auster's work saw links between it and the theories of such French writers as Jacques Lacan, Jacques Derrida, others.
Auster himself has denied these influences and has asserted in print that "I've read only one short essay by Lacan, the "Purloined Letter," in the Yale French Studies issue on poststructuralism—all the way back in 1966." Other scholars have seen influences in Auster's work of the American transcendentalists of the nineteenth century, as exemplified by Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson. The transcendentalists believed that the symbolic order of civilization has separated us from the natural order of the world, that by moving into nature, as Thoreau did, as he described in Walden, it would be possible to return to this natural order. Edgar Allan Poe, Samuel Beckett, Nathaniel Hawthorne have had a strong influence on Auster's writing. Auster has referred to characters from Poe and Hawthorne in his novels, for example William Wilson in City of Glass or Hawthorne's Fanshawe in The Locked Room, both from The New York Trilogy. Paul Auster's reappearing subjects are: coincidence frequent portrayal of an ascetic life a sense of imminent disaster an obsessive writer as central character or narrator loss of the ability to understand loss of language loss of money – having a lot, but losing it little by little without earning some new money any more depiction of daily and ordinary life failure absence of a father writing and story telling, metafiction intertextuality American history American space "Over the past twenty-five years," opined Michael Dirda in The New York Review of Books in 2008, "Paul Auster has established one of the most distinctive niches in contemporary literature."
Dirda has extolled his loaded virtues in The Washington Post: Ever since City of Glass, the first volume of his New York Trilogy, Auster has perfected a limpid, confessional style used it to set disoriented heroes in a familiar world suffused with mounting uneasiness, vague menace and possible hallucination. His plots – drawing on elements from suspense stories, existential récit, autobiography – keep readers turning the pages, but sometimes end by leaving them uncertain about what they've just been through. Writing about Auster's most recent novel, 4 3 2 1, Booklist critic Donna Seaman remarked:Auster has been turning readers' heads for three decades, bending the conventions of storytelling, blurring the line between fiction and autobiography, infu
Belgium the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, the North Sea to the northwest, it has a population of more than 11.4 million. The capital and largest city is Brussels; the sovereign state is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. Its institutional organisation is structured on both regional and linguistic grounds, it is divided into three autonomous regions: Flanders in the north, Wallonia in the south, the Brussels-Capital Region. Brussels is the smallest and most densely populated region, as well as the richest region in terms of GDP per capita. Belgium is home to two main linguistic groups or Communities: the Dutch-speaking Flemish Community, which constitutes about 59 percent of the population, the French-speaking Community, which comprises about 40 percent of all Belgians. A small German-speaking Community, numbering around one percent, exists in the East Cantons.
The Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual, although French is the dominant language. Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments. Belgium was part of an area known as the Low Countries, a somewhat larger region than the current Benelux group of states that included parts of northern France and western Germany, its name is derived after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, the area of Belgium was a prosperous and cosmopolitan centre of commerce and culture. Between the 16th and early 19th centuries, Belgium served as the battleground between many European powers, earning the moniker the "Battlefield of Europe", a reputation strengthened by both world wars; the country emerged in 1830 following the Belgian Revolution. Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa.
The second half of the 20th century was marked by rising tensions between the Dutch-speaking and the French-speaking citizens fueled by differences in language and culture and the unequal economic development of Flanders and Wallonia. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Despite the reforms, tensions between the groups have remained, if not increased. Unemployment in Wallonia is more than double that of Flanders. Belgium is one of the six founding countries of the European Union and hosts the official seats of the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, as well as a seat of the European Parliament in the country's capital, Brussels. Belgium is a founding member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD, WTO, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union and the Schengen Area. Brussels hosts several of the EU's official seats as well as the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO.
Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy. It has high standards of living, quality of life, education, is categorized as "very high" in the Human Development Index, it ranks as one of the safest or most peaceful countries in the world. The name "Belgium" is derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northernmost part of Gaul that before Roman invasion in 100 BC, was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings. A gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire; the Treaty of Verdun in 843 divided the region into Middle and West Francia and therefore into a set of more or less independent fiefdoms which, during the Middle Ages, were vassals either of the King of France or of the Holy Roman Emperor. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 15th centuries.
