Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Anna Lizaran was a Catalan actress of stage and television. Lizaran's father was her mother a dressmaker, she showed enormous interest in the theatre when she was a child and studied theatre in the Centre d'Estudis Experimentals of Barcelona and was one of the first members of Els Comediants. In 1974, she moved to Paris to study with the mime Jacques Lecoq; when Lizaran returned to Barcelona in 1976, she started working in the Teatre Lliure. She since starred in such celebrated Spanish movies as High Actrius. In 1996, she directed. In 2005, she performed the character Rosa for the second season of the TV3 sitcom L'un per l'altre. In her years she performed in the television series La Via Augusta, the film Herois, her latest theater performance was for the Catalan adaptation of August: Osage County as Violet and broke records for the Teatre Nacional de Catalunya. Lizaran died in the Hospital Clínic, Barcelona on the morning of 12 January 2013 of cancer at age 68; the cancer was diagnosed three months before her death.
She was unable to release her latest theater La Bête. Morir La primera noche de mi vida Actrius La Celestina El perquè de tot plegat Souvenir High Heels La teranyina La plaça del diamant El vicari d'Olot Salut i força al canut 1976: "Camí de nit, 1854". 1977: "Titus Andrònic" • "Leonci i Lena" • "La cacatúa verda" • "Ascensió i caiguda de la ciutat de Mahagonny". 1978: "La vida del Rei Eduard II d'Anglaterra" • "La nit de les tríbades" • "Hedda Gabler". 1979: "La bella Helena" • "Les tres germanes". 1980: "Jordi Dandin" • "El balcó". 1981: "Operació Ubú". 1982: "El misàntrop" • "Primera història d'Esther". 1983: "Al vostre gust" • "Advertència per a embarcacions petites". 1984: "Una jornada particular". 1985: "Un dels últims vespres de carnaval" • "La senyoreta Júlia". 1986: "La senyora de Sade". 1987: "Lorenzaccio, Lorenzaccio" • "El 30 d'abril". 1988: "La bona persona del Sezuàn". 1990: "Maria Estuard" • "Un capvespre al jardí". 1991: "El cántaro roto". 1992: "Dansa d'agost" • "El dol escau a Electra" • "El parc".
1993: "Roberto Zucco". 1994: "Un dels últims vespres de carnaval" • "Les noces de Fígaro" • "Quartet". 1995: "Arsènic i puntes de coixí". 1996: "Lear o el somni d'una actriu" • "El temps i l'habitació". 1998: "Quartet" • "Morir" • "Galatea". 1999: "Tot esperant Godot" • "La nit de les Tríbades". 2000: "L'hort dels cirerers". 2001: "L'adéu de Lucrècia Borja". 2002: "Escenes d'una execució" • "Testimoni Verdaguer". 2003: "Homenatge a Josep Montanyés" • "El retorn al desert". 2004: "Forasters" • "Dissabte, diumenge i dilluns". 2005: "Un matrimoni de Boston" • "Homenatge a Carlota Soldevila". 2006: "Rosencrantz y Guilderstein són morts" • "Hamlet" • "La tempestad". 2010: "Agost" Anna Lizaran on IMDb Theater works of Anna Lizaran
All About Eve
All About Eve is a 1950 American drama film written and directed by Joseph L. Mankiewicz, produced by Darryl F. Zanuck, it was based on the 1946 short story "The Wisdom of Eve" by Mary Orr, although screen credit was not given for it. The film stars Bette Davis as Margo Channing, a regarded but aging Broadway star. Anne Baxter plays Eve Harrington, an ambitious young fan who insinuates herself into Channing's life threatening Channing's career and her personal relationships; the film co-stars George Sanders, Celeste Holm, features Gary Merrill, Hugh Marlowe, Thelma Ritter, Marilyn Monroe in one of her earliest roles, Gregory Ratoff, Barbara Bates and Walter Hampden. Praised by critics at the time of its release, All About Eve received a record 14 Academy Award nominations and won six, including Best Picture. All About Eve is the only film in Oscar history to receive four female acting nominations. Considered to be one of the greatest films of all time, All About Eve was selected in 1990 for preservation in the United States National Film Registry and was among the first 50 films to be registered.
