Lake Acworth is a 260-acre artificial lake southwest of the city of Acworth, Georgia. It is in the extreme northwestern part of Cobb County; the lake impounds Proctor Creek, outflows into Lake Allatoona. The low dam is at the point; the city operates a public beach and park along the lake's northern shore. It was created by trucking white sand in and putting it over the rust-red clay soil common to the region. Swimming is roped off with floats for protection from the boaters; the Lake Acworth Beach and Beachhouse were added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2010. U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Lake Acworth
Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian functions of government in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or major disaster, or in an occupied territory. Martial law can be used by governments to enforce their rule over the public, as seen in multiple countries listed below; such incidents may occur after a coup d'état. Martial law may be declared in cases of major natural disasters. Martial law has been imposed during conflicts, in cases of occupations, where the absence of any other civil government provides for an unstable population. Examples of this form of military rule include post World War II reconstruction in Germany and Japan, the recovery and reconstruction of the former Confederate States of America during Reconstruction Era in the United States of America following the American Civil War, German occupation of northern France between 1871 and 1873 after the Treaty of Frankfurt ended the Franco-Prussian War; the imposition of martial law accompanies curfews.
Civilians defying martial law may be subjected to military tribunal. The Black War was a period of violent conflict between British colonists and Aboriginal Australians in Tasmania from the mid-1820s to 1832. With an escalation of violence in the late 1820s, Lieutenant-Governor George Arthur declared martial law in November 1828—effectively providing legal immunity for killing Aboriginal people, it would remain in force for more than three years, the longest period of martial law in Australian history. Brunei has been under a martial law since a rebellion occurred on 8 December 1962 known as the Brunei Revolt and was put down by British troops from Singapore; the Sultan of Brunei, Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah, is presently the head of state and the Minister of Defense and Commander in Chief of Royal Brunei Armed Forces The War Measures Act was a Government of Canada statute that allowed the government to assume sweeping emergency powers, stopping short of martial law, i.e. the military does not administer justice, which remains in the hands of the courts.
The Act has been invoked three times: During World War I, World War II, the October Crisis of 1970. In 1988, the War Measures Act was replaced by the Emergencies Act. During the colonial era, martial law was proclaimed and applied in the territory of the Province of Quebec during the invasion of Canada by the army of the American Continental Congress in 1775–1776, it was applied twice in the territory of Lower Canada during the 1837–1838 insurrections. On December 5, following the events of November 1837, martial law was proclaimed in the district of Montréal by Governor Gosford, without the support of the Legislative Assembly in the Parliament of Lower Canada, it was imposed until April 27, 1838. Martial law was proclaimed a second time on November 4, 1838, this time by acting Governor John Colborne, was applied in the district of Montreal until August 24, 1839. In Egypt, a State of Emergency has been in effect continuously since 1967. Following the assassination of President Anwar el-Sadat in 1981, a state of emergency was declared.
Egypt has been under state of emergency since. The legislation was extended in 2003 and were due to expire at the end of May 2006, but after the Dahab bombings in April of that year, state of emergency was renewed for another two years. In May 2008 there was a further extension to June 2010. In May 2010, the state of emergency was further extended, albeit with a promise from the government to be applied only to'Terrorism and Drugs' suspects. A State of Emergency gives military courts the power to try civilians and allows the government to detain for renewable 45-day periods and without court orders anyone deemed to be threatening state security. Public demonstrations are banned under the legislation. On 10 February 2011, the ex-president of Egypt, Hosni Mubarak, promised the deletion of the relevant constitutional article that gives legitimacy to State of Emergency in an attempt to please the mass number of protesters that demanded him to resign. On 11 February 2011, the president stepped down and the vice president Omar Suleiman de facto introduced the country to martial law when transferring all civilian powers from the presidential institution to the military institution.
