Jim Lee is a Korean American comic-book artist, writer and publisher. He is the Co-Publisher and Chief Creative Officer of DC Comics. In recognition of his work, Lee has received a Harvey Award, Inkpot Award and three Wizard Fan Awards, he entered the industry in 1987 as an artist for Marvel Comics, illustrating titles such as Alpha Flight and The Punisher War Journal, before gaining popularity on The Uncanny X-Men. X-Men No. 1, the 1991 spin-off series premiere that Lee penciled and co-wrote with Chris Claremont, remains the best-selling comic book of all time, according to Guinness World Records. In 1992, Lee and several other artists formed their own publishing company, Image Comics to publish their creator-owned titles, with Lee publishing titles such as WildC. A. T.s and Gen¹³ through his studio WildStorm Productions. Eschewing the role of publisher in order to return to illustration, Lee sold WildStorm in 1998 to DC Comics, where he continued to run it as a DC imprint until 2010, as well as illustrating successful titles set in DC's main fictional universe, such as the year-long "Batman: Hush" and "Superman: For Tomorrow" storylines, books including Superman Unchained, the New 52 run of Justice League.
On February 18, 2010, Lee was announced as the new Co-Publisher of DC Comics with Dan DiDio, both replacing Paul Levitz. Lee was born on August 1964 in Seoul, South Korea, he grew up in St. Louis, where he lived a "typical middle-class childhood". Though given a Korean name at birth, he chose the name Jim when he became a naturalized U. S. citizen at age 12. Lee attended River Bend Elementary School in Chesterfield and St. Louis Country Day School, where he drew posters for school plays. Having had to learn English when he first came to the U. S. presented the young Lee with the sense of being an outsider, as did the "preppy, upper-class" atmosphere of Country Day. As a result, on the rare occasions that his parents bought him comics, Lee's favorite characters were the X-Men, because they were outsiders themselves. Lee says that he benefited as an artist by connecting with characters that were themselves disenfranchised, like Spider-Man, or who were born of such backgrounds, such as Superman, created by two Jewish men from Cleveland to lift their spirits during the Depression.
His classmates predicted in his senior yearbook. Despite this, Lee was resigned to following his father's career in medicine, attending Princeton University to study psychology, with the intention of becoming a medical doctor. In 1986, as he was preparing to graduate, Lee took an art class that reignited his love of drawing, led to his rediscovery of comics at a time when seminal works such as Frank Miller's The Dark Knight Returns and Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons' Watchmen spurred a renaissance within the American comics industry. After obtaining his psychology degree, he decided to postpone applying to medical school, earned the reluctant blessing of his parents by allotting himself one year to succeed, vowing that he would attend medical school if he did not break into the comic book industry in that time, he did not find success. When Lee befriended St. Louis-area comics artists Don Secrease and Rick Burchett, they convinced him he needed to show his portfolio to editors in person, prompting Lee to attend a New York comics convention, where he met editor Archie Goodwin.
Goodwin invited Lee to Marvel Comics, where the aspiring artist received his first assignment by editor Carl Potts, who hired him to pencil the mid-list series Alpha Flight, seguéing from that title in 1989 to Punisher: War Journal. Lee's work on the Punisher: War Journal was inspired by artists such as Frank Miller, David Ross, Kevin Nowlan, Whilce Portacio, as well as Japanese manga. In 1989, Lee filled in for regular illustrator Marc Silvestri on Uncanny X-Men No. 248 and did another guest stint on issues No. 256 through No. 258 as part of the "Acts of Vengeance" storyline becoming the series' ongoing artist with issue No. 267, following Silvestri's departure. During his stint on Uncanny, Lee first worked with inker Scott Williams, who would become a long-time collaborator. During his run on the title, Lee co-created the character Gambit with long-time X-Men writer Chris Claremont. Lee's artwork gained popularity in the eyes of enthusiastic fans, which allowed him to gain greater creative control of the franchise.
