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Acts of Andrew

The Acts of Andrew, is the earliest testimony of the acts and miracles of the Apostle Andrew. The surviving version is alluded to in a 3rd-century work, the Coptic Manichaean Psalter, providing a terminus ante quem, according to its editors, M. R. James and Jean-Marc Prieur in The Anchor Bible Dictionary, but it shows several signs of a mid-2nd-century origin. Prieur stated that "The distinctive christology of the text", its silence concerning Jesus as a genuinely historical figure, its lack of mention of church organisation and ecclesiastical rites, lead one to "militate for an early dating". By the 4th century, the Acta Andreae were relegated to the New Testament apocrypha. Prieur stated that its "serene tone" and innocence of any polemic or disputes concerning its ideas or awareness of heterodoxy in the area of christology, show that "it derived from a period when the christology of the Great Church had not yet taken firm shape"; the episodic narratives in which Andrew figures survive incompletely in two manuscript traditions, aside from citations and fragments that are assumed to have come from lost sections.

One is an early Coptic manuscript of part of one of the narratives, conserved at Utrecht University Library. Traditionally the text is said to have been based on the Acts of John and the Acts of Peter, to have had the same author, the "Leucius Charinus", credited with all the 2nd-century romances. Like these works, the Acts of Andrew describes the supposed travels of the title character, the miracles he performed during them, a description of his martyrdom. In a separate text known by the name of the Acts of Andrew and Matthias, edited by Max Bonnet in 1898 and translated by M. R. James, Matthias is portrayed as a captive in a country of anthropophagi and is rescued by Andrew and Jesus. Like those in the two books of Acts on which it appears based, the miracles are supernatural, extravagant. For example, aside from the usual miracles of raising the dead, healing the blind, so forth, he survives being placed amongst fierce animals, calms storms, defeats armies by crossing himself. There is a great deal of moralising - Andrew causes an embryo, illegitimate to die, rescues a boy from his incestuous mother, an act resulting in her laying false charges against them, requiring God to send an earthquake to free Andrew and the boy.

So much does the text venture into the realm of extreme supernatural events, while being crucified, Andrew is still able to give sermons for three days. Eusebius of Caesarea knew the work, which he dismissed as the production of a absurd. Gregory of Tours was delighted to find a copy and wrote a drastically reduced rescension of it about 593, leaving out the parts for "which, because of its excessive verbosity, was called by some apocryphal", for which he felt it had been condemned, his free version expunges the detail that the apostle's ascetic preaching induced the proconsul's wife to leave her husband— and morally unacceptable to a Merovingian audience— brings the narrative into conformity with catholic orthodoxy of his time adds new material. The Acts of Andrew was classed as a gnostic work before the library of Nag Hammadi clarified modern understanding of Gnosticism. In his book, Christianizing Homer: The Odyssey and the Acts of Andrew, Dennis MacDonald posits the theory that the non-canonical Acts of Andrew was a Christian retelling of Homer's Odyssey.

Early Christian Writings: R. M. James, editor, 1924. Acts of Andrew The Acts of Andrew The Acts and Martyrdom of Andrew and The Acts of Andrew and Matthew Geoff Trowbridge, The "Whole" Bible Catholic Encyclopedia


Xarnego (Catalan pronunciation: in Catalan or charnego in Spanish is a pejorative or descriptive term used in the 1950s–70s in Catalonia to refer to economic migrants from other poorer regions of Spain such as Andalusia or Extremadura. In its modern usage, it refers to Catalans with recent heritage from other Spanish-speaking parts of Spain; the word is used in the context of internal migration. As of 1999 it was estimated that over 60% of Catalans descended from 20th century migrations from other parts of Spain, and over 1.1 million Catalans are of Andalusian origin alone. Between 1950 and 1975 a second wave of a million and half immigrants arrived from other less developed parts of Spain Andalusia and Extremadura, where hunger and economic hardship was prevalent; these new immigrants represented 44% of the total growth of the Catalan population during this period. This immigration resulted from the high demand for cheap labour resulting from the new economic policy of "desarrollismo" of Francoist Spain, which involved huge investments in sectors such as transport and infrastructure aiming to stimulate the tourism, heavy industry and new industries such as the car industry with the creation of the SEAT car company and the building of its factory in the free-zone of Barcelona in 1953.