All About Eve appeared at #16 on AFI's 1998 list of the 100 best American films. Margo Channing is one of the biggest stars on Broadway, but having just turned forty she is worried about what her advancing age will mean for her career. After a performance of Margo's latest play, Aged in Wood, Margo's close friend Karen Richards, wife of the play's author Lloyd Richards, brings in a besotted fan, Eve Harrington, to meet Margo. Eve tells the group gathered in Margo's dressing room—Karen, Margo's boyfriend Bill Sampson, a director, eight years her junior, Margo's maid Birdie —that she followed Margo's last theatrical tour to New York after seeing her perform in San Francisco, she tells an engrossing story of growing up poor in Wisconsin and losing her young husband in World War II. Moved, Margo befriends Eve, takes her into her home, hires her as her assistant, leaving Birdie, who instinctively dislikes Eve, feeling put out. Eve insinuates herself into Margo's life, acting as her secretary and adoring fan.
She seems to anticipate Margo's every need, including placing a long-distance phone call to Bill when Margo forgets his birthday. Margo becomes distrustful and bitter towards her after she catches Eve taking a bow to an empty theatre while pretending to wear Margo's costume for Aged in Wood. Margo asks her producer, Max Fabian, to hire Eve at his office, but instead Eve manages to become Margo's understudy without Margo's knowledge; as Margo's irritation grows, Karen feels sorry for Eve. In hopes of humbling Margo, Karen arranges for her to miss a performance of Aged in Wood, so Eve will have to give the performance in her place. Eve invites the city's theatre critics, including the acerbic Addison DeWitt, to attend that evening's performance, a triumph for her. After that evening's performance, Eve tries to seduce Bill. Instead, Addison takes her under his wing and interviews her for a column that criticizes Margo for not making way for new talents like Eve. Margo and Karen are furious; that evening and Bill announce their engagement at dinner with the Richardses in the Cub Room of the Stork Club.
Eve, dining at a nearby table with DeWitt, calls Karen into the ladies' room and, after first appearing regretful, tells her to either ask Lloyd to give her the part of Cora—the lead in Lloyd's next play, Footsteps on the Ceiling—or she will reveal Karen's role in Margo's missed performance. Before Karen can talk with Lloyd, Margo announces to everyone's surprise that she does not wish to play Cora and would prefer to continue in Aged in Wood. Eve is cast as Cora. Just before the out-of-town premiere of Footsteps on the Ceiling at the Shubert in New Haven, Eve presents Addison with her next plan: to marry Lloyd, she claims, has come to her professing his love and his eagerness to leave his wife for her. Now, Eve exults, Lloyd will write brilliant plays showcasing her. Angered that Eve believes she can manipulate him as as she does everyone else, Addison reveals he knows that her back story is all lies, her real name is Gertrude Slescynski, she was never married, she had been paid to leave town over an affair with her boss.
Addison blackmails Eve, informing her that she will not be marrying anyone else. A year Eve is a shining Broadway star headed for Hollywood. At an awards banquet, she thanks Margo, Bill and Karen with characteristic effusion, while all four stare back at her coldly. Eve skips a party in her honor, returns home alone, where she encounters Phoebe —a high-school-aged fan—who has slipped into her apartment and fallen asleep; the young girl professes her adoration and begins at once to insinuate herself into Eve's life, offering to pack Eve's trunk for Hollywood. While Eve rests in the other room, Phoebe dons the elegant robe that Eve wore to the banquet and poses in front of a multi-paned mirror, holding the award as if it were a crown. Bette Davis as Margo Channing Anne Baxter as Eve Harrington George Sanders as Addison DeWitt Celeste Holm as Karen Richards Gary Merrill as Bill Sampson Hugh Marlowe as Lloyd Richards Thelma Ritter as Birdie Gregory Ratoff as Max Fabian Marilyn Monroe as Miss Casswell Barbara Bates as Phoebe Walter Hampden as aged actor Franklyn Farnum as Sarah Siddons Awards guest The story of All About Eve originated in an anecdote related to Mary Orr by actress Elisabeth Bergner.