In 1991, Lee helped launch a second X-Men series called X-Men volume 2, as both the artist and as co-writer with Claremont. X-Men vol. 2 No. 1 is still the best-selling comic book of all-time with sales of over 8.1 million copies and nearly $7 million, according to a public proclamation by Guinness World Records at the 2010 San Diego Comic-Con. The sales figures were generated in part by publishing the issue with five different variant covers, four of which show different characters from the book that formed a single image when laid side by side, a fifth, gatefold cover of that combined image, large numbers of which were purchased by retailers who anticipated fans and speculators who would buy multiple copies in order to acquire a complete collection of the covers. Lee designed new character uniforms for the series, including those worn by Cyclops, Jean Grey, Rogue and Storm and created the villain Omega Red. Actor/comedian Taran Killam, who has ventured into comics writing with The Illegitimates, has cited X-Men No. 1 as the book that inspired his interest in comics.
Stan Lee interviewed Lee in the documentary series The Comic Book Greats. Enticed by the idea of being able to exert more control over his own work, in 1992, Lee accepted the invitation to join six other artists who broke away from Marvel
The symbol # is most known as the number sign, hash, or pound sign. The symbol has been used for a wide range of purposes, including the designation of an ordinal number and as a ligatured abbreviation for pounds avoirdupois. Since 2007, widespread usage of the symbol to introduce metadata tags on social media platforms has led to such tags being known as "hashtags" and from that, the symbol itself is sometimes incorrectly called a "hashtag"; the symbol is defined in ASCII as U +0023 # NUMBER SIGN and & num. It is graphically similar to several other symbols, including the sharp from musical notation and the equal-and-parallel symbol from mathematics, but is distinguished by its combination of level horizontal strokes and right-tilting vertical strokes, it is believed that the symbol traces its origins to the symbol ℔, an abbreviation of the Roman term libra pondo, which translates as "pound weight". This abbreviation was printed with a dedicated ligature type, with a horizontal line across, so that the lowercase letter "l" would not be mistaken for the numeral "1".
The symbol was reduced for clarity as an overlay of two horizontal strokes "=" across two slash-like strokes "//". Examples of it being used to indicate pounds exist at least as far back as 1850; the symbol is described as the "number" character in an 1853 treatise on bookkeeping. And its double meaning is described in a bookkeeping text from 1880; the instruction manual of the Blickensderfer model 5 typewriter appears to refer to the symbol as the "number mark". Some early-20th-century U. S. sources refer to it as the "number sign", although this could refer to the numero sign. A 1917 manual distinguishes between two uses of the sign: "number"; the use of the phrase "pound sign" to refer to this symbol is found from 1932 in U. S. usage. Before this time, still outside the United States, the term "pound sign" was used to refer to the pound currency symbol or the pound weight symbol. An alternative theory is that the name "pound sign" arose from the fact that character encodings used the same code for both the number sign and the British pound sign "£".
Claims have included ISO 646-GB as well as the Baudot code in the late 19th century. The apparent use of the sign to mean pounds weight in 1850 appears to rule out both of these code sets as the origin, although that same reference admits that the earliest reference in print was a decade after Baudot code."Hash sign" is found in South African writings from the late 1960s, from other non-North-American sources in the 1970s. The symbol appears to be used in handwritten material, while in the printing business, the numero symbol and barred-lb are used for "number" and "pounds" respectively. For mechanical devices, it appeared on the keyboard of the Remington Standard typewriter, but was not used on the keyboards used for typesetting, it appeared in many of the early teleprinter codes and from there was copied to ASCII which made it available on computers and thus caused many more uses to be found for the character. The symbol was introduced on the bottom right button of touch-tone keypads in 1968, but that button was not extensively used until the advent of large scale voicemail in the early 1980s.
Mainstream use in the United States is as follows: when it prefixes a number, it is read as "number", as in "a #2 pencil". The one exception is with the # key on a phone, always referred to as the "pound key" or "pound", thus instructions to dial an extension such as #77 are always read as "pound seven seven". When the symbol follows a number, the symbol indicates weight in pounds; this traditional usage still finds handwritten use, may be seen on some signs in markets and groceries. It is commonly known as the "pound sign". In Canada the symbol is called both the "number sign" and the "pound sign"; the American company Avaya has an option in their programming to denote Canadian English, which in turn instructs the system to say "number sign" to callers instead of "pound sign". In the United Kingdom and Ireland, it is called a hash, it is not used as weight or currency. It is not called the "pound sign"; the use of "#" as an abbreviation for "number" may be understood in Britain and Ireland, where there has been business or educational contact with American usage, but use in print is rare and British typewriters had "£" in place of the American "#".
