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Acts of Supremacy

The Acts of Supremacy are two acts passed by the Parliament of England in the 16th century that established the English monarchs as the head of the Church of England. The 1534 Act declared King Henry VIII and his successors as the Supreme Head of the Church, replacing the pope; the Act was repealed during the reign of the Catholic Queen Mary I. The 1558 Act declared Queen Elizabeth I and her successors the Supreme Governor of the Church, a title that the British monarch still holds; the first Act of Supremacy was passed on 3 November 1534 by the Parliament of England. It granted King Henry VIII of England and subsequent monarchs Royal Supremacy, such that he was declared the Supreme Head of the Church of England. Royal Supremacy is used to describe the legal sovereignty of the civil laws over the laws of the Church in England; the act declared that the king was "the only supreme head on Earth of the Church of England" and that the Crown shall enjoy "all honours, preeminences, privileges, immunities and commodities to the said dignity."

The wording of the act made clear. In the Act of Supremacy, Henry abandoned Rome completely, he thereby asserted the independence of the Ecclesia Anglicana. He his successors as the supreme rulers of the English church. Earlier, Henry had been declared "Defender of the Faith" in 1521 by Pope Leo X for his pamphlet accusing Martin Luther of heresy. Parliament conferred this title upon Henry in 1544; the 1534 Act marks the beginning of the English Reformation. There were a number of reasons for this Act the need for a male heir to the throne. Henry tried for years to obtain an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon, had convinced himself that God was punishing him for marrying his brother's widow. Pope Clement VII refused to grant the annulment because, according to Roman Catholic teaching, a validly contracted marriage is indivisible until death, thus the pope cannot annul a marriage because of a canonical impediment dispensed; the Treasons Act was passed: it provided that to disavow the Act of Supremacy and to deprive the king of his "dignity, title, or name" was to be considered treason.

The most famous public figure to resist the Treasons Act was Sir Thomas More. In 1537, the Irish Supremacy Act was passed by the Parliament of Ireland, establishing Henry VIII as the supreme head of the Church of Ireland, as had earlier been done in England. Henry VIII's Act of Supremacy was repealed in 1554 during the reign of his staunchly Roman Catholic daughter, Queen Mary I. Upon her death in November 1558, her Protestant half-sister Elizabeth; the first Elizabethan Parliament passed the Act of Supremacy 1558, which declared Elizabeth the Supreme Governor of the Church of England, instituted an Oath of Supremacy, requiring anyone taking public or church office to swear allegiance to the monarch as head of the Church and state. Anyone refusing to take the oath could be charged with treason; the use of the term Supreme Governor as opposed to Supreme Head pacified some Roman Catholics and those Protestants concerned about a female leader of the Church of England. Elizabeth, a politique, did not prosecute nonconformist laymen, or those who did not follow the established rules of the Church of England unless their actions directly undermined the authority of the English monarch, as was the case in the vestments controversy.

Thus, it was through the Second Act of Supremacy that Elizabeth I established the now reformed Church of England. This was a part of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement. Historian G. R. Elton argues that, "in law and political theory the Elizabethan supremacy was parliamentary, while Henry VIII's had been personal." Supremacy was extinguished under Cromwell, but restored in 1660. The Stuart kings used it as a justification for controlling the appointment of bishops; the conflation in the Crown of supreme authority over church and state made every secular subject of the Crown a spiritual subject of the Church as well. Contemporary English theologian Richard Hooker described the situation thusly: There is not any man of the Church of England but the same man is a member of the Commonwealth, nor a member of the Commonwealth, not a member of the Church of England; the Act was passed in 1559, but is dated 1558 because until 1793 legislation was backdated to the beginning of the session of Parliament in which it was passed.

