International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Blood plasma is a straw coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension, this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells. It makes up about 55% of the total blood volume. It is the fluid part of extracellular fluid. It is mostly water, and contains dissolved proteins, clotting factors, hormones, carbon dioxide, Plasma serves as the protein reserve of the human body. It plays a role in an intravascular osmotic effect that keeps electrolytes in balanced form and protects the body from infection. Blood plasma is prepared by spinning a tube of fresh blood containing an anticoagulant in a centrifuge until the blood fall to the bottom of the tube. The blood plasma is poured or drawn off, Blood plasma has a density of approximately 1025 kg/m3, or 1.025 g/ml. Blood serum is blood plasma without clotting factors, in other words, plasmapheresis is a medical therapy that involves blood plasma extraction and reintegration. Fresh frozen plasma is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, Blood plasma volume may be expanded by or drained to extravascular fluid when there are changes in Starling forces across capillary walls.
For example, when blood pressure drops in circulatory shock, Starling forces drive fluid into the interstitium, standing still for a prolonged period will cause an increase in transcapillary hydrostatic pressure. As a result, approximately 12% of blood plasma volume will cross into the extravascular compartment and this causes an increase in hematocrit, serum total protein, blood viscosity and, as a result of increased concentration of coagulation factors, it causes orthostatic hypercoagulability. The use of plasma as a substitute for whole blood and for transfusion purposes was proposed in March 1918, in the correspondence columns of the British Medical Journal. Dried plasmas in powder or strips of material format were developed, prior to the United States involvement in the war, liquid plasma and whole blood were used. The Blood for Britain program during the early 1940s was quite successful based on Charles Drews contribution, a large project began in August 1940 to collect blood in New York City hospitals for the export of plasma to Britain.
Drew was appointed supervisor of the Plasma for Britain project. His notable contribution at this time was to transform the test tube methods of many blood researchers into the first successful mass production techniques. Nonetheless, the decision was made to develop a dried plasma package for the forces as it would reduce breakage and make the transportation, packaging. The resulting dried plasma package came in two tin cans containing 400 cc bottles, one bottle contained enough distilled water to reconstitute the dried plasma contained within the other bottle
Tail flick test
The tail flick test is a test of the pain response in animals, similar to the hot plate test. It is used in pain research and to measure the effectiveness of analgesics. It was first described by DAmour and Smith in 1941, most commonly, an intense light beam is focused on the animals tail and a timer starts. When the animal flicks its tail, the stops and the recorded time is a measure of the pain threshold. Alternate methods can be used to heat, such as immersion in hot water. Alternately, a dolorimeter with a wire with a constant heat flow may be used. For the tail flick test, the wire is attached to the tail of the organism, the researcher records the latency to tail flick. Both laboratory mice and rats are a model organism for these tests. These rodents are usually given analgesics, which are responsible for weakening the response to pain and naltrexone, two opioid antagonists, have been used to study pain sensitivity in relation to exercise in mice. Researchers found that if the tail has been exposed to a cooler temperatures before the test, through use of the tail flick test, researchers have found that genetics play a role in pain sensation and the effectiveness of analgesics. A mouse of one line may be more or less tolerant of pain than a mouse of another genetic line.
Also, a mouse of one line may experience a higher or lower effectiveness of an analgesic than a mouse of another genetic line. Using this test, researchers can begin to identify genes that play a role in pain sensation, for example, the Calca gene is primarily responsible for the variability in thermal nociception. The Sprawling mutation resulted in a moderate sensory neuropathy but the mutation did not affect nociceptive modality or motor function in the mice, the mice with the Sprawling mutation were unable to sense the pain, but their other sensory functions were unaffected. The tail flick test is one test to measure heat-induced pain in animals and this reflexive response is an indicator of pain sensitivity in an organism and reduction of pain sensitivity produced by analgesics. Limitations of this test include, the need for research with murine subjects. Also, researchers have found that temperature can significantly affect the results of the tail flick test. Tail flick test demonstration Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee Pain Genes Database
The team may include other mental health specialists and massage therapists. Pain sometimes resolves promptly once the underlying trauma or pathology has healed, effective management of chronic pain, frequently requires the coordinated efforts of the management team. Medicine treats injury and pathology to support and speed healing, and treats distressing symptoms such as pain to relieve suffering during treatment, Pain can have many causes and there are many possible treatments for it. In the nursing profession, one definition of pain is any problem that is whatever the experiencing person says it is. Different sorts of pain management address different sorts of pain, Pain management includes patient communication about the pain problem. To define the problem, a health care provider will likely ask questions such as these. What, if anything, makes the pain lessen, after asking questions such as these, the health care provider will have a description of the pain. Pain management will be used to address that pain, there are many types of pain management, and each of them have their own benefits and limits. A common difficulty in pain management is communication, people experiencing pain may have difficulty recognizing or describing what they feel and how intense it is.