Núria Espert Romero is a theatre and television Spanish actress, theatre and opera director. She went to Institut Maragall, a high school in Barcelona, she started to study theatre while she was taking some courses of music and languages; when she was 17 years old, she had to substitute the actress Elvira Noriega in the play Medea, her first great success. When she was 19 years old, she married the actor Armando Moreno, who would become her manager, they both founded a theatre company in 1959. As a tribute to this actress, the city of Fuenlabrada named a theatre "Sala Municipal de Teatro Núria Espert". 1984 Premio Nacional de Teatro 2016 Premio Princesa de Asturias de las Artes 1954: Once pares de botas 1958: La tirana 1961: A las cinco de la tarde 1971: Viva la Muerte 1976: La ciutat cremada 1991: The House of Bernarda Alba 1996: Actresses 2003: Soneto 2007: Barcelona 1981: Doña Rosita la soltera 1981: Medea 1983: The Tempest 1985: Salome 1990: Maquillaje 1998: Master Class 1999: Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
2003: La Celestina 2006: Play Strindberg 2007: Hay que purgar a Totó 2009: La casa de Bernarda Alba Núria Espert on IMDb
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, the Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust; the trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to shareholders; the current editor is Katharine Viner: she succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. Since 2018, the paper's main newsprint sections have been published in tabloid format; as of November that year, its print edition had a daily circulation of 136,834.
The newspaper has an online edition, TheGuardian.com, as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US. The paper's readership is on the mainstream left of British political opinion, its reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often-pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or "politically correct" tendencies. Frequent typographical errors in the paper led Private Eye magazine to dub it the "Grauniad" in the 1960s, a nickname still used today. In an Ipsos MORI research poll in September 2018 designed to interrogate the public's trust of specific titles online, The Guardian scored highest for digital-content news, with 84% of readers agreeing that they "trust what see in it". A December 2018 report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK in the period from October 2017 to September 2018.
It was reported to be the most-read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions. While The Guardian's print circulation is in decline, the report indicated that news from The Guardian, including that reported online, reaches more than 23 million UK adults each month. Chief among the notable "scoops" obtained by the paper was the 2011 News International phone-hacking scandal—and in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone; the investigation led to the closure of the News of the World, the UK's best-selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest-circulation newspapers in history. In June 2013, The Guardian broke news of the secret collection by the Obama administration of Verizon telephone records, subsequently revealed the existence of the surveillance program PRISM after knowledge of it was leaked to the paper by the whistleblower and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. In 2016, The Guardian led an investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing then-Prime Minister David Cameron's links to offshore bank accounts.
It has been named "newspaper of the year" four times at the annual British Press Awards: most in 2014, for its reporting on government surveillance. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle, a group of non-conformist businessmen, they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. Taylor had been hostile to the radical reformers, writing: "They have appealed not to the reason but the passions and the suffering of their abused and credulous fellow-countrymen, from whose ill-requited industry they extort for themselves the means of a plentiful and comfortable existence, they do not toil, neither do they spin, but they live better than those that do." When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the mill-owners' champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, all of the Little Circle wrote articles for the new paper.
The prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would "zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty warmly advocate the cause of Reform endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, all serviceable measures". In 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828; the working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian "the foul prostitute and dirty parasite of the worst portion of the mill-owners". The Manchester Guardian was hostile to labour's claims. Of the 1832 Ten Hours Bill, the paper doubted whether in view of the foreign competition "the passing of a law positively enacting a gradual destruction of the cotton manufacture in this kingdom would be a much less rational procedure." The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators: " if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone.
