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Acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is a cancer of the lymphoid line of blood cells characterized by the development of large numbers of immature lymphocytes. Symptoms may include feeling tired, pale skin color, easy bleeding or bruising, enlarged lymph nodes, or bone pain; as an acute leukemia, ALL progresses and is fatal within weeks or months if left untreated. In most cases, the cause is unknown. Genetic risk factors may include Down syndrome, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, or neurofibromatosis type 1. Environmental risk factors may include significant radiation exposure or prior chemotherapy. Evidence regarding electromagnetic fields or pesticides is unclear; some hypothesize. The underlying mechanism involves multiple genetic mutations; the excessive immature lymphocytes in the bone marrow interfere with the production of new red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets. Diagnosis is based on blood tests and bone marrow examination. ALL is treated with chemotherapy aimed at bringing about remission; this is followed by further chemotherapy over a number of years.

Additional treatments may include intrathecal chemotherapy or radiation therapy if spread to the brain has occurred. Stem cell transplantation may be used. Additional treatments such as immunotherapy are being studied. ALL resulted in about 111,000 deaths, it occurs most in children those between the ages of two and five. In the United States it is the most common cause of death from cancer among children. ALL is notable for being the first disseminated cancer to be cured. Survival for children increased from under 10% in the 1960s to 90% in 2015. Survival rates remain lower for adults. Initial symptoms can be nonspecific in children. Over 50% of children with leukemia had one or more of five features: a liver one can feel, a spleen one can feel, pale complexion and bruising. Additionally, recurrent infections, feeling tired, arm or leg pain, enlarged lymph nodes can be prominent features; the B symptoms, such as fever, night sweats, weight loss, are present as well. Central nervous system symptoms such as cranial neuropathies due to meningeal infiltration are identified in less than 10% of adults and less than 5% of children mature B-cell ALL at presentation.

The signs and symptoms of ALL are variable and include: Generalized weakness and feeling tired Anemia Dizziness Headache, lethargy, neck stiffness, or cranial nerve palsies Frequent or unexplained fever and infection Weight loss and/or loss of appetite Excessive and unexplained bruising Bone pain, joint pain Breathlessness Enlarged lymph nodes, liver and/or spleen Pitting edema in the lower limbs and/or abdomen Petechiae, which are tiny red spots or lines in the skin due to low platelet levels Testicular enlargement Mediastinal mass The cancerous cell in ALL is the lymphoblast. Normal lymphoblasts develop into mature, infection-fighting B-cells or T-cells called lymphocytes. Signals in the body control the number of lymphocytes so neither too many are made. In ALL, both the normal development of some lymphocytes and the control over the number of lymphoid cells become defective. ALL emerges when a single lymphoblast gains many mutations to genes that affect blood cell development and proliferation.

In childhood ALL, this process begins at conception with the inheritance of some of these genes. These genes, in turn, increase the risk. Certain genetic syndromes, like Down Syndrome, have the same effect. Environmental risk factors are needed to help create enough genetic mutations to cause disease. Evidence for the role of the environment is seen in childhood ALL among twins, where only 10–15% of both genetically identical twins get ALL. Since they have the same genes, different environmental exposures explain why one twin gets ALL and the other does not. Infant ALL is a rare variant. KMT2A gene rearrangements occur in the embryo or fetus before birth; these rearrangements result in increased expression of blood cell development genes by promoting gene transcription and through epigenetic changes. In contrast to childhood ALL, environmental factors are not thought to play a significant role. Aside from the KMT2A rearrangement, only one extra mutation is found. Environmental exposures are not needed to help create more mutations.