Health care providers and patients may have difficulty communicating with each other about how pain responds to treatments, there is a continuing risk in many types of pain management for the patient to take treatment which is less effective than needed or which causes other difficulty and side effects. Some treatments for pain can be harmful if overused, a goal of pain management for the patient and their health care provider to identify the amount of treatment which addresses the pain but which is not too much treatment. Another problem with pain management is that pain is the natural way of communicating a problem. Pain is supposed to resolve as the body heals itself with time, sometimes pain management covers a problem, and the patient might be less aware that they need treatment for a deeper problem. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation has been found to be ineffective for lower back pain, although there has not been adequate evidence based research on acute sensory TENS, chronic conditions are efficacious in relieving pain. TENS is indicated for any chronic musculoskeletal condition under the control theory of pain.
Essentially, the control theory states that sensory fibers carry their signal faster than pain fibers. This in turn causes the signal to be blocked by the sensory TENS signal. This theory explains why rubbing a stubbed toe relieves pain, a study conducted by Oncel M and team compared the efficacy of TENS with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug in patients who had patients with uncomplicated minor rib fractures
Referred pain, called reflective pain, is pain perceived at a location other than the site of the painful stimulus. An example is the case of angina pectoris brought on by an infarction, where pain is often felt in the neck and back rather than in the thorax. The International Association for the Study of Pain has not officially defined the term, radiating pain is slightly different from referred pain, for example, the pain related to a myocardial infarction could either be referred or radiating pain from the chest. Referred pain is when the pain is located away from or adjacent to the organ involved, for instance, when a person has only in their jaw or left arm. Referred pain has been described since the late 1880s, despite an increasing amount of literature on the subject, the biological mechanism of referred pain is unknown, although there are several hypotheses. The size of referred pain is related to the intensity and duration of ongoing/evoked pain, temporal summation is a potent mechanism for generation of referred muscle pain.
Central hyperexcitability is important for the extent of referred pain, patients with chronic musculoskeletal pains have enlarged referred pain areas to experimental stimuli. The proximal spread of referred pain is seen in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Modality-specific somatosensory changes occur in referred areas, which emphasize the importance of using a multimodal sensory test regime for assessment, referred pain is often experienced on the same side of the body as the source, but not always. There are several proposed mechanisms for referred pain, currently there is no definitive consensus regarding which is correct. The cardiac general visceral sensory pain fibers follow the back to the spinal cord and have their cell bodies located in thoracic dorsal root ganglia 1-4. The central nervous system perceives pain from the heart as coming from the portion of the body supplied by the thoracic spinal cord segments 1-4. Classically the pain associated with a myocardial infarction is located in the mid or left side of the chest where the heart is actually located, the pain can radiate to the left side of the jaw and into the left arm.