They live on strife "The Manchester Guardian was critical of US President Abraham Lincoln's conduct during the US Civil War, writing on the news that Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated: "Of his rule, we can never speak except as a series of acts abhorrent to every true notion of constitutional right and human liberty " C. P. Scott ma
Stockholm International Film Festival
The Stockholm International Film Festival is an annual film festival held in Stockholm, Sweden. It has been held every year in the second half of November; the film voted by a jury. Since its start the festival has focused on bringing forth and supporting new talents through competitions and scholarships. A third of the films selected for the festival are made by a debuting director and only directors who have made less than 3 films are selected for the competition. In 2011 "The Stockholm Film Festival Feature Film Award" was inaugurated which funds a feature film for an unestablished female director; the aim for Stockholm International Film Festival is to broaden the selection of films in Sweden with creative new films of high quality and offer the visitor an orientation within modern film. With seminars, opportunities to meet actors and filmmakers during the festival, all means are given to make the film experience come full circle. An impressive list of filmmakers and actors have attended the festival, including Dennis Hopper, Lauren Bacall, Gena Rowlands, Charlotte Rampling, Susan Sarandon, Ang Lee, David Cronenberg, Roman Polanski, Terry Gilliam, David Lynch, Elia Kazan, Wong Kar-Wai and Uma Thurman.
Stockholm International Film Festival arrange Stockholm Film Festival Junior, a film festival for children and youth. The main goal of the film festival is to show quality film from every corner of the world, films that otherwise would not reach the mainstream film repertoire. All screenings are free of charge for everyone between 19 years old. In August every year the Stockholms International Film Festival arrange a Summer Cinema in Rålambshovsparken in Stockholm. Five nights the festival screens film in an outdoor cinema; the following films have received the top honour at the festival, the 7.3 kg Bronze Horse statute for best film. Stockholm Lifetime Achievement Award is given as an honour for a lifework within cinema. 1990 – Roger Corman 1991 – Dennis Hopper 1992 – Viveca Lindfors 1994 – Quentin Tarantino 1995 – Jean Paul Gaultier 1996 – Rod Steiger 1997 – Elia Kazan 1998 – Gena Rowlands 1999 – Roman Polanski 2000 – Lauren Bacall 2001 – Jean-Luc Godard 2002 – Erland Josephson 2003 – David Lynch 2004 – Oliver Stone 2005 – David Cronenberg 2006 – Lasse Hallström 2007 – Paul Schrader 2008 – Charlotte Rampling 2009 – Susan Sarandon 2010 – Harriet Andersson 2011 – Isabelle Huppert 2012 – Jan Troell 2013 – Claire Denis 2014 – Mike Leigh 2015 – Stephen Frears 2016 - Francis Ford Coppola Stockholm Visionary Award was instituted 2004 to note visionaries within modern film.
2004 – Todd Solondz 2005 – Terry Gilliam 2006 – Darren Aronofsky 2007 – Wes Anderson 2008 – Wong Kar-wai 2009 – Luc Besson 2010 – Gus Van Sant 2011 – Alejandro González Iñárritu 2012 – Jacques Audiard 2013 – Peter Greenaway 2014 – Roy Andersson 2015 - Yorgos Lanthimos 2016 - François Ozon 2012 – Willem Dafoe 2014 – Uma Thurman 2015 - Ellen Burstyn The peoples choice. Prize is awarded to an actor who has made distinctive achievements in film and has the ability to become tomorrow's star; the purpose of the award is to highlight an actor early in their career. 2008 – Malin Crépin 2009 – Anastasios Soulis 2010 – Alicia Vikander 2011 – Malin Buska 2012 – Nermina Lukac 2013 – Adam Lundgren 2014 – Julia Ragnarsson 2015 - Aliette Opheim 2016 - Filip Berg Stockholm International Film Festival