Where Americans might write "Symphony #5", the British and Irish are more to write "Symphony No. 5", or use the numero sign—"Symphony № 5". To add to the confusion between "£" and "#", in BS 4730, 0x23 represents "£", whereas in ASCII, it represents "#", thus it was common for the same character code to display "#" on US equipment and "£" on British equipment; the symbol has many other names in English: Comment sign Taken from its use in many shell scripts and some programming languages to start comments. Hash, or hash mark Hashtag The word "hashtag" is used when reading social media messages aloud, indicating the start of a hashtag. For instance the text "#foo" is read out loud as "hashtag, foo" (as opposed to "h
Superman is a fictional character, a superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. Created by writer Jerry Siegel and artist Joe Shuster, the character first appeared in Action Comics #1 on April 18, 1938 which marked the rise of the Golden Age of Comic Books. Since his inception, Superman has been depicted as an hero that that originated the planet Krypton and named Kal-El; as a baby, he was sent to Earth in a small spaceship by his biological family, Jor-El and Lara, moments before Krypton was destroyed in a natural cataclysm. His ship landed in the American countryside. Clark displayed various superhuman abilities from the start as a young boy, such as incredible strength and impervious skin, his foster parents advised him to use his abilities for the benefit of humanity, he decided to fight crime as a vigilante. To protect his privacy, he changes into a colorful costume and uses the alias "Superman" when fighting crime. Clark Kent resides in the fictional American city of Metropolis in his adult life, where he works as a journalist for the Daily Planet disguising himself among the people there.
Depicted supporting characters of Superman are depicted as residing in Metropolis such as prominent love interest of Superman, Lois Lane, good friend of Superman, Jimmy Olsen, Daily Planet chief editor Perry White. He has many foes such as the genius inventor Lex Luthor, he is a friend of many other superheroes such as Batman and Wonder Woman. Although Superman was not the first superhero character, he popularized the superhero genre and defined its conventions, he remains the best selling superhero in comic books of all time and endured as one of the most lucrative franchises outside of comic books. He is regarded as the greatest superhero / comic book character of all time. Superman was created by Joe Shuster. A duo who met met in 1932 in a high school in Cleveland and bonded over their mutual love of fiction. Siegel aspired to become a writer and Shuster aspired to become an illustrator. Siegel wrote amateur science fiction stories, which he self-published a magazine called Science Fiction: The Advance Guard of Future Civilization.
His friend Shuster provided illustrations for his work. In January 1933, Siegel published a short story in his magazine titled "The Reign of the Superman"; the titular character is a vagrant named Bill Dunn, tricked by an evil scientist into consuming an experimental drug. The drug gives Dunn the powers of mind-reading, mind-control, clairvoyance, he uses these powers maliciously for profit and amusement, but the drug wears off, leaving him a powerless vagrant again. Shuster provided illustrations. Siegel and Shuster shifted with a focus on adventure and comedy, they wanted to become syndicated newspaper strip authors, so they showed their ideas to various newspaper editors. However, the newspaper editors told them. If they wanted to make a successful comic strip, it had to be something more sensational than anything else on the market; this prompted Siegel to revisit Superman as a comic strip character. Siegel modified Superman's powers to make him more sensational: Like Bill Dunn, the second prototype of Superman is given powers against his will by an unscrupulous scientist, but instead of psychic abilities, he acquires superhuman strength and bullet-proof skin.
Additionally, this new Superman was a crime-fighting hero instead of a villain, because Siegel noted that comic strips with heroic protagonists tended to be more successful. In years, Siegel once recalled that this Superman wore a "bat-like" cape in some panels, but he and Shuster agreed there was no costume yet, there is none apparent in the surviving artwork. Siegel and Shuster showed this second concept of Superman to Consolidated Book Publishers, based in Chicago. In May 1933, Consolidated had published a comic book titled Detective Dan: Secret Operative 48, it contained all-original stories as opposed to reprints of newspaper strips, a novelty at the time. Siegel and Shuster put together a comic book in similar format called The Superman. A delegation from Consolidated visited Cleveland that summer on a business trip, Siegel and Shuster took the opportunity to present their work in person. Although Consolidated expressed interest, they pulled out of the comics business without offering a book deal because the sales of Detective Dan were disappointing.
