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Active Format Description

In television technology, Active Format Description is a standard set of codes that can be sent in the MPEG video stream or in the baseband SDI video signal that carries information about their aspect ratio and active picture characteristics. It has been used by television broadcasters to enable both 4:3 and 16:9 television sets to optimally present pictures transmitted in either format, it has been used by broadcasters to dynamically control how down-conversion equipment formats widescreen 16:9 pictures for 4:3 displays. Standard AFD codes provide information to video devices about where in the coded picture the active video is and the "protected area", the area that needs to be shown. Outside the protected area, edges at the sides or the top can be removed without the viewer missing anything significant. Video decoders and display devices can use this information, together with knowledge of the display shape and user preferences, to choose a presentation mode. AFD can be used in the generation of Widescreen signaling, although MPEG alone contains enough information to generate this.

AFDs are not part of the core MPEG standard. SMPTE has adopted AFD for baseband SDI carriage as standard SMPTE 2016-1-2007, "Format for Active Format Description and Bar Data". Active Format Description is incorrectly referred to as "Active Format Descriptor". There is no "descriptor"; the AFD data is carried in the Video Layer of MPEG, ISO/IEC 13818-2. When carried in digital video, AFDs can be stored in the Video Index Information, in line 11 of the video. By using AFDs broadcasters can control the timing of Aspect Ratio switches more than using MPEG signalling alone; this is because the MPEG signalling can only change with a new Group of Pictures in the sequence, around every 12 frames or half a second - this was not considered accurate enough for some broadcasters who were switching between 4:3 and 16:9. The number of Aspect Ratio Converters required in a broadcast facility is reduced, since the content is described it does not need to be resized for broadcast on a platform that supports AFDs.

In 2012, a Technology & Engineering Emmy Award was awarded for the development and deployment of Active Format Description. A widescreen 16:9 signal may be broadcast with AFD 8 or AFD 10, indicating that the entire frame includes important picture information and should not be cropped. On a 4:3 TV, this will be shown as a 16:9 letterbox to ensure no image is lost. Other widescreen 16:9 content may be broadcast with AFD 15, indicating that it is safe to display only the central 4:3 region. On a 4:3 TV, the image will be cropped and it will be shown full-screen; as of 2006, AFDs are only broadcast in a minority of the countries using MPEG digital television but used most notably in the UK as required by the Digital TV Group D-Book. As a result, the quality of implementation in receivers is variable; some receivers only respect the basic "active area" information. More featured receivers support the "safe area" information, will use this to optimise the display for the shape of the viewer's screen.

Display in the compromise 14:9 letterbox format was not supported by initial British receivers, which limited the value of the AFD flags - this ratio is useful when watching widescreen material on smaller 4:3 sets. The line 23 data format allows signaling of the source aspect ratio and the Active Format Descriptor. A concerted effort on the part of US broadcasters to broadcast AFD began in 2008 in preparation for the US DTV transition which occurred on June 12, 2009. After the DTV transition, 4:3 versions of programming are not available directly from a large percentage of US broadcasters. Cable and satellite providers down-convert 16:9 HD feeds from these broadcasters to generate the 4:3 SD versions for their SD viewers; the most common forms of down-conversion are center-cut. Some US broadcasters transmit AFD with their HD DTV signals in order to maintain control over how SD viewers will receive their programming. With AFD included in these signals and satellite providers are able to dynamically control whether HD content is to be either letterbox or center-cut for their SD viewers.

However, there are cases where pay-TV providers disregard AFD instructions and for instance, present a 4:3 picture with widescreen elements cut off to assuage user complaints about letterboxing, on standard 4:3 sets, to the displeasure of broadcasters. Without AFD, either a fixed letterbox or center-cut will be required on a station-by-station basis. A fixed letterbox will result in an undesirable windowbox effect on SD originated programming. A fixed center-cut will result in loss of important picture content on certain HD content. Values from ETSI TS 101 154 V1.7.1 Annex B, ATSC A/53 Part 4 and SMPTE 2016-1-2007 Letterbox Widescreen Widescreen signaling ETSI TS 101 154 v1.7.1 - the latest version of the DVB standard that defines AFDs ETSI TS 101 154

