click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Action Against Hunger

Action Against Hunger is a global humanitarian organization which originated in France and is committed to ending world hunger. The organization helps malnourished children and provides communities with access to safe water and sustainable solutions to hunger. In 2014, Action Against Hunger worked in 49 different countries around the world with more than 6,000 employees and volunteers helping 13.6 million people in need. Established in 1979 by a group of French doctors and writers. Nobel Prize-winning physicist Alfred Kastler served as the organization's first chairman; the group provided assistance to Afghan refugees in Pakistan, famine-stricken Ugandan communities, Cambodian refugees in Thailand. It expanded to address additional humanitarian concerns in Africa, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, the Balkans and elsewhere during the 1980s and 1990s. Action Against Hunger's Scientific Committee pioneered the therapeutic milk formula, now used by all major humanitarian aid organizations to treat acute malnutrition.

Early results showed that treatment with F100 has the capacity to reduce the mortality rate of malnourished children to below 5%, with a median hospital fatality rate quoted of 23.5% A few years therapeutic milk was repackaged as ready-to-use therapeutic foods, a peanut-based paste packaged like a power bar. These bars allow for the treatment of malnutrition at home and do not require any preparation or refrigeration; the international network has headquarters in five countries – France, the United States and the UK. Its four main areas of work include nutrition, food security and sanitation, advocacy. Integrated approaches with various sectors of intervention: Nutrition and Health Water and Hygiene Food Security & Livelihoods Emergency Response Action Against Hunger partners with leaders from the food and beverage industry to bring attention to global hunger; each year, several campaigns are ran by the network to raise funds and support the organisation's programs: Restaurants Against Hunger and Love Food Give Food.

In 2017, Action Against Hunger International Network is present in 51 countries: Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ivory Coast, Ethiopia, Liberia, Madagascar, Mauritania, Nigeria, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sierra Leone, South Soudan, Chad, Zimbabwe Bangladesh, Cambodia, Indonesia, Nepal, Philippines Haïti South Caucasus, Ukraine Afghanistan, Egypt, Syria, Palestinian Occupied Territories, Jordan, Iraq Colombia, Nicaragua, Peru Since 1995 Action Against Hunger developed an international network to have a bigger global impact. The Network has 5 headquarters in the world: France, the United Kingdom, the United States and Canada. Action Against Hunger has a West Africa Regional Office located in Dakar, a Training center in Nairobi and 5 logistic platforms; this network increases the human and financial capacities and enables a specialization per headquarter. Action Against Hunger in France and the USA are the operational headquarters: they manage the interventions directly on the field.

In order to maximize efficiency and coherence, these three operational headquarters work under the principle of one headquarter per country of intervention. Action Against Hunger-UK focuses on research and evaluation, notably with Hunger Watch; this UK headquarters plays an intermediary role with DFID. Action Against Hunger Canada raises public and private funds in North America and plays an increasing role on the national level. Action Against Hunger US website Action Against Hunger UK website Action Contre la Faim France website Acción Contra el Hambre Spain website Action Contre la Faim Canada website Aktion gegen den Hunger Germany website Azione contro la Fame Italy website

Singapore in the Straits Settlements

Singapore in the Straits Settlements refers to a period in the history of Singapore from 1826 to 1942, during which Singapore was part of the Straits Settlements together with Penang and Malacca. From 1830 to 1867, the Straits Settlements was a residency, or subdivision, of the Presidency of Bengal, in British India. In 1867, the Straits Settlements became a separate Crown colony, directly overseen by the Colonial Office in Whitehall in London; the period saw Singapore establish itself as an important trading port and developed into a major city with a rapid increase in population. British rule was suspended in February 1942, when the Imperial Japanese Army invaded Singapore during World War II. In 1819, British official Stamford Raffles landed in Singapore to establish a trading port; the island's status as a British outpost was in doubt, as the Dutch government soon issued bitter protests to the British government, arguing that their sphere of influence had been violated. The British government and the East India Company were worried about the potential liability of this new outpost, but, soon overshadowed by Singapore's rapid growth as an important trading post.

