The Paralympics is a major international multi-sport event involving athletes with a range of disabilities, including impaired muscle power, impaired passive range of movement, limb deficiency, leg length difference, short stature, ataxia, vision impairment and intellectual impairment. There are Winter and Summer Paralympic Games, which since the 1988 Summer Games in Seoul, South Korea, are held immediately following the respective Olympic Games. All Paralympic Games are governed by the International Paralympic Committee; the Paralympics has grown from a small gathering of British World War II veterans in 1948 to become one of the largest international sporting events by the early 21st century. The Paralympics has grown from 400 athletes with a disability from 23 countries in 1960 to thousands of competitors from over 100 countries in the London 2012 Games. Paralympians strive for equal treatment with non-disabled Olympic athletes, but there is a large funding gap between Olympic and Paralympic athletes.
The Paralympic Games are organized in parallel with the Olympic Games, while the IOC-recognized Special Olympics World Games include athletes with intellectual disabilities, the Deaflympics include deaf athletes. Given the wide variety of disabilities that Paralympic athletes have, there are several categories in which the athletes compete; the allowable disabilities are broken down into ten eligible impairment types. The categories are impaired muscle power, impaired passive range of movement, limb deficiency, leg length difference, short stature, ataxia, vision impairment and intellectual impairment; these categories are further broken down into classifications. Athletes with disabilities did compete in the Olympic Games prior to the advent of the Paralympics; the first athlete to do so was German American gymnast George Eyser in 1904, who had one artificial leg. Hungarian Karoly Takacs competed in shooting events in both 1952 Summer Olympics, he could shoot left-handed. Another disabled athlete to appear in the Olympics prior to the Paralympic Games was Lis Hartel, a Danish equestrian athlete who had contracted polio in 1943 and won a silver medal in the dressage event.
The first organized athletic day for disabled athletes that coincided with the Olympic Games took place on the day of the opening of the 1948 Summer Olympics in London, United Kingdom. Jewish-German born Dr. Ludwig Guttmann of Stoke Mandeville Hospital, helped to flee Nazi Germany by the Council for Assisting Refugee Academics in 1939, hosted a sports competition for British World War II veteran patients with spinal cord injuries; the first games were called the 1948 International Wheelchair Games, were intended to coincide with the 1948 Olympics. Dr. Guttman's aim was to create an elite sports competition for people with disabilities that would be equivalent to the Olympic Games; the games were held again at the same location in 1952, Dutch and Israeli veterans took part alongside the British, making it the first international competition of its own kind. These early competitions known as the Stoke Mandeville Games, have been described as the precursors of the Paralympic Games. There have been several milestones in the Paralympic movement.
The first official Paralympic Games, no longer open to war veterans, was held in Rome in 1960. 400 athletes from 23 countries competed at the 1960 Games. Since 1960, the Paralympic Games have taken place in the same year as the Olympic Games; the Games were open only to athletes in wheelchairs. With the inclusion of more disability classifications the 1976 Summer Games expanded to 1,600 athletes from 40 countries; the 1988 Summer Paralympics in Seoul was another milestone for the Paralympic movement. It was in Seoul that the Paralympic Summer Games were held directly after the Olympic Summer Games, in the same host city, using the same facilities; this set a precedent, followed in 1992, 1996 and 2000. It was formalized in an agreement between the International Paralympic Committee and the International Olympic Committee in 2001, was extended through 2020. On March 10, 2018, the two committees further extended their contract to 2032; the 1992 Winter Paralympics were the first Winter Games to use the same facilities as the Winter Olympics.