Common inherited risk factors include mutations in ARID5B, CDKN2A/2B, CEBPE, IKZF1, GATA3, PIP4K2A and, more TP53. These genes play important roles in cellular development and differentiation. Individually, most of these mutations are low risk for ALL. Significant risk of disease occurs; the uneven distribution of genetic risk factors may help explain differences in disease rate among ethnic groups. For instance, the ARID5B mutation is less common in ethnic African populations. Several genetic syndrome carry increased risk of ALL; these include: Down syndrome, Fanconi anemia, Bloom syndrome, X-linked agammaglobulinemia, severe combined immunodeficiency, Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, Kostmann syndrome, neurofibromatosis type 1, ataxia-telangiectasia, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Fewer than 5% o

Wesley C. Salmon

Wesley C. Salmon was an American philosopher of science renowned for his work on the nature of scientific explanation, he worked on confirmation theory, trying to explicate how probability theory via inductive logic might help confirm and choose hypotheses. Yet most prominently, Salmon was a realist about causality in scientific explanation, although his realist explanation of causality drew ample criticism. Still, his books on scientific explanation itself were landmarks of the 20th century's philosophy of science, solidified recognition of causality's important roles in scientific explanation, whereas causality itself has evaded satisfactory elucidation by anyone. Under logical empiricism's influence Carl Hempel's work on the "covering law" model of scientific explanation, most philosophers had viewed scientific explanation as stating regularities, but not identifying causes. To replace the covering law model's inductive-statistical model, Salmon introduced the statistical-relevance model, proposed the criterion strict maximal specificity to supplement the covering law model's other component, the deductive-nomological model.

Yet Salmon held statistical models to be but early stages, lawlike regularities to be insufficient, in scientific explanation. Salmon proposed that scientific explanation's manner is causal/mechanical explanation. Salmon attended Wayne State University received a master's degree in 1947 from the University of Chicago. At UCLA, under Hans Reichenbach, Salmon earned a PhD in philosophy in 1950, he was on Brown University's faculty from 1955 until 1963, when he joined the History and Philosophy of Science Department of Indiana University Bloomington where Norwood Russell Hanson was Professor until he and his wife Merilee moved to Arizona in 1973. Salmon left the University of Arizona to join the University of Pittsburgh's Department of Philosophy, among the most prestigious, in 1981, where he was professor and chairperson until 1983 upon succeeding Carl Hempel as University Professor. Salmon retired in 1999. Salmon authored over 100 papers. For decades, his introductory textbook Logic was a standard used, that went through multiple editions and was translated into several languages, including Chinese, German, Italian and Spanish.

Salmon was president of the Philosophy of Science Association from 1971 to 1972, president of the American Philosophical Association's Pacific Division from 1977 to 1978. In 1988, at the University of Bologna, for its 900th anniversary, he gave a four-lecture series, "Four decades of scientific explanation", taking Italian courses at University of Pittsburgh, Salmon mastered Italian and gave lectures at several other universities in Italy. From 1998 to 1999, he was president of the International Union of History and Philosophy of Science, sponsored by UNESCO. Salmon was a fellow of the American Academy of Sciences. In 2001, traveling with his wife Merilee a philosopher of science, Wesley Salmon died in a car crash, though she was uninjured. Starting in 1983, Salmon became interested in theory choice in science, sought to resolve the enduring conflict between the logical empiricist view, whereby theories undergo a logical process of confirmation and comparison, as against the Kuhnian historical perspective, whereby theory choice and comparison are troubled by incommensurability, the inability of scientists to effectively communicate and compare theories across differing paradigms.

Recognizing that Kuhn's 1962 thesis in Structure of Scientific Revolutions was misunderstood—that Kuhn had not meant that scientific theory change is irrational but relative to the scientific community where the change occurs—Salmon believed that Bayesianism, which quantifies decisionmaking via subjective probability or "degree of belief", could help close the unbridgeable gap between the logical empiricist view versus the Kuhnian historical view of theory choice and change. According to the empiricist view associated with the 18th-century Scottish philosopher David Hume, we do not observe causes and effects, but experience constant conjunction of sensory events, impute causality between the observations. More one finds counterfactual causality—that altering condition A prevents or produces state B—but finds no further causal relation between A and B, since one has witnessed no either logical or natural necessity connecting A and B. In the 20th century, as a formula to scientifically answer Why? questions, logical empiricist Carl Hempel and Paul Oppenheim explicated the deductive-nomological model.