Emperor Charles V extended the personal union of the Seventeen Provinces in the 1540s, making it far more than a personal union by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 and increased his influence over the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The Eighty Years' War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands; the latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and comprised most of modern Belgium. This was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. Following the campaigns of 1794 in the French Revolutionary Wars, the Low Countries—including territories that were never nominally under Habsburg rule, such as the Prince-Bishopric of Liège—were annexed by the French First Republic, ending Austrian rule in the region; the reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, after the defeat of Napo
Paradou is a commune in the Bouches-du-Rhône department in southern France. Alpilles Communes of the Bouches-du-Rhône department INSEE
Svetlana Alexandrovna Alexievich is a Belarusian investigative journalist and oral historian who writes in Russian. She was awarded the 2015 Nobel Prize in Literature "for her polyphonic writings, a monument to suffering and courage in our time", she is the first writer from Belarus to receive the award. Born in the west Ukrainian town of Stanislav to a Belarusian father and a Ukrainian mother, Svetlana Alexievich grew up in Belarus. After finishing school she worked as a reporter in several local newspapers before graduating from Belarusian State University and becoming a correspondent for the literary magazine Nyoman in Minsk. During her career in journalism, Alexievich specialised in crafting narratives based on witness testimonies. In the process, she wrote oral histories of several dramatic events in Soviet history: the Second World War, the Afghan War, the fall of the Soviet Union, the Chernobyl disaster. After political persecution by the Lukashenko administration, she left Belarus in 2000.
The International Cities of Refuge Network offered her sanctuary and during the following decade she lived in Paris and Berlin. In 2011, Alexievich moved back to Minsk. Alexievich's books trace the emotional history of the Soviet and post-Soviet individual through constructed collages of interviews. According to Russian writer and critic Dmitry Bykov, her books owe much to the ideas of Belarusian writer Ales Adamovich, who felt that the best way to describe the horrors of the 20th century was not by creating fiction but through recording the testimonies of witnesses. Belarusian poet Uladzimir Nyaklyayew called Adamovich "her literary godfather", he named the documentary novel I'm from the Burned Village by Ales Adamovich, Janka Bryl and Uladzimir Kalesnik, about the villages burned by the German troops during the occupation of Belarus, as the main single book that has influenced Alexievich's attitude to literature. Alexievich has confirmed the influence of Belarusian writer Vasil Bykaŭ, among others.
She regards Varlam Shalamov as the best writer of the 20th century. Her most notable works in English translation include a collection of first-hand accounts from the war in Afghanistan and an oral history of the Chernobyl disaster. Alexievich describes the theme of her works this way: If you look back at the whole of our history, both Soviet and post-Soviet, it is a huge common grave and a blood bath. An eternal dialog of the executioners and the victims; the accursed Russian questions: what is to be done and, to blame. The revolution, the gulags, the Second World War, the Soviet–Afghan war hidden from the people, the downfall of the great empire, the downfall of the giant socialist land, the land-utopia, now a challenge of cosmic dimensions – Chernobyl; this is a challenge for all the living things on earth. Such is our history, and this is the theme of my books, this is my circles of hell, from man to man. Her first book, War's Unwomanly Face, came out in 1985, it was reprinted and sold more than two million copies.
The book was finished in 1983 and published in Oktyabr, a Soviet monthly literary magazine, in February 1984. In 1985, the book was published by several publishers, the number of printed copies reached 2,000,000 in the next five years; this novel is made up of monologues of women in the war speaking about the aspects of World War II that had never been related before. Another book, The Last Witnesses: the Book of Unchildlike Stories, describes personal memories of children during wartime; the war seen through women's and children's eyes revealed a new world of feelings. In 1993, she published Enchanted with Death, a book about attempted and completed suicides due to the downfall of the Soviet Union. Many people felt inseparable from the Communist ideology and unable to accept the new order and the newly interpreted history, her books were not published by Belarusian state-owned publishing houses after 1993, while private publishers in Belarus have only published two of her books: Chernobyl Prayer in 1999 and Second-hand Time in 2013, both translated into Belarusian.
As a result, Alexievich has been better known in the rest of world than in Belarus. She has been described as the first journalist to receive the Nobel Prize in Literature, she herself rejects the notion that she is a journalist, and, in fact, Alexievich’s chosen genre is sometimes called “documentary literature”: an artistic rendering of real events, with a degree of poetic license. Alexievich has been awarded many awards, including: Order of the Badge of Honour Saint Euphrosyne of Polotsk Medal Nikolay Ostrovskiy literary award of the Union of Soviet Writers Oktyabr Magazine Prize Литературная премия имени Константина Федина of the Union of Soviet Writers Lenin Komsomol Prize — for the book «У войны не женское лицо» Literaturnaya Gazeta Prize Премия имени Андрея Синявского of Novaya Gazeta — «За творческое поведение и благородство в литературе» Friendship of the Peoples Magazine Prize Триумф 1996 Tucholsky-Preis 1997 Andrei Sinyavsky Prize 1998 Leipziger Book Prize on European Understanding 1998 Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung-Preis 1999 Herder Prize 2005 National Book Critics Circle Award, Voices from Chernobyl 2007 Oxfam Novib/PEN Award 2011 Ryszard Kapuściński Award for literary reportage 2011 Angelus Award 2013 Peace Prize of the German Book Trade 2013 Prix Médicis essai, La Fin de l'homme rouge ou le temps du désenchantement 2015 Nobel Prize in