The first Winter Paralympic Games were held in 1976 in Sweden. This was the first Paralympics in which multiple categories of athletes with disabilities could compete; the Winter Games were celebrated every four years on the same year as their summer counterpart, just as the Olympics were. This tradition was upheld until the 1992 Games in France; the Paralympic Games were designed to emphasize the participants' athletic achievements and not their disability. Recent games have emphasized that these games are about not disability; the movement has grown since its early days – for example, the number of athletes participating in the Summer Paralympic games has increased from 400 athletes in Rome in 1960 to 4,342 athletes from 159 countries in Rio de Janeiro in 2016. Both the Paralympic Summer and Winter Games are recognized on the world stage; the IPC is the global governing body of the Paralympic Movement. It comprises 176</ref> National Paralympic Committees and four di
A shower is a place in which a person bathes under a spray of warm or hot water. Indoors, there is a drain in the floor. Most showers have spray pressure and adjustable showerhead nozzle; the simplest showers have a swivelling nozzle aiming down on the user, while more complex showers have a showerhead connected to a hose that has a mounting bracket. This allows the showerer to hold the showerhead by hand to spray the water at different parts of their body. A shower can be installed in bathtub with a plastic shower curtain or door. Showering is common in Western culture due to the efficiency of using it compared with a bathtub, its use in hygiene is, common practice. A shower uses less water on average than a bath: 80 litres for a shower compared with 150 litres for a bath; the original showers were neither indoor structures nor man-made but were common natural formations: waterfalls. The falling water rinsed the bathers clean and was more efficient than bathing in a traditional basin, which required manual transport of both fresh and waste water.
Ancient people began to reproduce these natural phenomena by pouring jugs of water very cold, over themselves after washing. There has been evidence of early upper class Egyptian and Mesopotamians having indoor shower rooms where servants would bathe them in the privacy of their own homes. However, these were rudimentary by modern standards, having rudimentary drainage systems and water was carried, not pumped, into the room; the ancient Greeks were the first people to have showers. Their aqueducts and sewage systems made of lead pipes allowed water to be pumped both into and out of large communal shower rooms used by elites and common citizens alike; these rooms have been discovered at the site of the city Pergamum and can be found represented in pottery of the era. The depictions are similar to modern locker room showers, included bars to hang up clothing; the ancient Romans followed this convention. The Romans not only had these showers but believed in bathing multiple times a week, if not every day.
The water and sewage systems developed by the Greeks and Romans broke down and fell out of use after the fall of the Roman Empire. The first mechanical shower, operated by a hand pump, was patented in England in 1767 by William Feetham, a stove maker from Ludgate Hill in London, his shower contraption used a pump to force the water into a vessel above the user's head and a chain would be pulled to release the water from the vessel. Although the system dispensed with the servant labour of filling up and pouring out buckets of water, the showers failed to catch on with the rich as a method for piping hot water through the system was not available; the system would recycle the same dirty water through every cycle. This early start was improved in the anonymously invented English Regency shower design of circa 1810; the original design was over 10 feet tall, was made of several metal pipes painted to look like bamboo. A basin suspended above the pipes fed water into a nozzle that distributed the water over the user's shoulders.
The water on the ground was drained and pumped back through the pipes into the basin, where the cycle would repeat itself. The original prototype was improved upon in the following decades until it began to approximate the shower of today in its mode of operation. Hand-pumped models became fashionable at one point as well as the use of adjustable sprayers for different water flow; the reinvention of reliable indoor plumbing around 1850 allowed free-standing showers to be connected to a running water source, supplying a renewable flow of water. Modern showers were installed in the barracks of the French army in the 1870s as an economic hygiene measure, under the guidance of François Merry Delabost, a French doctor and inventor; as surgeon-general at Bonne Nouvelle prison in Rouen, Delabost had replaced individual baths with mandatory communal showers for use by prisoners, arguing that they were more economical and hygienic. First six eight shower stalls were installed; the water was heated by a steam engine and in less than five minutes, up to eight prisoners could wash with only twenty liters of water.
The French system of communal showers was adopted by other armies, the first being that of Prussia in 1879, by prisons in other jurisdictions. They were adopted by boarding schools, before being installed in public bathhouses; the first shower in a public bathhouse was in 1887 in Austria. In France, public bathhouses and showers were established by Charles Cazalet, firstly in Bordeaux in 1893 and in Paris in 1899. Domestic showers are most stall showers or showers over a bathtub. A stall shower is a dedicated shower area which uses a curtain to contain water spray; the shower over a bathtub saves bathroom space and enables the area to be used for either a bath or a shower and uses a sliding shower curtain to contain the water spray. Showers may be in a wet room, in which there is no contained shower area, or in a dedicated shower room, which does not require containment of water spray. Most domestic showers have a single overhead shower head. Many modern athletic and aquatic facilities provide showers for use by patrons in gender segregated changing rooms.