Siegel believed publishers kept rejecting them because he and Shuster were young and unknown, so he looked for an established artist to replace Shuster. When Siegel told Shuster what he was doing, Shuster reacted by burning their rejected Superman comic, sparing only the cover, they continued collaborating on other projects, but for the time being Shuster was through with Superman. Siegel wrote to numerous artists; the first response came in July 1933 from Leo O'Mealia, who drew the Fu Manchu strip for the Bell Syndicate. In the script that Siegel sent O'Mealia, Superman's origin story changes: He is a "scientist-adventurer" from the far future, when humanity has evolved "super powers". Just before the Earth explodes, he escapes in a time-machine to the modern era, whereupon he begins using his super powers to fight crime. O'Mealia produced a few strips and showed them to his newspaper syndicate. Nothing of Siegel and O'Mealia's collaboration survives, except in Siegel's memoir. In June 1934, Siegel found another partner: an artist in Chicago named Russell Keaton.
Keaton drew the Buck R
Paul Levitz is an American comic book writer and executive. The president of DC Comics from 2002–2009, he has worked for the company for over 35 years in a wide variety of roles. Along with publisher Jenette Kahn and managing editor Dick Giordano, Levitz was responsible for hiring such writers as Marv Wolfman and Alan Moore, artists such as George Pérez, Keith Giffen, John Byrne, editor Karen Berger, who contributed to the 1980s revitalization of the company's line of comic book heroes. Levitz was raised in New York. During which time he revived the defunct comic news fanzine, The Comic Reader, which according to Levitz, was the first published comics industry news fanzine. Under Levitz's editorship The Comic Reader won two Best Fanzine Comic Art Fan Awards. One of Levitz's teachers, Frank McCourt, was impressed enough with Levitz's work that he arranged for Levitz to appear on McCourt's brother's radio show. During the course of his research for The Comic Reader, Levitz became well known at the offices of DC Comics, where in December 1972, editor Joe Orlando gave him his first freelance work writing text pages and letter pages, working as a per diem assistant editor before writing stories.
Levitz studied business at New York University but had taken no formal education in writing, other than a journalism course. He dropped out after three years. After serving as Joe Orlando's assistant editor, in 1976 Levitz "fulfilled a lifelong dream" by becoming the editor of Adventure Comics on the eve of his 20th birthday. In 1978, he succeeded Julius Schwartz as the editor of the Batman line of comics; as a writer, Levitz is best known for his work on the title The Legion of Super-Heroes, which he wrote from 1977–1979 and 1981–1989. Levitz wrote All-New Collectors' Edition #C-55, a treasury-sized special drawn by Mike Grell, in which longtime Legion members Saturn Girl and Lightning Lad were married. Levitz and artists James Sherman and Joe Staton crafted "Earthwar" a five-issue storyline in Superboy and the Legion of Super-Heroes #241–245, he and Keith Giffen produced "The Great Darkness Saga", one of the best known Legion stories, in Legion of Super-Heroes vol. 2, #290–294. Comics historian Les Daniels observed that "Working with artist Keith Giffen, Levitz completed the transformation of Legion into a science-fiction saga of considerable scope and depth."
In August 1984, a new Legion of Super-Heroes series was launched by Giffen. With artist Steve Ditko, Levitz co-created the characters Stalker and the Prince Gavyn version of Starman, he wrote the Justice Society series in All Star Comics during the late 1970s and co-created the Earth-2 Huntress with artist Joe Staton. He and Staton provided the JSA with an origin story in DC Special #29. Lucien the Librarian, a character used in Neil Gaiman's The Sandman series, was created by Levitz and artist Nestor Redondo. Levitz was one of the contributors to the DC Challenge limited series in 1986. Levitz became an editor, served as vice president and executive vice president, before assuming the role of president in 2002. In 2006, Levitz returned to writing the Justice Society with issue #82 of JSA, completing that volume before writer Geoff Johns' relaunch. On September 9, 2009, it was announced that Levitz would step down as president and publisher of DC Comics to serve as the Contributing Editor and Overall Consultant for the newly formed DC Entertainment, become the writer of both Adventure Comics vol. 2 and Legion of Super-Heroes vol.