Concerning deterministic laws, the DN model characterizes scientific explanation as a logical form, whereby initial conditions plus universal laws entail an outcome via deductive inference, but no reference to causal relations. Concerning ceteris paribus, which are probabilistic, not deterministic, Hempel introduced the inductive-statistical model; the IS model, indicates correlations, not causation. By 1970, Salmon had found that when seeking to explain probabilistic phenomena, we seek not high probability, but screen for causal influence by removing components of a system to find ones that alter the probability. Salmon sought to replace Hempel's IS model with Salmon's statistical-relevance model. In 1948 when explicating DN model, Carl Hempel and Paul Oppenheim had stated scientific explanation's semiformal conditions of adequacy, but acknowledged redundancy of the third, empirical content, implied by the other three: derivability and truth. In the early 1980s, Salmon called for returning cause to because, a

The Author of Beltraffio

The Author of Beltraffio is a short story by Henry James, first published in the English Illustrated Magazine in 1884. This macabre account of desperate family infighting leads to a tragic conclusion. Although the father in the story is a novelist, the tale concentrates far more on his family relationships than on his special concerns as a writer, though some of those concerns affect the outcome; the narrator of the story, a somewhat naive American admirer of English novelist Mark Ambient, visits the writer at his home in Surrey. The narrator is enthusiastic about Ambient's work his latest novel Beltraffio, he meets Ambient's beautiful but chilly wife, his sickly seven-year-old son Dolcino, his strange sister Gwendolyn. He learns that Ambient's wife dislikes her husband's novels and considers them corrupt and pagan. Dolcino becomes much more ill. In order to "protect" him from what she sees as the baleful influence of his father, Ambient's wife withholds the boy's medicine. Dolcino dies, the details of his mother's conduct are told to the narrator by Gwendolyn.

The mother, grief-stricken over her role in Dolcino's final illness, dies herself after a few months. In a grimly ironic note to conclude the story, the narrator says Ambient revealed that his wife had become reconciled to his novels and read Beltraffio in the weeks before her death; when James was mulling over this story in his Notebooks, he wondered if the tale would be "too gruesome" and "too unnatural." The double dose of mortality at the end of the story may seem extreme, but James narrates events so smoothly—even with touches of humor about Ambient's bizarre, arty sister—that readers may accept the catastrophe as not inevitable but somewhat believable. In the Notebooks James said he based the story on the real-life marriage of John Addington Symonds, an English art historian and proponent of homosexuality, quarreling with his proper wife; the contrast of an esthetic point of view, carried "even to morbidness", with a more rigid, traditionalist stance creates the story's intense atmosphere of conflict.

The tragic outcome might seem perverse and silly when considered as part of a realistic story. But at least James prepares for the conclusion with an extensive treatment of the discord in the Ambients' marriage. Critic Robert Gale, in an odd echo of James' own comments in the Notebooks, called this story "morbid," and that verdict has found some agreement among other critics. Most commentators concede that James narrates the harsh events powerfully, that he makes the conclusion as convincing as anybody could. Ambient's weird sister has been much appreciated as a clever satire on the self-consciously "artistic" personality; the crux for the reader is whether Ambient's wife is capable of showing such disregard for her son's suffering, in a wildly misguided belief that the boy is better off dead than corrupted by his father's influence. While Mrs. Ambient is shown as rather cold and overly prim, she may not be convincing as such a monster to her own child; the reservations that James himself expressed about the tale's "unnatural" plot might be all too valid.

The Tales of Henry James by Edward Wagenknecht ISBN 0-8044-2957-X A Henry James Encyclopedia by Robert L. Gale ISBN 0-313-25846-5 Meaning in Henry James by Millicent Bell ISBN 0-674-55763-8 A Companion to Henry James Studies edited by Daniel Fogel ISBN 0-313-25792-2 The Complete Notebooks of Henry James edited by Leon Edel and Lyall Powers ISBN 0-19-503782-0 New York Edition text of The Author of Beltraffio Author's preface to the New York Edition text of The Author of Beltraffio Note on the texts of The Author of Beltraffio at the Library of America web site

Paul Quinn (rugby league, born 1938)