These can be in the form of individual stalls shielded by curtains or a door or communal shower rooms. The latter are large open rooms with any number of shower heads installed either directly into the wal
Mainstreaming, in the context of education, is the practice of placing students with special education services in a general education classroom during specific time periods based on their skills. To clarify, this means students who are a part of the special education classroom will join the regular education classroom at certain times which are fitting for the special education student; these students may attend art or physical education in the regular education classrooms. Sometimes these students will attend math and science in a self-contained special education classroom, but attend English in a general education classroom. Schools that practice mainstreaming believe that students with special needs who cannot function in a general education classroom to a certain extent belong in the special education environment. Access to a special education classroom called a "self-contained classroom or resource room", is valuable to the student with a disability. Students have the ability to work one-to-one with special education teachers, addressing any need for remediation during the school day.
Many researchers and parents have advocated the importance of these classrooms amongst political environments that favor their elimination. Oftentimes mainstreamed students will have certain supports they will bring to the general education classroom. A common support is to bring a one-on-one aide to assist them. Other equipment may be tools from their special education classroom that assist them in keeping up with the demands of the general education classroom; this may be a device that helps a deaf student communicate with their peers, a special chair for a student diagnosed with A. D. H. D. or a special desk for a student, in a wheelchair. Some of these students may need accommodations on tests. Proponents of both the philosophy of educational inclusion assert that educating children with disabilities alongside their non-disabled peers fosters understanding and tolerance, better preparing students of all abilities to function in the world beyond school. Children with special needs may face social stigma as a result of being mainstreamed, but may help them develop.
There is a lot of confusion between the terms mainstreaming and inclusion. These terms are used interchangeably, but they mean two different things. Mainstreamed students are part of the special education classroom; when they enter the regular education classroom for certain subjects, this is considered mainstreaming. In comparison, inclusion students are regular education classroom students who receive special education services. Whether is not a student's education is mainstreamed or inclusion is based on, the least restrictive environment, which can be determined in the students IEP. Dr. Kenneth Shore comments on the least restrictive environment by claiming, “Determining what is the least restrictive environment for a particular student requires balancing the need for the child to learn to integrate with his non-disabled peers with the need for the child to receive instruction appropriate to his abilities.” Higher academic achievement: Mainstreaming has shown to be more academically effective than exclusion practices.
For instance, The National Research Center on Learning Disabilities found that graduation rates of all students with disabilities in the U. S. increased by 14% from 1984 to 1997, although this report does not differentiate between students enrolled in mainstreaming, inclusive, or segregated programs. Access to a resource room for direct instruction has shown to be effective in increasing students academic skills and thus increasing the abilities applied by students in a general education setting. Compared to full-time placement in a special education class or special school, both part-time and full-time placement in the regular classroom have been shown to improve academic achievement in students with mild academic disabilities, as well as to improve their long-term behavior. Higher self-esteem: By being included in a regular-paced education setting, students with disabilities have shown to be more confident and display qualities of raised self-efficacy. All students in California who went to a different school prior to attending a mainstreaming program were asked to fill out an assessment of their old school as compared to inclusion program.
The assessments showed that out of all students with disabilities 96% felt they were more confident, 3% thought they had the same experience as an excluded student, 1% felt they had less self-esteem. Overall, students felt that they were equal to their peers and felt that they should not be treated any differently. Better social skills: Any kind of inclusion practice, including mainstreaming, allows students with disabilities to learn social skills through observation, gain a better understanding of the world around them, become a part of the "regular" community. Mainstreaming is beneficial for children with autism and ADHD. By interacting with same-aged non-disabled children, children with autism were observed to be six times more to engage in social relations outside of the classroom; because children with autism spectrum disorders have restricted interests and abnormalities in communication and social interaction, the increased interaction with typical children may be beneficial to them.