Such industries, the availability of jobs and higher salaries in the Barcelona region would stimulate two decades of immigration from rural areas throughout Spain - a phenomenon comparable to other large scale international migrations throughout history due to the volume of people and geographic distances involved. This wave of immigration led to a new rise in xenophobia in Catalonia, with the generalization of the derogatory term "xarnego", to refer to these new Catalans; the term meaning "mongrel", was used in southern France to refer to French people mixed with Spanish/Catalan heritage. Upon its introduction in Catalonia, it referred to immigrants from non-Catalan speaking regions of Spain - in other words, a foreigner to Catalonia, it took on a linguistic sense referring to those Catalans who do not speak Catalan, without losing its ethnic, classist connotations. The Catalan language thus became an important criterion to distinguish between "them" and "us". Franciscos Candel describes the situation in "Los otros catalanes and defines himself as a Charnego in the senate.

The Bilingual Lover is a 1993 film in which the protagonist is a Catalan low-class man who reinvents himself as a charnego to recover his fetishist wife. Maketo, a Basque pejorative for immigrants from the rest of Spain

Peter Pook

John Anthony Miller, better known by his pseudonym Peter Pook, was a British author of humorous novels. Born John Anthony Miller on 25 April 1918, in Falmouth, Cornwall, he grew up in Southsea and was educated at Portsmouth Grammar School. At various times in his life he was a boxer, bank clerk, Royal Marine, Indian Navy Lieutenant, antique dealer, schoolmaster and author, his first novel, Banking on Form, was published and reprinted by Robert Hale in March, 1962, when he was forty-four, but his sense of humour won him a national literary competition when he was only nine. His pen name was from his mother as she was born a Pook and came from a Portsmouth family which had its origins in Devon. Peter Pook died on 8 September 1978. Writing between 1960 and 1978, Pook produced a series of twenty-three "autobiographical" novels in which the real events of his life were mingled with fanciful situations, Pook himself is presented as an amiable dunderhead, taken advantage of at every turn. After the first book in the series, Banking on Form, every subsequent volume has Pook's name in the title: Pook in Boots, Pook in Business, Pook Sahib, etc.

Pook's first novel, Banking on Form, was well received. The Daily Telegraph reviewer wrote that it "provides plenty of amusement". Another reviewer compared it with Richard Gordon's Doctor at Sea, saying "Mr Pook takes the lid off banking quite irreverently hilariously, but never offensively... There is nothing deep about the humour but I cannot recall many modern novels in which it is so well sustained." An Australian reviewer considered Pook "an outstanding humorous writer", wrote "it is a relief and a joy to find a book like.. Banking on Form.... Wonderful fun." Pook became The Daily Mirror reviewer's "favourite "funny ha-ha" author of many years' chortling", while a reviewer of The Teacher's Hand-Pook found it a "very funny little book", suggested that "many a teacher might do worse than to take a few tips from the various Pookisms."Recurring themes in the books are Pook's obsession with physical culture and sport, his military career in the Royal Marines, his teaching and banking careers, overseas travels, his ambition to be an actor and his own writing career.

The earlier books are light-hearted, though in some of the works those depicting the war years, occasional glimpses of grim reality break in. Banking on Form Pook in Boots Pook in Business Pook Sahib Bwana Pook Professor Pook Banker Pook Confesses Pook at College Pook and Partners Pook's Tender Years Playboy Pook Pook's Class War Pook's Tale of Woo Pook's Eastern Promise Beau Pook Proposes Pook's Tours The Teacher's Hand-Pook Gigolo Pook Pook's Love Nest Pook's China Doll Pook's Curiosity Shop Marine Pook Esquire Pook's Viking Virgins

Baron Crathorne

Baron Crathorne, of Crathorne in the North Riding of the County of York, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1959 for the Conservative politician and former Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries, Sir Thomas Dugdale, 1st Baronet, he had been created a baronet, of Crathorne in the North Riding of the County of York, in 1945. As of 2016 the titles are held by his son, the second Baron, who succeeded in 1977. Lord Crathorne is one of the ninety elected hereditary peers that remain in the House of Lords after the passing of the House of Lords Act 1999, sits as a Conservative; the family seat is Crathorne House, near North Yorkshire. Thomas Lionel Dugdale, 1st Baron Crathorne Charles James Dugdale, 2nd Baron Crathorne The heir apparent is the present holder's only son Hon. Thomas Arthur John Dugdale. Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990, Pages 303, 609 Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages

Benjamin King (author)

Benjamin King is an American author, military historian and noted war gamer. He served as a Field Artillery officer during the Vietnam War and served as an historian for the US Army, he is best known for A Bullet for Lincoln. Born in New Haven, Benjamin King earned a Bachelor of Arts in History from the University of Connecticut. In 1965, he was commissioned as a Field Artillery officer in the US Army and assigned to 1st Battalion, 81st Field Artillery Regiment, which he recognized the Pershing missile’s similarity to the German V-2 rocket, he wrote a paper on the V-2 during the captains’ career course after his return from Vietnam, which he turned into an article for the ‘’Field Artillery Journal’’ and expanded into a book. After his assignment in Germany, he commanded both a 105mm artillery and headquarters battery in 2nd Battalion, 319th Field Artillery Regiment of the 101st Airborne Division during the Vietnam War from 1969 to 1970 where he was awarded the Air Medal, a Bronze Star Medal for valor and a Purple Heart Medal.

After leaving the Army in 1977, King aspired to write short stories, but upon reading a book about Stonewall Jackson during the Battle of Chancellorsville in preparation for a battlefield staff ride, he asked the question, “What if he was murdered?” Three months he finished his first novel, A Bullet for Stonewall, published by Pelican Publishing Company in 1990. He followed up this thriller with a twist on another assassination, A Bullet for Lincoln, published by Pelican in 1993. In this murder mystery, King explored the possibility of John Wilkes Booth being the scapegoat of an elaborate conspiracy “with enough probability to hold the attention of the most accuracy-minded Civil War buffs.” His third alternative history thriller, The Loki Project, was published in 2000, where he considered what would have happened if the Germans had built the atomic bomb. His interest in war gaming began as a child playing with toy metal soldiers when he found H. G. Wells' "Little Wars", the first book on war gaming rules.

He next discovered Donald Featherstone’s rules and wrote his own rules in 1965, which required a detailed knowledge of military history. He published his first rules in 1967 followed by many more after that; this interest led to a job with the US Army as the Chief of Simulations in the Army Transportation School in 1984 where he designed the simulations, TRANSWAR III, Theater Deployment in the AirLand Battle and TRANSWAR IV, Truck Company Operations in the AirLand Battle. His professional career as an historian started as a contract historian for the Casemate Museum at Fort Monroe from 1978 to 1979. Recognizing his extensive knowledge of military history and ability to write books, the US Army Transportation Corps hired King as their Command Historian in 1992 to write the branch history with the assistance of Richard C. Biggs and Captain Eric R. Criner; the Army subsequently published Spearhead of Logistics, A History of the U. S. Army Transportation Corps in 1994, it was the second branch history published by any Army historian and was republished by the Center of Military History in 2001.

Inspired by the inaccurate claim that the V-2 was ineffective, he teamed up with Timothy J. Kutta to write Impact, the History of Germany’s V-Weapons in World War II, published by Sarpedon Press in 1998. Roland Green hailed it as "an outstanding revisionist history of Germany's famous rocket weapons." In 1999, King moved up to the US Army Training and Doctrine Command History Office where he wrote nine annual history reports and Victory Starts Here, A 35 Year History of U. S. Army Training and Doctrine Command, published by Combat Studies Institute Press in 2008, followed up with the 40-year history published by Combat Studies Institute Press in 2013, he retired from the federal service in 2013 and focuses on writing, painting miniature soldiers and war gaming. Air Medal Bronze Star Purple Heart A Bullet for Stonewall, Pelican Publishing Company, 1990 A Bullet for Lincoln, Pelican Publishing Company, 1993 Spearhead of Logistics. S. Army Transportation Corps, U. S. Army Transportation Center, 1994, Center of Military History, 2001, with Richard C.

Biggs, Eric R. Criner The Loki Project, Pelican Publishing Company, 2000 Impact, The History of Germany's V-Weapons in World War II, Sarpedon Press 1998, DeCapo Press 2003 with Timothy J. Kuta Victory Starts Here.