6. Levitz mentioned in an August 2010 interview that he was working on "my first genuine book." His 75 Years of DC Comics: The Art of Modern Mythmaking was published by Taschen America, LLC in November 2010. In addition to Legion of Super-Heroes, Levitz wrote the Worlds' Finest series, drawn by George Pérez and Kevin Maguire. Levitz and Keith Giffen collaborated on the Legion of Super-Heroes issues #17 and 18 in 2013. Levitz wrote a biography of comics creator Will Eisner, scheduled for release in 2014, he joined the board of directors of Boom! Studios in February 2014, he wrote a new five-page story titled "The Game", drawn by Neal Adams, for the Action Comics: 80 Years of Superman hardcover collection. Levitz received an Inkpot Award at the San Diego Comic-Con in 2002 and the "Dick Giordano Hero Initiative Humanitarian of the Year Award" in September 2013 at the Baltimore Comic-Con. Levitz has three children: a public health executive. Levitz has named the run of All-Star Comics featuring the Justice Society of America as his favorite.
He names Roger Zelazny as his favorite science fiction writer, J. R. R. Tolkien as his favorite fantasy writer, David McCullough as his favorite history writer and Agatha Christie as his favorite mystery writer. Shoot — completed by Warren Ellis et al as the 141st issue of John Constantine, Hellblazer in 1999, Paul Levitz canceled "Shoot" before publication due to the theme of attacking the root cultural and societal causes of school shootings, it was released in 2010, after many more school shootings, to enormous critical praise and condemnation of Levitz's timidity. The editorial interference resulted in Ellis' resignation as series writer, aborting a critically acclaimed run on the comic. "DC Profiles #13: Paul Levitz" at the Grand Comics Database Rik Offenberger. "Paul Levitz: Living In An Amazing World". First Comics News. Paul Levitz at the Grand Comics Database Paul Levitz at the Comic Book DB Paul Levitz at Mike's Amazing World of Comics
Douglas Curtis "Curt" Swan was an American comics artist. The artist most associated with Superman during the period fans call the Silver Age of Comic Books, Swan produced hundreds of covers and stories from the 1950s through the 1980s. Curt Swan, whose Swedish grandmother had shortened the original family name of Swanson, was born in Minneapolis, the youngest of five children. Father John Swan worked for the railroads; as a boy, Swan's given name – Douglas – was shortened to "Doug," and, disliking the phonetic similarity to "Dog," Swan thereafter reversed the order of his given names and went by "Curtis Douglas," rather than "Douglas Curtis."Having enlisted in Minnesota's National Guard's 135th Regiment, 34th Division in 1940, Swan was sent to Europe when the "federalized" division was shipped to Northern Ireland and Scotland. While his comrades in the 34th went into combat in North Africa and Italy, Swan spent most of World War II working as an artist for the G. I. magazine Stars and Stripes.
While at Stars and Stripes, Swan met writer France Herron, who directed him to DC Comics. During this period Swan married the former Helene Brickley, who he had met at a dance at Fort Dix, New Jersey, and, stationed near him in Paris in 1944 as a Red Cross worker. Shortly after returning to civilian life in 1945 he moved from Minnesota to New Jersey and began working for DC Comics. Apart from a few months of night classes at the Pratt Institute under the G. I. Bill, Swan was an self-taught artist. After a stint on Boy Commandos he began to just pencil pages. Swan drew many different features, including "Tommy Tomorrow" and "Gangbusters", but he began gravitating towards the Superman line of books, his first job pencilling the iconic character was for Superman #51. Many comics of the 1940s and 1950s lacked contributor credits, but research shows that Swan began pencilling the Superboy series with its fifth issue in 1949, he drew the first comics meeting of Superman and Batman in Superman #76. The two heroes began teaming on a regular basis in World's Finest Comics #71 in a story, drawn by Swan.