The same 1999 study showed that students with Down's syndrome were three times more to communicate with other people. Mainstreaming benefits other children, it opens the lines of communication between those students with their peers. If they are included into classroom activities, all students become more sensitive to the fact that these students may need extra assistance. There is research that suggests that educating non-disabled students a
Freedom Pass is a concessionary travel scheme, which began in 1973, to provide free travel to residents of Greater London, who are aged 60 and over or who have a disability. The scheme is coordinated by London Councils; the pass was a paper ticket, but since 2004 it has been encoded on to a contactless smartcard compatible with Oyster card readers. The scheme was created in 1973 by the Greater London Council, although there had been concessionary bus fare schemes in London before that; when the council was abolished in 1986, responsibility for the scheme passed to the London borough councils. The cost of providing the travel concession is negotiated between London Councils and the local transport operator Transport for London, it is funded through a mixture of national council tax. In 2007 there was a dispute between Mayor of London Ken Livingstone and London Councils on the negotiation process, in particular the ability for the Greater London Authority to impose a charge should no agreement be reached.
Freedom Passes have two main versions, an Older Person's Freedom Pass and a Disabled Person's Freedom Pass. Greater London residents who turned 60 before 6 April 2010 were eligible for an OPFP but from on the qualifying age increases in a graduated way, until it becomes 66 by 6 October 2020, although the 2011 government spending review proposes speeding the process to be implemented by 2018. London residents over 60 can get a 60+ oystercard on payment of £20; this has all the benefits of the Freedom Pass, but only within Greater London. Unlike the Freedom Pass, it is not valid on buses outside Greater London. Disabled residents for whom an Older Person's Freedom Pass is inappropriate are, if they do not automatically qualify, assessed to determine whether their degree of disability allows issue of a disabled person's pass. In early 2010 the responsibility for judging the degree of disability passed to local councils, there were complaints of people, assessed as needing a pass for many years not having their passes renewed although their condition had not improved.
The Freedom Pass webpage links to pages with information on the "national scheme statutory disabled pass" which list the seven main categories of disability set out by the Transport Act 2000 to assess eligibility for a Freedom Pass, the "London-only discretionary disabled pass" which may be issued by local councils at their discretion in exceptional circumstances to disabled people who do not meet the criteria. Those with statutory disabilities entitling them to a DPFP are: People who are blind or sighted People who are profoundly or deaf People without speech People who have a disability, or have suffered an injury, which has left them with a substantial and long-term adverse effect on their ability to walk People who do not have arms or have a long-term loss of the use of both arms People who have a learning disability, defined as'a state of arrested or incomplete development of mind which includes significant impairment of intelligence and social functioning' People who, if they applied for the grant of a licence to drive a motor vehicle under Part III of the Road Traffic Act 1988, would have their application refused pursuant to section 92 of the Act otherwise than on the ground of persistent misuse of drugs or alcohol.
The Freedom Pass is valid at all times on London Underground, London Overground, Bus and Docklands Light Railway services in Greater London. It is accepted at most times on many rail services in and outside Greater London that are within London fare zones 1-9. Outside Greater London the card can be used in England wherever and whenever the English National Concessionary Bus Travel Scheme applies, allows free travel on any local bus route. Most previous Freedom Passes expired on 31 March 2015, were automatically renewed until 2020. Up-to-date information, which changes from time to time, is available on the TfL and the Association of London Councils websites. On most London National Rail services only passes issued because of disability rather than age can be used between 04:30 and 09:30 on working days; the Freedom Pass is not valid for travel on many longer-distance train services if they stop within Greater London or for non-London Underground trains to Heathrow airport. They may be used on London Overground trains to Watford Junction in Hertfordshire, but can only be used as far as Harrow and Wealdstone on London Midland and Southern Railway services.
For travel which crosses the boundary of the area of validity of the Freedom Pass at a time and on a service where the Pass is valid, it is necessary to buy a ticket only for the section not covered by the Pass, i.e. a ticket from the Freedom Pass boundary, or from a named station within the zone of validity. A ticket from a named station may technically not be valid on a train that does not stop at that station.