By 1822, it was made clear to the Dutch. The status of Singapore as a British possession was cemented by the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, which carved up the Malay archipelago between the two colonial powers; the area north of the Straits of Malacca, including Penang and Singapore, was designated as the British sphere of influence, while the area south of the Straits was assigned to the Dutch. This division had far-reaching consequences for the region: modern-day Malaysia and Singapore correspond to the British area established in the treaty, modern-day Indonesia to the Dutch. In 1826, Singapore was grouped together with Penang and Malacca into a single administrative unit, the Straits Settlements, under the administration of the East India Company. In 1830, the Straits Settlements became a residency, or subdivision, of the Presidency of Bengal, in British India; this status continued until 1867. During the subsequent decades, Singapore grew to become one of the most important ports in the world.

Several events during this period contributed to its success. British intervention in the Malay peninsula from the 1820s onwards culminated, during the 1870s, in the formation of British Malaya. During this period, Malaya became an important producer of natural rubber and tin, much of, shipped out through Singapore. Singapore served as the administrative centre for Malaya until the 1880s, when the capital was shifted to Kuala Lumpur. In 1834, the British government ended the East India Company's monopoly on the China trade, allowing other British companies to enter the market and leading to a surge in shipping traffic; the trade with China was opened with the signing of the Unequal Treaties, beginning in 1842. The advent of ocean-going steamships, which were faster and had a larger capacity than sailing ships, reduced transportation costs and led to a boom in trade. Singapore benefited by acting as a coaling station for the Royal Navy and merchant ships; the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 reduced the travel time from Europe to East Asia, again providing a boost for trade.

By 1880, over 1.5 million tons of goods were passing through Singapore each year, with around 80% of it transported by steamships and trading ships. The main commercial activity was entrepôt trade which flourished under no taxation and little restriction. Many merchant houses were set up in Singapore by European trading firms, but by Jewish, Arab, Armenian and Indian merchants. There were many Chinese middlemen who handled most of the trade between the European and Asian merchants. Despite Singapore's growing importance, the administration set up to govern the island was understaffed, poorly funded and ineffectual. Administrators were posted from India with little or no knowledge of the region, were unfamiliar with local languages and customs of the people; as long as British trade was not affected, the administration was unconcerned with the welfare of the populace. While Singapore's population had quadrupled between 1830 and 1867, the size of the civil service in Singapore had remained unchanged.

In 1850 there were only twelve police officers to keep order in a city of nearly 60,000. Most people had no access to public health services and disease such as cholera and smallpox caused severe health problem in overcrowded working-class areas. Malnutrition and opium smoking were major social woes during this period; as early as 1827, the Chinese had become the largest ethnic group in Singapore. During the earliest years of the settlement, most of the Chinese in Singapore had been Peranakans, the descendants of Chinese who had settled in the archipelago centuries ago, who were well-to-do merchants; as the port developed, much larger numbers of Chinese coolies flocked to Singapore looking for work. These migrant workers were male and uneducated, had left China to escape the political and economic disasters in their country, they aspired to make their fortune in Southeast Asia and return home to China, but most were doomed to a life of low-paying unskilled labour. Until the 20th century, few Chinese ended up settling permanently because wives were in short supply.

The sex ratio in Singapore's Chinese community was around hundred to one due to restrictions that the Chinese government imposed, up till the 1860s, on the migration of women. Malays in Singapore were the second largest ethnic group in Singapore until the 1860s. Although many of the Malays continued to live in kampun

James F. Allen (businessman)

James F. "Jim" Allen is the chairman of Hard Rock International and chief executive officer of Seminole Gaming. He served as vice president of operations of The Trump Organization and senior vice president of Sol Kerzner's company, Sun International. James Allen was born to Robert C. and Kathryn Allen, had a modest upbringing. He attended Mainland Regional High School in Linwood, New Jersey, graduating in 1978. To support his mother and aunt, Allen began working in restaurants at the age of 13. Allen took career-development courses, including gaming classes at University of Nevada and creative writing and hotel management classes at Atlantic Cape Community College in Mays Landing, New Jersey. Allen has worked in the casino and gaming industries since 1979, his career began as a cook at Bally's Park Place in Atlantic City, New Jersey, where he has been credited with helping implement data tracking software to balance profit and food costs. Via Bally's, he entered a management training program around 1980.