Paul Quinn was an Australian rugby league footballer who played in the 1960s. An Australian international and New South Wales interstate representative forward, he played club football on the New South Wales South Coast as well in Sydney's NSWRFL Premiership with Newtown. Gerringong forward Quinn first played representative rugby league for Southern Division against a touring Great Britain side in 1962, breaking into the Country NSW and New South Wales sides the following year. In 1963, he was first selected to represent Australia, becoming Kangaroo No. 384. Quinn toured with the 1963-64 Kangaroos, playing in the'Swinton Massacre' which secured the Ashes for Australia in England for the first time. Upon his return to Australia, he signed with Sydney club Newtown, playing for the team for four seasons in the NSWRFL Premiership and becoming captain, he played further Test matches in 1964 against France and went on the 1965 tour of New Zealand. Quinn returned to the South coast in 1968, playing for the Nowra club and captaining Country NSW.

After retiring he pursued a career as a sports journalist in Canberra. In 2008, the centenary of rugby league in Australia, Quinn was named on the bench in the Newtown Jets'Team of the Century', it was announced on the Newtown Jets Facebook page that Paul Quinn died in Canberra on 19 June 2015 aged 77

Type 38 12 cm howitzer

The Type 38 12 cm howitzer is an obsolete Japanese field piece used by the Imperial Japanese Army during World War I, Second Sino-Japanese War, World War II. The Type 38 designation was given to this gun as it was accepted in the 38th year of Emperor Meiji's reign, it was encountered by Allied forces for the first time on Iwo Jima, it may have been used as an emergency or substitute weapon. It is characterized by a short barrel, box trail, large wooden wheels, it has Hydro-spring recoil-mechanism. No gun shield is used with this weapon. Elevating and traversing hand wheels, panoramic sight are at the left of the breech; the firing mechanism is a lanyard actuated percussion type. Armor-piercing, Armor-piercing High Explosive, HEAT, Shrapnel shells have been recovered; the projectiles have the usual color markings and are similar in appearance to 75mm APHE and shrapnel shells. The APHE shell weighs 20 kg. US War Department Japanese Artillery Weapons, CINPAC-CINPOA Bulletin 152 45" 1 July 1945 War Department Special Series No 25 Japanese Field Artillery October 1944 Media related to Type 38 12 cm Howitzer at Wikimedia Commons

The Road to Hong Kong (soundtrack)

The Road to Hong Kong is a soundtrack album issued by Liberty Records from the film of the same name. The film starred Bing Crosby, Bob Hope, Joan Collins and Robert Morley with cameos from Frank Sinatra, Dean Martin, Dorothy Lamour, Peter Sellers and David Niven. Robert Farnon conducted the music for the film. All the songs were written by Jimmy Van Sammy Cahn. Robert Farnon wrote four orchestral pieces for the soundtrack and these are annotated in the listing. Bing’s love ballad – “Let’s Not Be Sensible” includes a few lines from Joan Collins and in the film there is an abrupt interruption which curtails the song as Bing is about to sing “love”; the tracks for the film would have been recorded in September 1961 and one assumes a full version would have been laid down of “Let’s Not Be Sensible” prior to its subsequent editing. However, it seems that the original track was mislaid or erased and Bing had returned to the USA by the time the LP was being prepared; the producer of the LP and the complementary single had no choice but to try to use the version employed in the film though the ending was missing.

The solution was to bring in Mike Sammes, a well known vocal arranger and backing singer, to sing the word “love”. The entire album was included in the Sepia Records CD "The Road to Hong Kong / Say One for Me" issued in 2013; the film itself was well received and so was the album. Variety said: Sammy Cahn and Jimmy Van Heusen, a couple of pic pros, have whipped up a serviceable score for the latest Bing Crosby-Bob Hope-Dorothy Lamour “Road” film, it comes over as pleasing soundtrack set that should get a good sales runoff with the pic’s playing dates. The set was done in England with Robert Farnon conducting the orch but the values are pegged for the US market. In the song spotlight are the Crosby-Hope duet on “Team Work”, Crosby’s balladearing on “Let’s Not Be Sensible” and Miss Lamour’s “Warmer than a Whisper”. In all, the package is loaded with a marquee pull and a bright spirit that’s hard to beat