Clothing is a collective term for items worn on the body. Clothing can be made of animal skin, or other thin sheets of materials put together; the wearing of clothing is restricted to human beings and is a feature of all human societies. The amount and type of clothing worn depend on body type and geographic considerations; some clothing can be gender-specific. Physically, clothing serves many purposes: it can serve as protection from the elements and can enhance safety during hazardous activities such as hiking and cooking, it protects the wearer from rough surfaces, rash-causing plants, insect bites, splinters and prickles by providing a barrier between the skin and the environment. Clothes can insulate against cold or hot conditions, they can provide a hygienic barrier, keeping infectious and toxic materials away from the body. Clothing provides protection from ultraviolet radiation. Wearing clothes is a social norm, being deprived of clothing in front of others may be embarrassing, or not wearing clothes in public such that genitals, breasts or buttocks are visible could be seen as indecent exposure.
There is no easy way to determine when clothing was first developed, but some information has been inferred by studying lice which estimates the introduction of clothing at 42,000–72,000 years ago. The most obvious function of clothing is to improve the comfort of the wearer, by protecting the wearer from the elements. In hot climates, clothing provides protection from sunburn or wind damage, while in cold climates its thermal insulation properties are more important. Shelter reduces the functional need for clothing. For example, hats and other outer layers are removed when entering a warm home if one is living or sleeping there. Clothing has seasonal and regional aspects, so that thinner materials and fewer layers of clothing are worn in warmer regions and seasons than in colder ones. Clothing performs a range of social and cultural functions, such as individual and gender differentiation, social status. In many societies, norms about clothing reflect standards of modesty, religion and social status.
Clothing may function as a form of adornment and an expression of personal taste or style. Clothing can be and has in the past been made from a wide variety of materials. Materials have ranged from leather and furs to woven materials, to elaborate and exotic natural and synthetic fabrics. Not all body coverings are regarded as clothing. Articles carried rather than worn, worn on a single part of the body and removed, worn purely for adornment, or those that serve a function other than protection, are considered accessories rather than clothing, except for shoes. Clothing protects against many things. Clothes protect people from the elements, including rain, snow and other weather, as well as from the sun. However, clothing, too sheer, small, etc. offers less protection. Appropriate clothes can reduce risk during activities such as work or sport; some clothing protects from specific hazards, such as insects, noxious chemicals, weather and contact with abrasive substances. Conversely, clothing may protect the environment from the clothing wearer: for instance doctors wear medical scrubs.
Humans have been ingenious in devising clothing solutions to environmental or other hazards: such as space suits, air conditioned clothing, diving suits, bee-keeper gear, motorcycle leathers, high-visibility clothing, other pieces of protective clothing. Meanwhile, the distinction between clothing and protective equipment is not always clear-cut, since clothes designed to be fashionable have protective value and clothes designed for function consider fashion in their design; the choice of clothes has social implications. They cover parts of the body that social norms require to be covered, act as a form of adornment, serve other social purposes. Someone who lacks the means to procure reasonable clothing due to poverty or affordability, or lack of inclination, is sometimes said to be scruffy, ragged, or shabby. Serious books on clothing and its functions appear from the 19th century as imperialists dealt with new environments such as India and the tropics; some scientific research into the multiple functions of clothing in the first half of the 20th century, with publications such as J.
C. Flügel's Psychology of Clothes in 1930, Newburgh's seminal Physiology of Heat Regulation and The Science of Clothing in 1949. By 1968, the field of environmental physiology had advanced and expanded but the science of clothing in relation to environmental physiology had changed little. There has since been considerable research, the knowledge base has grown but the main concepts remain unchanged, indeed Newburgh's book is still cited by contemporary authors, including those attempting to develop thermoregulatory models of clothing development. In most cultures, gender differentiation of clothing is considered appropriate; the differences are in styles and fabrics. In Western societies, skirts and high-heeled shoes are seen as women's clothing, while neckties are seen as men's clothing. Trousers were once seen as male clothing, but can nowadays be worn by both genders. Male clothes are more practical, but a wider range of clothing styles are available for females. Males are allowed to bare their chests in a greater variety of public places.