Swan always felt that his breakthrough came when he was assigned the art duties on Superman's Pal, Jimmy Olsen, in 1954. Swan didn't take to line editor Mort Weisinger's controlling style. Swan discussed this period in an interview: "I was getting terrible migraine headaches and had these verbal battles with Mort. So it was emotional, physical, it just drained me and I thought I'd better get out of here before I go whacko." After leaving comics for the advertising world in 1951, Swan soon returned, for National's higher paychecks. And as biographer Eddy Zeno notes, "The headaches went away after gained Weisinger's respect by standing up to him."Around 1954, Swan unsuccessfully pitched an original comic strip for newspaper syndication. Called Yellow Hair, it was about a blond boy raised by Native Americans. A couple of years starting with the episode of June 18, 1956, Swan drew the Superman daily newspaper comic strip, which he continued on until November 12, 1960. In the view of comics historian Les Daniels, Swan became the definitive artist of Superman in the early 1960s with a "new look" to the character that replaced Wayne Boring's version.
The Composite Superman was co-created by Swan and Edmond Hamilton in World's Finest Comics #142. Swan and writer Jim Shooter crafted the story "Superman's Race With the Flash!" in Superman #199 which featured the first race between the Flash and Superman, two characters known for their super-speed powers. Over the years, Swan was a remarkably consistent and prolific artist illustrating two or more titles per month. Swan remained as artist of Superman when Julius Schwartz became the editor of the title with issue #233, writer Denny O'Neil streamlined the Superman mythos, starting with the elimination of Kryptonite. Among Swan's contributions to the Superman mythos, he and writer Cary Bates co-created the supervillains Terra-Man and the 1970s version of the Toyman as well as the superhero Vartox. Writer Martin Pasko and Swan created the Master Jailer character in Superman #331. After DC's 1985 12-issue limited series Crisis on Infinite Earths and with the impending 1986 revision of Superman by writer/artist John Byrne, Swan was released from his duties on the Superman comics.
Critic Wallace Harrington summed up Swan's dismissal this way:... the most striking thing that DC did was to turn their back on the one man that had defined Superman for three decades... They turned out the lights on the creator that had defined their whole line. With no real thanks, no pomp nor circumstance, DC relieved Curt of his artistic duties on Superman. Curt Swan who had drawn Superman in Action, Lois Lane, Jimmy Olsen and World's Finest, drew Superboy in Adventure Comics, the quintessential Superman artist of the 1960s,'70s and'80s, he became. Gone. Swan's last work as regular artist on Superman was the non-canonical 1986 story "Whatever Happened to the Man of Tomorrow?", written by Alan Moore. After this, Swan continued to do occasional minor projects for DC, including the artwork of what is thought to be one of the rarest Superman comics published, titled "This Island Bradman", a comic book, commissioned in 1988 by real estate tycoon Godfrey Bradman as a Bar Mitzvah gift for his son, as well as an Aquaman limited series and special in 1989, various returns on
Neal Adams is an American comic book and commercial artist known for helping to create some of the definitive modern imagery of the DC Comics characters Batman and Green Arrow. Adams was inducted into the Eisner Award's Will Eisner Comic Book Hall of Fame in 1998, the Harvey Awards' Jack Kirby Hall of Fame in 1999. Neal Adams was born June 1941 on Governors Island, New York City, he is Jewish. Adams attended the School of Industrial Art high school in Manhattan, graduating in 1959. After graduation in 1959, he unsuccessfully attempted to find freelance work at DC Comics, turned to Archie Comics, where he wanted to work on the publisher's fledgling superhero line, edited by Joe Simon. At the suggestion of staffers, Adams drew "three or four pages of the Fly", but did not receive encouragement from Simon. Sympathetic staffers nonetheless asked Adams to draw samples for the Archie teen-humor comics themselves. While he did so, Adams said in a 2000s interview, he unknowingly broke into comics: I started to do samples for Archie and I left my Fly samples there.