Supreme Governor of the Church of England State religion Original text of the 1534 Act of Supremacy. Text of the Acts of Supremacy as in force today within the United Kingdom, from

Prensa Latina

Prensa Latina, legal name Agencia de Noticias Latinoamericana S. A. is the official state news agency of Cuba, founded in March 1959 shortly after the Cuban Revolution. In a speech by Fidel Castro in Santiago de Cuba in 1959, Castro denounced the United States media and instead favoured a Latin American service "written in our own language"; the creation of the agency was similar to that of Agencia Latina founded by Juan Perón, to disseminate the government ideology and neutralize the American propaganda. Prensa Latina was founded at the initiative of Ernesto Che Guevara; the founder and first manager was Argentinian journalist Jorge Ricardo Masetti. On Masetti's instructions, the first journalists were recruited by March 1959, when the service went into operation. Among the initial group of journalists were Gabriel García Márquez, Rodolfo Walsh, Plinio Apuleyo Mendoza, Rogelio García Lupo, Leonardo Acosta and Carlos María Gutiérrez. Prensa Latina had its license revoked in the United States in 1969, after the Cuban government closed down Associated Press and United Press International offices in Havana.

These offices function intermittently. Officials working at the agency are affiliated with the Dirección de Inteligencia; the history of the agency is intertwined with Cuba's foreign relations. On occasion, several bureau chiefs abroad have been deported on charges of espionage, including agency staff from Peru and Jamaica. "Prensa Latina is part of the Cuban Revolution since it was born with the revolutionary process." All mass media in Cuba receive their information from the agency. The agency relays speeches from Fidel Castro and other government officials, reports on state activities; the organisation disseminates information about Latin Americas relations with Cuba and the revolution. Prensa Latina has its central office in Havana and its goal is to provide an alternative news source of international topics and events; the agency has an additional 40 overseas offices, most of them in Latin America. A daily news service is provided by the agency, with information on economic and commercial news.

They publish a daily English-language "Cuba News in Brief" and "Cuba Direct", which provide translations of articles regarding Cuban news, culture and art. Other features include tourism news, medical news, women's issues, coverage of Cuban and Caribbean science and medicine. A number of international news agencies have bureaus in Havana, though at times they have been threatened with expulsion. Media of Cuba Communications in Cuba Prensa Latina Official Site Prensa Latina English edition

1983 Air Canada Cup

The 1983 Air Canada Cup was Canada's fifth annual national midget'AAA' hockey championship, played April 17 – 24, 1983 at the Laval University Sports and Physical Education Pavilion in Ste-Foy, Quebec. The Regina Pat Canadians defeated the Gouverneurs de Ste-Foy to win the gold medal; the Andrew Maroons, representing the Thunder Bay District, captured the bronze medal. Tony Hrkac of the Andrews Maroons led the tournament in scoring, while Kirk McLean of the Don Mills Flyers was named the Top Goaltender. Other future National Hockey League players competing in this tournament were Alain Côté, Peter Douris, Brent Fedyk, Wade Flaherty, Ian Herbers, Dale Kushner, Scott Mellanby, Don Sweeney. Andrews 8 - Corner Brook 5 Regina 4 - Don Mills 3 Sherwood Park 8 - Sherwood-Parkdale 1 Ste-Foy 8 - Halifax 1 Regina 6 - Andrews 2 Ste-Foy 5 - Sherwood Park 1 Andrews 6 - Sherwood Park 1 Regina 5 - Ste-Foy 4 Most Valuable Player: Donnie Porter Top Scorer: Tony Hrkac Top Forward: Tim Iannone Top Defenceman: Selmar Odelein Top Goaltender: Kirk McLean Most Sportsmanlike Player: Rejean Boivin Telus Cup List of Telus Cup alumni who played in the NHL Telus Cup Website Hockey Canada-Telus Cup Guide and Record Book

Masdar Institute of Science and Technology

The Masdar Institute of Science and Technology was a graduate level, research-oriented university focused on alternative energies and environmental research. In 2017 it merged with two other institutions in Abu Dhabi to create Khalifa University, its previous structure now hosts the research backbone of the new university, referred as the "Masdar City campus", it was located in Masdar City in United Arab Emirates. Masdar Institute was an integral part of the non-profit side of the Masdar Initiative and was the first institution to occupy Masdar City; the Technology and Development Program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology provided scholarly assessment and advice to Masdar Institute. As of April 2018, the collaborative agreement between the two institutions is still in place and hosts several exchange students from the legacy cohorts. Masdar Institute was established on February 25, 2007; as of 2017, the Institute had an enrollment of 456 students. The establishment of Masdar Institute was part of a resource diversification policy for the Emirate of Abu Dhabi.