Myocardial infarction can rarely present as referred pain and this occurs in people with diabetes or older age. This represents one of the earliest theories on the subject of referred pain and it is based on the work of W. A. Sturge and J. Ross from 1888 and TC Ruch in 1961. Additionally, experimental evidence shows that when local pain is intensified the referred pain is intensified as well, criticism of this model arises from its inability to explain why there is a delay between the onset of referred pain after local pain stimulation. Experimental evidence shows that referred pain is often unidirectional, the threshold for the local pain stimulation and the referred pain stimulation are different, but according to this model they should both be the same. Convergence facilitation was conceived in 1893 by J MacKenzie based on the ideas of Sturge and he believed that the internal organs were insensitive to stimuli
Human musculoskeletal system
The human musculoskeletal system is an organ system that gives humans the ability to move using their muscular and skeletal systems. The musculoskeletal system provides form, support and movement to the body and it is made up of the bones of the skeleton, cartilage, ligaments and other connective tissue that supports and binds tissues and organs together. The musculoskeletal systems primary functions include supporting the body, allowing motion, the skeletal portion of the system serves as the main storage system for calcium and phosphorus and contains critical components of the hematopoietic system. This system describes how bones are connected to other bones and muscle fibers via connective tissue such as tendons, the bones provide stability to the body. Muscles keep bones in place and play a role in the movement of bones, to allow motion, different bones are connected by joints. Cartilage prevents the bone ends from rubbing directly onto each other, muscles contract to move the bone attached at the joint.
There are, however and disorders that may affect the function. These diseases can be difficult to due to the close relation of the musculoskeletal system to other internal systems. The musculoskeletal system refers to the system having its muscles attached to a skeletal system and is necessary for humans to move to a more favorable position. Complex issues and injuries involving the musculoskeletal system are handled by a physiatrist or an orthopaedic surgeon. The skeletal system serves many important functions, it provides the shape and form for the body and protection, allows bodily movement, produces blood for the body, the number of bones in the human skeletal system is a controversial topic. Humans are born with over 300 bones, many bones fuse together between birth and maturity, as a result, an average adult skeleton consists of 206 bones. The number of bones varies according to the used to derive the count. While some consider certain structures to be a bone with multiple parts. There are five classifications of bones.
These are long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, the human skeleton is composed of both fused and individual bones supported by ligaments, tendons and cartilage. It is a structure with two distinct divisions, the axial skeleton, which includes the vertebral column, and the appendicular skeleton. The skeletal system serves as a framework for tissues and organs to attach themselves to and this system acts as a protective structure for vital organs
The respiratory system is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for the process of respiration in an organism. The respiratory system is involved in the intake and exchange of oxygen, in air-breathing vertebrates like human beings, respiration takes place in the respiratory organs called lungs. In humans and other mammals, the features of the respiratory system include trachea, bronchioles, lungs. Molecules of oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged, by diffusion. This exchange process occurs in the alveoli in the lungs, in fish and many invertebrates, respiration takes place through the gills. Other animals, such as insects, have respiratory systems with very simple anatomical features, plants have respiratory systems but the directionality of gas exchange can be opposite to that in animals. The respiratory system in plants includes features such as holes on the undersides of leaves known as stomata. The elephant is the animal known to have no pleural space. Rather, the parietal and visceral pleura are both composed of connective tissue and joined to each other via loose connective tissue.
The respiratory system of birds differs significantly from that found in mammals, the lungs of birds do not have the capacity to inflate as birds lack a diaphragm and a pleural cavity. Gas exchange in birds occurs between air capillaries and blood capillaries, rather than in alveoli, the anatomical structure of the lungs is less complex in reptiles than in mammals, with reptiles lacking the very extensive airway tree structure found in mammalian lungs. Gas exchange in reptiles still occurs in alveoli however, reptiles do not possess a diaphragm, breathing occurs via a change in the volume of the body cavity which is controlled by contraction of intercostal muscles in all reptiles except turtles. In turtles, contraction of specific pairs of flank muscles governs inspiration or expiration, both the lungs and the skin serve as respiratory organs in amphibians. The ventilation of the lungs in amphibians uses positive pressure ventilation, muscles lower the floor of the oral cavity, enlarging it and drawing in air through the nostrils.