A couple weeks when I came in to show my Archie samples, I noticed that the pages were still there, but the bottom panel was cut off of one of my pages. I said,'What happened', they said,'One of the artists did this transition where Tommy Troy turns into the Fly and it's not good. You did this real nice piece so we'll use that, if it's OK.' I said,'That's great. That's terrific.' That panel ran in Adventures of the Fly #4. Afterward, Adams began writing, penciling and lettering humorous full-page and half-page gag fillers for Archie's Joke Book Magazine. In a 1976 interview, he recalled earning "$32.00 for a full page. That may not seem like a great deal of money, but at the time it meant a great deal to myself as well as my mothers... as we were not in a wealthy state. It was manna from heaven, so to speak." A recommendation led him to artist Howard Nostrand, beginning the Bat Masterson syndicated newspaper comic strip, he worked as Nostrand's assistant for three months drawing backgrounds at what Adams recalled as $9 a week and "a great experience".
Having "not left Archie Comics under the best of circumstances", Adams turned to commercial art for the advertising industry. After a rocky start freelancing, he began landing regular work at the Johnstone and Cushing agency, which specialized in comic-book styled advertising. Helped by artist Elmer Wexler, who critiqued the young Adams' samples, Adams brought his portfolio to the agency, which "didn't believe I had done those particular samples since they looked so much like Elmer Wexler's work, but they gave me a chance and... I stayed there for about a year". In 1962, Adams began his comics career in earnest at the Newspaper Enterprise Association syndicate. From a recommendation, writer Jerry Caplin, a.k.a. Jerry Capp, brother of Li'l Abner creator Al Capp, invited Adams to draw samples for Capp's proposed Ben Casey comic strip, based on the popular television medical-drama series. On the strength of his samples and of his "Chip Martin, College Reporter" AT&T advertising comic-strip pages in Boys' Life magazine, of his similar Goodyear Tire ads, Adams landed the assignment.
The first daily strip, which carried Adams' signature, appeared November 26, 1962. Adams continued to do Johnston & Cushing assignments during Ben Casey's 3 1/2-year run. Comics historian Maurice Horn said the strip "did not shrink from tackling controversial problems, such as heroin addiction, illegitimate pregnancy, attempted suicide; these were treated in soap opera fashion... but there was a touch of toughness to the proceedings, well rendered by Adams in a forceful, direct style that exuded realism and tension and accorded well with the overall tone of the strip". In addition to Capp, Jerry Brondfield wrote for the strip, with Adams stepping in occasionally; the ABC series, which ran five seasons, ended March 21, 1966, with the final comic strip appearing Sunday, July 31, 1966. Despite the end of the series, Adams has said the strip, which he claimed at different points to have appeared in 365 newspapers, 265 newspapers, 165 newspapers, ended "for no other reason that it was an unhappy situation": We ended the strip under mutual agreement.
I wasn't happy working on the strip nor was I happy giving up a third of the money to Bing Crosby Productions. The strip I should have been making twelve hundred a week from was making me three hundred to three-fifty a week. On top of that, I was not able to express myself artistically, but we left under fine conditions. I was offered a deal in which I would be paid so much a month if I would agree not to do any syndicated strip for anyone else, in order that I might save myself for anything they have for me to do. Adams' goal at this point was to be a commercial illustrator. While drawing Ben Casey, he had continued to do storyboards and other work for ad agencies, said in 1976 that after leaving the strip he had shopped around a portfolio for agencies and for men's magazines, "but my material was a little too realistic and not right for most. I left my portfolio in an advertising agency promising. In the meantime I needed to make some money... and I thought,'Why don't I do some comics?'" In a 2000s interview, he remembered the events differently, saying "I took to various advertising people.
I left it at one place
The Death of Superman
"The Death of Superman" is a crossover story event featured in DC Comics' Superman-related publications. The crossover, which originated from editor Mike Carlin and writers Dan Jurgens, Roger Stern, Louise Simonson, Jerry Ordway, Karl Kesel, began in December 1992 and lasted until October 1993, it was published in Superman, Action Comics, The Adventures of Superman, Superman: The Man of Steel, Justice League America, Green Lantern. Since its initial publication, "The Death of Superman" has been reprinted in various formats and editions. Development began after a planned story, in which Clark Kent and Lois Lane would be married, was postponed to coincide with a similar storyline in the television series Lois & Clark: The New Adventures of Superman. While pitching possible replacements, Ordway jokingly suggested; as Superman comic sales had declined in recent years, the writing teams felt the character had been taken for granted and decided to temporarily kill him to emphasize his importance. They show Superman is not invincible.