In 1985, he joined Atlantic City Hilton as a purchasing manager. Allen worked at The Trump Organization, which had taken over the Atlantic City Hilton, until 1993, he became part of the senior management team for three Trump properties in Atlantic City, before being promoted to vice president of operations. Allen next worked for real estate developer Christopher Hemmeter, serving as general manager for four Colorado casinos and helping to open another in New Orleans, he was hired by South African business magnate Sol Kerzner to serve as the Mohegan Sun's senior vice president of property operations and help develop Atlantis Paradise Island. Allen was Kerzner's third hire, starting in 1995 and departing in 2001, he was promoted to senior vice president of property operations in Kerzner's company, Sun International, which included Mohegan Sun, Atlantis Paradise Island, the Ocean Club and the former Desert Inn, Las Vegas. Allen serves as chairman of Hard Rock CEO of Seminole Gaming. Allen, not of Seminole origin, has led the Seminole Tribe of Florida's gaming operations since 2001.

He was hired to operate five casinos on the Brighton, Coconut Creek, Hollywood and Tampa reservations, to develop the Seminole Hard Rock Hotel and Casino Hollywood and Seminole Hard Rock Hotel and Casino Tampa. Allen is credited with driving the 2003 development of bingo-based "Class II" gaming machines that are similar to slot machines, he has been credited with leading the tribe's acquisition of Hard Rock International during 2006–2007 and for overseeing its brand, customer experience, memorabilia collection, management practices. Allen received a casino marketing lifetime achievement award in July 2016, at the Casino Marketing and Technology Conference, hosted by Casino Journal and its parent company BNP Media; the award was established in 2004 to recognize individuals who have made "outstanding contributions in the area of casino marketing and customer service". In March 2017, Allen led the Hard Rock International purchase of the Trump Taj Mahal from investor Carl Icahn. Allen resides in Florida.

Allen and his wife, Isabel Allen have a home in Linwood, New Jersey. Where she serves on Gilda's Club South Jersey's board of directors; the couple have hosted fundraiser events for the cancer support and education organization, an affiliate of the Cancer Support Community. In 2005, to commemorate Seminole Gaming's twenty-fifth anniversary, Allen directed a beautification of the tribe's Council Oak, the site of many Seminole Tribe ceremonial events, he serves on the American Gaming Association's board of directors and the advisory board of the Seminole Hard Rock Winterfest Boat Parade. He is a board member of the Rock and Roll Forever Foundation. List of people from Fort Lauderdale, Florida "Tribe's case for gambling agreement". Orlando Sentinel. Tribune Publishing. January 5, 2016. "Tribe: Compact benefits Florida: Front & Center". Orlando Sentinel. March 17, 2015. "James "Jim" Allen: Chairman/President/CEO, Seminole Hard Rock Entertainment Inc". Bloomberg.com. Bloomberg L. P

Henry Adams Bellows (justice)

Henry Adams Bellows was a lawyer, state legislator, jurist born in Walpole, New Hampshire October 25, 1803 to Joseph and Mary Bellows. He was educated at the academy at Vermont, he taught school in Walpole and studied law under William C. Bradley, being admitted to the bar in 1826, he practiced in New Hampshire from 1828 to 1850, moving to Concord, New Hampshire. He was elected to the New Hampshire House of Representatives from Littleton in 1839, he was subsequently elected again to the House from Concord in 1856 and 1857, served as Chairman of the Judiciary Committee. On 23 September 1859 he was appointed associate justice to the New Hampshire Supreme Court, where he served as a justice from 1859 to 1869 and Chief Justice from 1869 until his death on March 11, 1873. New Hampshire Division of Historical Resources Works by or about Henry Adams Bellows at Internet Archive Works by Henry Adams Bellows at LibriVox

Order "For Service to the Homeland in the Armed Forces of the USSR"

The Order "For Service to the Homeland in the Armed Forces of the USSR" known as the Order "For Service to the Motherland in the Armed Forces of the USSR", was a Soviet military order awarded in three classes for excellence to military personnel. The Order "For Service to the Homeland in the Armed Forces of the USSR" was created on October 28, 1974 by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, making it the first military order created after the end of World War II; the Order "For Service to the Homeland in the Armed Forces of the USSR" was awarded to soldiers of the Soviet Army, Navy, of Border or Internal Troops: for achievements in combat and political training, for maintaining high combat readiness and developing new military equipment. The Order "For Service to the Homeland in the Armed Forces of the USSR" was divided into three classes, first and third, the first class being the highest; each class was awarded sequentially from the third to the first. Recipients of the Order "For Service to the Homeland in the Armed Forces of the USSR" of any class had the right to: priority in the choice of living quarters.