Nejc Kuhar

Nejc Kuhar is a Slovenian ski mountaineer. Kuhar was born in Ljubljana, he started ski mountaineering in 2000 and competed first in the Rally Jezersko event in 2001. He lives in Kokra. 2006: 4th, World Championship team race 2009: 9th, European Championship combination ranking 2010: 6th, World Championship relay race 10th, World Championship team race 1st, Mountain Attack tour 2011: 7th, World Championship relay, together with Anže Šenk, Matjaž Mikloša and Klemen Triler 8th, World Championship vertical race 4th, Trofeo Mezzalama, together with Alessandro Follador and Thomas Trettel 2012: 3rd, Sellaronda Skimarathon, together with Filippo Beccari 8th, Pierra Menta, together with Filippo Beaccari Nejc Kuhar at


KHSN is a radio station licensed to serve Coos Bay, United States. The station, which began broadcasting in March 1928, is owned by W7 Broadcasting, LLC. KHSN broadcasts a sports radio format featuring syndicated programming from ESPN Radio. In addition to its usual sports talk programs, KHSN broadcasts the Major League Baseball games of the Seattle Mariners as a member of the Seattle Mariners Radio Network; this station, one of the first in Oregon, began broadcasting on March 15, 1928, with 50 watts of power on a medium wave frequency of 1370 kHz. After more than 50 years of broadcasting as KOOS, the station applied for and was assigned the current KHSN call sign by the Federal Communications Commission on October 18, 1978. In August 1983, KOOS Radio, Inc. announced an agreement to sell this station to Inc.. The deal was approved by the FCC on September 12, 1983. In October 1989, Bay Radio, Inc. reached an agreement to sell KHSN to the Bay Broadcasting Corporation. The deal was approved by the FCC on December 5, 1989, the transaction was consummated on December 12, 1989.

In February 1999, Bay Broadcasting Corporation agreed to sell this station to New Northwest Broadcasters II, Inc. as part of a multi-station deal valued at a combined $1 million. The deal was approved by the FCC on April 19, 1999, the transaction was consummated on February 28, 2001. Before this deal was consummated, as part of an internal corporate reorganization, New Northwest Broadcasters II, Inc. applied to the FCC in October 2000 to transfer the license for this station to New Northwest Broadcasters, LLC. The deal was approved by the FCC on October 26, 2000, the transaction was consummated on February 28, 2001—the same day as the consummation of the original sale. In April 2003, New Northwest Broadcasters, LLC, contracted to sell this station to W7 Broadcasting, LLC; the deal was approved by the FCC on August 7, 2003, the transaction was consummated on October 16, 2003. KHSN official website Query the FCC's AM station database for KHSN Radio-Locator Information on KHSN Query Nielsen Audio's AM station database for KHSN

Is Zat So?

Is Zat So? is a lost 1927 silent film directed by Alfred E. Green and starring George O'Brien, Edmund Lowe and Douglas Fairbanks Jr.. It was distributed by the Fox Film Corporation; the film was based on a 1925 play of the same by James Gleason and Richard Taber and produced by George Brinton McLellan which ran for 634 performances at the 39th Street Theatre in New York and opened in the same year at the Adelphi Theatre The play starred Gleason, Sidney Riggs and a pre-talkies Robert Armstrong. George O'Brien - Ed'Chick' Cowan Edmund Lowe - Hap Hurley Katherine Perry - Marie Mestretti Cyril Chadwick - Robert Parker Doris Lloyd - Sue Parker Diane Ellis - Florence Hanley Richard Maitland - Major Fitz Stanley Douglas Fairbanks Jr. - G. Clifton Blackburn Philippe De Lacy - Little Jimmy Parker Jack Herrick - Gas House Duffy 1937 Fox vault fire Is Zat So? on IMDb synopsis at AllMovie

List of municipalities in New Brunswick

New Brunswick is the eighth-most populous province in Canada with 747,101 residents as of the 2016 Census, the third-smallest province in land area at 71,389 km2. New Brunswick's 104 municipalities cover only 9.8% of the province's land mass but are home to 68.9% of its population. Municipalities in New Brunswick may incorporate under the Municipalities Act of 1973 as a city, village, regional municipality, or rural community. Municipal governments are led by elected councils and are responsible for the delivery of services such as civic administration, land use planning, emergency measures, policing and garbage collection. New Brunswick has 8 cities, 26 towns, 61 villages, 1 regional municipality, 8 rural communities. Although rural communities are under the Municipalities Act, the provincial government distinguishes them from municipalities. In 1785, Saint John became the first community in what would become Canada to incorporate as a city. Moncton is New Brunswick's largest municipality by population with 71,889 residents and Saint John is the largest urban municipality by land area at 315.96 km2.