"The Death of Superman" is divided into three story arcs: "Doomsday!", "Funeral for a Friend", "Reign of the Supermen!". The first arc chronicles Superman's fight with the monster Doomsday and concludes with his apparent death; the second depicts Superman's fellow superheroes and the rest of the DC Universe mourning his death, ending with his adoptive father Jonathan Kent having a heart attack. The third sees the emergence of four Superman imposters before the original returns. A number of characters in "The Death of Superman", such as Doomsday, the Cyborg Superman, Steel, would recur in DC publications; when news broke that DC planned to kill Superman, a beloved cultural icon, "The Death of Superman" received unprecedented coverage from the mainstream media. Superman #75, which features Superman's death, sold over six million copies and became the top-selling comic of 1992. Retrospective reviewers are divided on the story, with some finding it ambitious and influential, while others dismiss it as a publicity stunt.
The story has been adapted into various forms of media, including two novelizations in 1993 and a beat'em up video game, The Death and Return of Superman, in 1994. A loose animated film adaptation, Superman: Doomsday, was released in 2007. A second animated adaptation was released as a two-part film, The Death of Superman and Reign of the Supermen, in 2018 and 2019, respectively. Superman is a superhero created by Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster who appears in American comic books published by DC Comics; the character debuted in Action Comics #1 on April 18, 1938, to immediate success, the following year became the first superhero to headline his own comic book, Superman. Since his debut, Superman has been a cultural icon in the United States. In 1985, DC launched the crossover event Crisis on Infinite Earths, which took place in a variety of comics, its conclusion resulted in the DC Universe—the shared universe that the publisher's comics, including those related to Superman, take place in—being rebooted.
Writer/artist John Byrne re-envisioned The Man of Steel. The following year, Byrne relaunched Superman with a new first issue and the original series was renamed The Adventures of Superman. In the reboot, Byrne removed various elements of the Superman mythos, like Supergirl, to streamline the character for modern audiences, which allowed him to reintroduce them in a new way on; the relaunch was a major success for DC and The Man of Steel #1 became the bestselling comic book issue of 1986. Byrne wrote and illustrated Action Comics, scripted The Adventures of Superman with artist Jerry Ordway. Under Byrne, a new Superman comic was released every week and each series maintained continuity with each other, he spent two years on the Superman comics before leaving in 1988, dissatisfied with DC's lack of "conscious support" for him and that the version of Superman licensed for merchandising did not reflect Byrne's stories. As a result of Byrne's departure, Superman group editor Mike Carlin had to assemble new creative teams to replace him.
Ordway began to write The Adventures of Superman, while Roger Stern, who had finished a 12-year stint at rival publisher Marvel Comics, took over Action Comics. Connecting stories became harder due to the new, more diverse creative teams, whereas Byrne had managed most of them on his own. To control consistency in stories, the teams attended a "Superman Summit", which started in 1988; the summit was a unique method of making the writers work together, focusing their attention to the next year's worth of stories. These meetings were dysfunctional, with Superman writer/penciler Dan Jurgens noting they disagreed when discussing story ideas and argued until one person was "left standing". Carlin recalled that he had to act like a "babysitter" for the 18 creators during summits, the teams compromised; when the writing teams were having trouble deciding stories, Ordway would jokingly suggest they kill Superman. DC editor Paul Levitz liked the success of the three interconnected Superman comics, so a fourth, Superman: The Man of Steel, started.
While the creative teams believed the quality of the comics increased because there were more people working on them, they experienced a decline in sales due to the popularity of violent antiheroes like the Punisher and Wolverine. A new Superman comic was released every week, each selling 150,000 copies an issue—"a fraction" of the numbers bestselling comics like those featuring Spider-Man enjoyed; the writing teams increased the romantic tension between Clark Kent (Superman's civilian identi