Ernye Ákos

Ernye from the kindred Ákos was a Hungarian baron and landowner. He is best known for saving the life of king Béla IV after the disastrous Battle of Mohi in 1241, he participated in various military campaigns in the following decades. He elevated into the group of most powerful barons by the second half of the reign of Béla IV, he retained his influence after Béla's death. The name of Ernye derived from the Latin variant Irenaeus, he was born around 1225 into the Ernye branch of the gens Ákos as the son of Erdő I, who resided in Pályi in Bihar County and was only mentioned in his own right in the Regestrum Varadinense in 1220. As Erdő's parentage is unknown, there is an inability to connect Ernye's family to the other branches of the prestigious and extended Ákos clan. Ernye had two brothers, Albert the Great, who served as master of the horse ban of Severin, Erdő II, ispán of Tolna and Trencsén Counties. Ernye's only son from his unidentified wife was Stephen, palatine of Hungary, who became one of the most powerful oligarchs during the interregnum after the death of king Andrew III.

It is presumable that Ernye spent his childhood in the royal court, as a member of the group of so-called "royal youth", who supported the monarchs and took a leading role in royal military campaigns. Ernye belonged to the confidants of Duke Béla; when Béla IV ascended the Hungarian throne in 1235, he rose to prominence and was a loyal supporter of the king's efforts. As he came from a poor branch of the Ákos clan, his only hope was military service in the royal court to rise in the social hierarchy; as a result, he did not emphasize his origin in the contemporary documents, adopted his own coat-of-arms, which had more prestige than his inherited insignia. Ernye consciously separated himself from the clan and emphasized his titles and dignities, which were acquired by his own power. Ernye was first mentioned by contemporary records and charters in 1241. During the Mongol invasion of Europe, he participated in the Battle of Mohi as a armored knight under the monarch's banner on 11 April 1241, where the Hungarian army suffered a decisive defeat and many noblemen and prelates were killed.

According to the Illuminated Chronicle, during the flight from the battlefield, Ernye saved the life of king Béla IV by handing over his full-strength horse. Ernye proceeded to fight against the pursuing Mongols to hold them back while Béla IV and his escort fled to Pressburg. Although he was injured while defending the king's retreat, he managed to recover and followed his king into exile at Klis Fortress, where he spied for his lord at the enemy's camp. After the withdrawal of the Mongols in 1242, Ernye became one of the steadiest and most reliable advocates of Béla IV during the subsequent rebuilding and structural reorganization of the Kingdom of Hungary, he received large amounts of land in Heves and Borsod counties and Erdőkövesd was secured by the Ákos clan during that time. Ernye obtained permission to build and strengthen the Dédes Castle, which became the center of his estates. Despite this, there is no record of him receiving any official positions following the Mongol attack. Ernye fought in the royal army in a war against Austria in 1246 and participated in the Battle of the Leitha River, where Frederick the Quarrelsome was killed.

In the battle, Ernye killed a "famous Austrian knight" with his spear, presented his severed head to the Hungarian king. He took part in a campaign against Austria in 1250, when Béla made a plundering raid into Austria and Styria in the summer of 1250, in retaliation of a former Austrian incursion into Hungary, he participated in the sieges of Kirchschlag. Subsequently Ernye dueled with Austrian knight Wernhard Preussel, the captain of Lower Austria and lord of Himberg. Ernye pushed him off the horse with his lance killing him. Thereafter the Hungarian troops seized the castle. Ernye was appointed master of the horse in 1250 and held that office until 1251, he served as ispán of Szolgagyőr ispánate within Nyitra County in 1250-51, ispán of Varaždin County in 1251, Borsod County in 1254, Bács County in 1256. An authentic charter issued in 1261 refers to him as "former ban of Transylvania", thus he held the office of voivode of Transylvania sometimes before that year; the last known office-holder was Lawrence, who functioned as voivode for 10 years between 1242 and 1252, but there is no evidence that Ernye had filled the position since 1252.

According to historian Gyula Kristó, Ernye's unusual title reflected a short-lived reform concept, when Transylvania would have granted similar autonomous municipal system, like the Banate of Slavonia. A Mongol army attacking the southern regions of Transylvania was defeated by voivode Ernye in 1260. In that year, as a supporter of Béla IV, he was dismissed by the king's son, Stephen who had just taken over Transylvania with the title of duke. However, this action by the duke was a result of emerging tensions between Béla and Stephen, not because of any animosity between the duke and Ernye. At this time, Béla's relationship with his oldest son and heir, became tense, which caused a civil war lasting until 1266. After a brief conflict, Béla IV and his son divided the country and Stephen received the lands to the east of the Danube in 1262. Ernye remained a loyal and dedicated partisan of Béla IV, despite the fact that majority of his poss