One-third of the residents of New Brunswick do not live in municipalities but reside in local service districts, which are unincorporated communities administered by the Minister of Environment and Local Government and have no local government of their own. The Lieutenant-Governor in Council may incorporate a town as a city under the Municipal Act if it has a population of at least 10,000. Cities in existence on January 1, 1967 continue to be incorporated regardless of population. New Brunswick had eight cities. Moncton is New Brunswick's largest city by population with 71,889 residents and Saint John is the largest by land area 315.96 km2 respectively. Campbellton is New Brunswick's smallest city by population and land area with 6,883 residents and 18.58 km2. The Lieutenant-Governor in Council may incorporate a village as a town under the Municipal Act if it has a population of 1,500 or more, provides a level of services that the Minister of Environment and Local Government considers appropriate.

Towns in existence on January 1, 1967 continue to be incorporated regardless of population. New Brunswick had 26 towns. New Brunswick's largest town by population is Riverview with 19,667 residents and largest town by area is Sackville with a land area of 74.17 km2. New Brunswick's smallest town by population is Nackawic with 941 residents and the smallest by land area is Saint-Quentin at 4.24 km2. New Brunswick's 61 villages had a cumulative population of 70,813 as of the 2016 Census. New Brunswick's largest village by population is Memramcook with 4,778 residents and largest village by area is Belledune with a land area of 189.47 km2. New Brunswick's smallest village by population is Meductic with 173 residents and the smallest by land area is Bath at 2.00 km2. New Brunswick's first and only regional municipality was incorporated on May 12, 2014; the Regional Municipality of Tracadie was formed through the amalgamation of the former Town of Tracadie–Sheila, eighteen local service districts and portions of two other local service districts.

Regional municipalities must have a population greater than 15,000 and a community grouping that includes at least one municipality. Regional municipalities elect a local council but are responsible only for community administration and emergency measures services, all services provided by any former municipality, now part of the regional municipality; the Province of New Brunswick is responsible for police protection and road services, unless the regional municipality chooses to assume these responsibilities. New Brunswick eight rural communities, an increase from four as of the 2011 census following the incorporations of Kedgwick in 2012, Cocagne and Hanwell in 2014, Haut-Madawaska in 2017; these eight rural communities had a cumulative population of 23,265 in the 2016 Census. New Brunswick's largest and smallest rural communities are Beaubassin East and Saint-André with populations of 6,376 and 772 respectively. Rural communities elect local councils and are responsible for the delivery of some local services, including administrative services, community planning and emergency measures.

The province of New Brunswick ensures the delivery of other services including solid waste collection and recreation services unless the rural community chooses to take on these responsibilities. Rural communities that include a former village or town are an exception, as they are responsible to provide all services that were provided by their former municipality. Demographics of New Brunswick Geography of New Brunswick List of census agglomerations in Atlantic Canada List of communities in New Brunswick List of designated places in New Brunswick List of local service districts in New Brunswick List of municipal amalgamations in New Brunswick List of parishes in New Brunswick List of population centres in New Brunswick New Brunswick municipal elections, 2016 New Brunswick Environment and Local Government Publications

James Goodfellow

James Goodfellow OBE is a Scottish inventor. He was educated at St Mirin's Academy in his home town. In 1966, he patented personal identification number technology, the cash machine. Goodfellow was born in Renfrewshire, he was a development engineer given the project of developing an automatic cash dispenser in 1965. His system accepted. Despite being appointed an OBE in the 2006 Queen's Birthday Honours for his invention of the personal identification number, Goodfellow regrets the lack of recognition and compensation for his inventiveness, since PIN codes are ubiquitous today. In 2016 he was inducted into the Scottish Engineering Hall of Fame. Kelvin Hughes, Goodfellow's employer Scottish inventions and discoveries James Goodfellow, entry at the Gazetteer for Scotland "Who invented the ATM machine? - The James Goodfellow Story", at