Abu Dhabi's leadership views research and education in alternative energy as a keystone for the future development of the emirate and expressed their commitment through the establishment of Masdar Initiative, Masdar City and the Zayed Future Energy Prize. The Institute's interim provost, Behjat Al Yousuf, was appointed in May 2015, she served as the Dean of Students at Masdar. In 2017, Masdar Institute was merged with two other institutions to form Khalifa University; the campus, like Masdar City, was designed by architectural firm Foster + Partners and the first phase of the project was managed by CH2M HILL. Masdar Institute emphasized interdisciplinary collaboration and an early decision was made to establish programs rather than departments; the programs that were implemented in the institution are: Chemical Engineering Mechanical Engineering Materials Science and Engineering Engineering Systems and Management Water and Environmental Engineering Computing & Information Science Electrical Power Engineering Microsystems EngineeringA single PhD level program was implemented across all research centers and programs, named as PhD. in Interdisciplinary Engineering.

TwinLab3 Dimensional StackedChips Research Center Sustainable Bio-energy Research Center Smart Grid and Smart Building Center of Excellence Renewable Energy Resource Mapping and Assessment Center Masdar Institute admitted 92 students from 22 countries in the first year of its operation and planned to have a steady state population of about 800 students. Qualified students from around the world are offered a full tuition scholarship, monthly stipend, travel reimbursement, personal laptop and accommodation once accepted to any of Masdar Institute's programs. By 2017, 456 students were enrolled and the Institute had more than 550 alumni. Masdar Institute commenced teaching in September 2009, its academics conducted research individually and in collaboration with several top ranked universities, notably MIT, on topics including water environment and health, advanced energy systems and microsystems, advanced materials. By 2018, through the MI-MIT collaboration, 8 projects were completed and 11 one-to-one research and 3 flagship projects were being executed.

The collaboration had a scientific outreach that included 201 scientific peer reviewed journal and book publications and 217 conference papers and presentations by April 2018. Official website Masdar Initiative website

The Secret of the Forgotten City

The Secret of the Forgotten City is the fifty-second volume in the Nancy Drew Mystery Stories series. It was first published in 1975 under the pseudonym Carolyn Keene; the actual author was ghostwriter Harriet Stratemeyer Adams. Gold! There are rumors. Nancy Drew and her friends plan to join a dig sponsored by two colleges to hunt for the gold. Before she starts, the young sleuth receives an ancient stone tablet with petroglyphs on it. With this amazing clue, come a threat from a thief who wants the treasure. One harrowing adventure after another besets Nancy, Bess, Ned and Dave in 102 degrees temperatures as they pursue Nancy's hunches above and below ground, they are assisted by a fine Indian woman and a young geology student, but both are unwilling participants in a strange plot. In the end Nancy and Ned nearly lose their lives, just after she has discovered the priceless hidden treasure of gold

Koksijde Air Base

Koksijde Air Base is a Belgian Air Component facility in Koksijde, 1 nautical mile north northwest of Veurne, Belgium. 40 Squadron operating 5 Westland Sea King Mk.48 helicopters for search and rescue duties. Based at Koksijde Air Base are Aérospatiale Alouette III helicopters; the Westland Sea King Mk.48 helicopters will be replaced with NH90 NFH helicopters starting in March 2012. It features two airframes as gateguard: a Hawker Hunter F.4, a Sikorsky S-58C, both ex-Belgian Air Force. One more Sikorsky S-58C is stored and used for static displays; this base was featured in the popular TV show "Windkracht 10" and in the movie Windkracht 10: Koksijde Rescue. Like many Belgian Air bases, both active and non-active, it is available to private recreational aviation during weekends. 40th Squadron Heli Koksijde Air Base - WikiAirports