The Order "For Service to the Homeland in the Armed Forces of the USSR" is worn on the right side of the chest after the Order of the Red Star and in order of class seniority. When worn with Orders of the Russian Federation, the latter have precedence; the Order "For Service to the Homeland in the Armed Forces of the USSR" consisted of two 58mm by 58mm four pointed stars crossed at a 90° angle, the top star having the vertical and horizontal points. The rear star was enamelled light blue with gilt edges and two crossed convex oxidised silver rockets pointing towards the upper left and upper right; the rockets' nose cones and tail sections were gilded. The top star was made up of diverging rays, at its center, a circular medallion containing a convex five pointed star within an oak wreath on a blue background, surrounded by a white enamelled ribbon with the inscription: "For Service to the Motherland in the Armed Forces of the USSR" on the sides and top, the image of the hammer and sickle at the bottom.

The central medallion was superimposed over an oxidized silver anchor and wings protruding from the top and both sides. The Order weighed 64,5 grams; the main differences between the three classes of the Order: 1st class - top four pointed star and central five pointed star were gilded. The ribbons to be worn on the uniform in the ribbon bar when the Order wasn't worn were: 1st class - blue with a 6mm wide yellow central stripe; the first investiture of the Order "For Service to the Homeland in the Armed Forces of the USSR" 3rd class took place on February 17, 1975, the first orders 2nd class were awarded on July 30, 1976 and the first awards 1st class in 1982. From 1975 to the disestablishment of the order following the 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union, 69,576 orders 3rd class, 589 2nd class and only 13 1st class were awarded. Below are lists of the recipients: Lieutenant General IK Kolodyazhny Major General VP Shcherbakov Colonel General IG Zavialov Captain 1st grade VA Poroshin Colonel GK Loshkarev Lieutenant General A. Borowski Captain 1st grade A. Kazakov Colonel M. Orlov Major General of Internal Troops A. Verevkin Admiral Vladimir Sergeev Colonel Boris Agapov Colonel General GF Baidukov Colonel General Achalov VA Army General Igor Rodionov Admiral Vladimir Yegorov Admiral of the Fleet Feliks Gromov Marshal of Aviation Yevgeniy Savitskiy Army General Viktor Dubynin Former Colonel and 3rd President of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria Aslan Aliyevich Maskhadov Lieutenant General and politician Alexander Ivanovich Lebed Army General Nikolay Yegorovich Makarov Lieutenant Colonel Anatoly Lebed Lieutenant General Vladimir Shamanov Marshal of the Soviet Union Sergei Sokolov Marshal of Aviation Alexander Pokryshkin Marshal of the Soviet Union Ivan Yakubovsky Marshal of the Soviet Union Sergey Akhromeyev Admiral of the Fleet Vladimir Masorin Colonel General Gennady Troshev Army General Anatoly Kvashnin Cosmonaut Major General Andriyan Grigoryevich Nikolayev Cosmonaut Major General Alexey Arkhipovich Leonov Cosmonaut Lieutenant General Georgy Timofeyevich Beregovoy Cosmonaut Major General Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov Cosmonaut Colonel Boris Valentinovich Volynov Cosmonaut Colonel General Pyotr Ilyich Klimuk Cosmonaut Major General Vladimir Aleksandrovich Dzhanibekov Cosmonaut Major General Vladimir Vasiliyevich Kovalyonok Test Cosmonaut Colone

Bhumata Brigade

The Bhumata Brigade is a Pune-based social activist organization founded in 2010 in the state of Maharashtra, dedicated to fighting against injustice to women and against corruption. The organization's founder is Indian gender equality activist Trupti Desai; the Bhumata Brigade is best known for their protests against the banning of women from worship at places of worship, including Shani Shingnapur temple in Ahmednagar and the Haji Ali Darg/ah in Mumbai, Maharashtra. By 2016, the Bhumata Brigade had 4,000 members, including some men. A branch of the organization Bhumata Ranragani Brigade, focuses on women's causes, including the Shani temple protests, they are sought out for assistance by victims of eve teasing, dowry issues, physical or sexual assault. Other protests include: high prices of other vegetables. Bhumata Brigade is not aligned with any political parties in India. Desai has stood for election; the Shani Shingnapur temple has a 400-year tradition of not allowing women to worship at the altar, where there is an idol of Shani.

On 26 January 2016, India Republic day, a group of 500 protesters in buses was stopped by police near the town of Supa, 70 km from the temple. Gulabi Gang Red Brigade Lucknow