In medicine, a prosthesis or prosthetic implant is an artificial device that replaces a missing body part, which may be lost through trauma, disease, or a condition present at birth. Prostheses are intended to restore the normal functions of the missing body part. Amputee rehabilitation is coordinated by a physiatrist as part of a inter-disciplinary team consisting of physiatrists, nurses, physical therapists, occupational therapists. Prostheses can be created by hand or with CAD, a software interface that helps creators visualize the creation in a 3D form. A person's prosthesis should be designed and assembled according to the person's appearance and functional needs. For instance, a person may need a transradial prosthesis, but need to choose between an aesthetic functional device, a myoelectric device, a body-powered device, or an activity specific device; the person's future goals and economical capabilities may help them choose between one or more devices. Craniofacial prostheses include extra-oral prostheses.
Extra-oral prostheses are further divided into hemifacial, nasal and ocular. Intra-oral prostheses include dental prostheses such as dentures and dental implants. Prostheses of the neck include larynx substitutes and upper esophageal replacements, Somato prostheses of the torso include breast prostheses which may be either single or bilateral, full breast devices or nipple prostheses. Penile prostheses are used to treat erectile dysfunction. Limb prostheses include both upper- and lower-extremity prostheses. Upper-extremity prostheses are used at varying levels of amputation: forequarter, shoulder disarticulation, transhumeral prosthesis, elbow disarticulation, transradial prosthesis, wrist disarticulation, full hand, partial hand, partial finger. A transradial prosthesis is an artificial limb. Upper limb prostheses can be categorized in three main categories: Passive devices, Body Powered devices, Externally Powered devices. Passive devices can either be passive hands used for cosmetic purpose, or passive tools used for specific activities.
An extensive overview and classification of passive devices can be found in a literature review by Maat et.al. A passive device can be static, meaning the device has no movable parts, or it can be adjustable, meaning its configuration can be adjusted. Despite the absence of active grasping, passive devices are useful in bimanual tasks that require fixation or support of an object, or for gesticulation in social interaction. According to scientific data a third of the upper limb amputees worldwide use a passive prosthetic hand. Body Powered or cable operated limbs work by attaching a harness and cable around the opposite shoulder of the damaged arm; the third category of prosthetic devices available are myoelectric arms. These work by sensing, via electrodes, when the muscles in the upper arm move, causing an artificial hand to open or close. In the prosthetics industry, a trans-radial prosthetic arm is referred to as a "BE" or below elbow prosthesis. Lower-extremity prostheses provide replacements at varying levels of amputation.
These include hip disarticulation, transfemoral prosthesis, knee disarticulation, transtibial prosthesis, Syme's amputation, partial foot, toe. The two main subcategories of lower extremity prosthetic devices are trans-femoral. A transfemoral prosthesis is an artificial limb. Transfemoral amputees can have a difficult time regaining normal movement. In general, a transfemoral amputee must use 80% more energy to walk than a person with two whole legs; this is due to the complexities in movement associated with the knee. In newer and more improved designs, carbon fiber, mechanical linkages, computer microprocessors, innovative combinations of these technologies are employed to give more control to the user. In the prosthetics industry a trans-femoral prosthetic leg is referred to as an "AK" or above the knee prosthesis. A transtibial prosthesis is an artificial limb. A transtibial amputee is able to regain normal movement more than someone with a transfemoral amputation, due in large part to retaining the knee, which allows for easier movement.
Lower extremity prosthetics describes artificially replaced limbs located at the hip level or lower. In the prosthetics industry a trans-tibial prosthetic leg is referred to as a "BK" or below the knee prosthesis. Physical therapists are trained to teach a person to walk with a leg prosthesis. To do so, the physical therapist may provide verbal instructions and may help guide the person using touch or tactile cues; this may be done in a home. There is some research suggesting that such training in the home may be more successful if the treatment includes the use of a treadmill. Using a treadmill, along with the physical therapy treatment, helps the person to experience many of the challenges of walking with a prosthesis. In the United Kingdom, 75% of lower limb amputations are performed due to inadequate circulation; this condition is associated with many other medical conditions including diabetes and heart disease that may make it a challenge to recover and use a pro