While the lungs are of importance to breathing control, the skins unique properties aid rapid gas exchange when amphibians are submerged in oxygen-rich water. In most fish, respiration takes place through gills, however, do possess one or two lungs. The labyrinth fish have developed an organ that allows them to take advantage of the oxygen of the air. Some species of crab use an organ called a branchiostegal lung
The spinothalamic tract is a sensory pathway from the skin to the thalamus. From the ventral posterolateral nucleus in the thalamus, sensory information is relayed upward to the cortex of the postcentral gyrus. The spinothalamic tract consists of two adjacent pathways and lateral, the anterior spinothalamic tract carries information about crude touch. The lateral spinothalamic tract conveys pain and temperature, in the spinal cord, the spinothalamic tract has somatotopic organization. This is the organization of its cervical, thoracic and sacral components. The pathway decussates at the level of the cord, rather than in the brainstem like the posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway. There are two parts of the spinothalamic tract, The lateral spinothalamic tract transmits pain and temperature. The anterior spinothalamic tract transmits crude touch and firm pressure, the spinothalamic tract, like the dorsal column-medial lemniscus tract, uses three neurons to convey sensory information from the periphery to conscious level at the cerebral cortex.
These secondary neurons are called tract cells, the axons of the tract cells cross over to the other side of the spinal cord via the anterior white commissure, and to the anterolateral corner of the spinal cord. Decussation usually occurs 1-2 spinal nerve segments above the point of entry, the axons travel up the length of the spinal cord into the brainstem, specifically the rostral ventromedial medulla. Traveling up the brainstem, the tract moves dorsally, the neurons ultimately synapse with third-order neurons in several nuclei of the thalamus—including the medial dorsal, ventral posterior lateral, and ventral posterior medial nuclei. From there, signals go to the cortex, the primary somatosensory cortex. The types of information transmitted via the spinothalamic tract are described as affective sensation. This means that the sensation is accompanied by a compulsion to act, for instance, an itch is accompanied by a need to scratch, and a painful stimulus makes us want to withdraw from the pain.
There are two sub-systems identified, Direct Indirect, in the nervous system, the anterolateral system is an ascending pathway that conveys pain and crude touch from the periphery to the brain. This fact aids in determining whether a lesion is in the brain or the spinal cord, with lesions in the brain stem or higher, deficits of pain perception, touch sensation, and proprioception are all contralateral to the lesion. With spinal cord lesions, the deficit in perception is contralateral to the lesion. Unilateral lesions usually cause contralateral anaesthesia, anaesthesia will normally begin 1-2 segments below the level of lesion, affecting all caudal body areas
Unlike other ions, the hydron consists only of a bare atomic nucleus. The hydron is too reactive to occur in many liquids, even though it is sometimes visualized to do so by students of chemistry, a free hydron would react with a molecule of the liquid to form a more complicated cation. Examples are the ion in water-based acids, and H 2F+, the unstable cation of fluoroantimonic acid. For this reason, in such liquids including liquid acids, hydrons diffuse by contact from one complex cation to another, the hydrated form of the hydrogen cation, the hydronium ion H 3O+, is a key object of Arrhenius definition of acid. Other hydrated forms, the Zundel cation H 5O+2 which is formed from a proton, the hydron itself is crucial in more general Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, which extends the concept of acid–base chemistry beyond aqueous solutions. The negatively charged counterpart of the hydron is the anion, H−. Proton, having the symbol p or 1H+, is the +1 ion of protium. Deuteron, having the symbol 2H+ or D+, is the +1 ion of deuterium, 2H or D.
Triton, having the symbol 3H+ or T+, is the +1 ion of tritium, other isotopes of hydrogen are too unstable to be relevant in chemistry. The name proton refers to isotopically pure 1H+, on the other hand, referring to the hydron as simply hydrogen ion is not recommended because hydrogen anions exist. The term hydron was defined by IUPAC in 1988, the term proton was and is used in place of hydron. The latter term is only used in the context where comparisons between the various isotopes of hydrogen is important. Otherwise, referring to hydrons as protons is still considered acceptable, the transfer of H+ in an acid-base reaction is usually referred to as proton transfer. Acid and bases are referred to as proton donors and acceptors correspondingly, although 99. 9844% of natural hydrogen nuclei are protons, the remainder are deuterons. Deprotonation Superacid Dihydrogen cation Trihydrogen cation Hydrogen ion cluster