It meant that the presidential executive powers, the parliamentary legislative powers and the judicial powers all transferred directly into the military system which may delegate powers back and forth to any civilian institution within its territory. The military issued in its third announcement the "end of the State of Emergency as soon as order is restored in Egypt". Before martial law, the Egyptian parliament under the constitution had the civilian power to declare a State of Emergency; when in martial law, the military gained all powers of the state, including to dissolve the parliament and suspend the constitution as it did in its fifth announcement. Under martial law, the only legal framework within the Egyptian territory is the numbered announcements from the military; these announcements c
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Acworth, New Hampshire
Acworth is a town in Sullivan County, New Hampshire, United States. At the 2010 census, the town had a total population of 891. Chartered by Governor Benning Wentworth in 1752, it was called Burnet after William Burnet, a former governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay. In 1754, the French and Indian War broke out, no settlements were made under the charter. Wentworth regranted the township on 19 September 1766, naming it after Sir Jacob Acworth, a former Surveyor of the Royal Navy; the town was first permanently settled in 1768 by several families from Londonderry. Acworth was incorporated in 1772 by Governor John Wentworth. With the close of the Revolution, Acworth grew quickly. By 1859, it had 1,251 inhabitants; the Cold River provided water power for industry, including 5 sawmills, a gristmill, a woolen factory, a bobbin factory and a peg factory. There was a boot and shoe manufacturer. Acworth is a source for museum-quality crystals such as beryl; the town of Acworth, Georgia was named for this town, because this was the hometown of a railroad engineer there.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 39.1 square miles, of which 38.9 sq mi is land and 0.2 sq mi is water, comprising 0.61% of the town. Acworth is drained by the Cold River, lies within the Connecticut River watershed; the highest point in Acworth is Gove Hill, at 1,939 feet above sea level. The town is crossed by one numbered state highway, New Hampshire Route 123A, which follows the Cold River and passes through the village of South Acworth. Although not numbered routes, the state maintains a handful of other roads in the town, including Cold River Road, Hill Road, a portion of Charlestown Road; as of the census of 2000, there were 836 people, 318 households, 234 families residing in the town. The population density was 21.5 people per square mile. There were 512 housing units at an average density of 13.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.77% White, 0.84% African American, 0.84% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 1.32% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.08% of the population. There were 318 households out of which 30.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.7% were married couples living together, 6.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.4% were non-families. 19.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.06. In the town, the population was spread out with 25.7% under the age of 18, 4.7% from 18 to 24, 24.0% from 25 to 44, 30.4% from 45 to 64, 15.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.0 males. The median income for a household in the town was $37,386, the median income for a family was $41,397. Males had a median income of $29,792 versus $26,912 for females; the per capita income for the town was $18,132. About 10.1% of families and 15.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.6% of those under age 18 and 5.4% of those age 65 or over.
Nedom L. Angier, mayor of Atlanta and Georgia state treasurer Thomas J. Cram, engineer in the service of the U. S. Corps of Topographical Engineers during the American Civil War Alice B. Fogel, New Hampshire Poet Laureate Talcott Parsons, Harvard sociologist Joseph Gardner Wilson, Oregon supreme court justice and US congressman Urban A. Woodbury, Civil War veteran and the 45th governor of Vermont Bascom Maple Farms John Leverett Merrill, History of Acworth, New Hampshire 1869 Helen H. Frink, These Acworth Hills - A History of Acworth, New Hampshire 1767 - 1988, Town of Acworth, New Hampshire 1989 Town of Acworth official website Acworth Historical Society Acworth Silsby Library The Acworthian, online newsletter New Hampshire Economic and Labor Market Information Bureau profile Haywards New England Gazetteer
African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. The term refers to descendants of enslaved black people who are from the United States. Black and African Americans constitute the third largest racial and ethnic group in the United States. Most African Americans are descendants of enslaved peoples within the boundaries of the present United States. On average, African Americans are of West/Central African and European descent, some have Native American ancestry. According to U. S. Census Bureau data, African immigrants do not self-identify as African American; the overwhelming majority of African immigrants identify instead with their own respective ethnicities. Immigrants from some Caribbean, Central American and South American nations and their descendants may or may not self-identify with the term. African-American history starts in the 16th century, with peoples from West Africa forcibly taken as slaves to Spanish America, in the 17th century with West African slaves taken to English colonies in North America.
After the founding of the United States, black people continued to be enslaved, the last four million black slaves were only liberated after the Civil War in 1865. Due to notions of white supremacy, they were treated as second-class citizens; the Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U. S. citizenship to whites only, only white men of property could vote. These circumstances were changed by Reconstruction, development of the black community, participation in the great military conflicts of the United States, the elimination of racial segregation, the civil rights movement which sought political and social freedom. In 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected President of the United States; the first African slaves arrived via Santo Domingo to the San Miguel de Gualdape colony, founded by Spanish explorer Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón in 1526. The marriage between Luisa de Abrego, a free black domestic servant from Seville and Miguel Rodríguez, a white Segovian conquistador in 1565 in St. Augustine, is the first known and recorded Christian marriage anywhere in what is now the continental United States.
The ill-fated colony was immediately disrupted by a fight over leadership, during which the slaves revolted and fled the colony to seek refuge among local Native Americans. De Ayllón and many of the colonists died shortly afterwards of an epidemic and the colony was abandoned; the settlers and the slaves who had not escaped returned to Haiti, whence. The first recorded Africans in British North America were "20 and odd negroes" who came to Jamestown, Virginia via Cape Comfort in August 1619 as indentured servants; as English settlers died from harsh conditions and more Africans were brought to work as laborers. An indentured servant would work for several years without wages; the status of indentured servants in early Virginia and Maryland was similar to slavery. Servants could be bought, sold, or leased and they could be physically beaten for disobedience or running away. Unlike slaves, they were freed after their term of service expired or was bought out, their children did not inherit their status, on their release from contract they received "a year's provision of corn, double apparel, tools necessary", a small cash payment called "freedom dues".
Africans could raise crops and cattle to purchase their freedom. They raised families, married other Africans and sometimes intermarried with Native Americans or English settlers. By the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. In 1640, the Virginia General Court recorded the earliest documentation of lifetime slavery when they sentenced John Punch, a Negro, to lifetime servitude under his master Hugh Gwyn for running away. In the Spanish Florida some Spanish married or had unions with Pensacola, Creek or African women, both slave and free, their descendants created a mixed-race population of mestizos and mulattos; the Spanish encouraged slaves from the southern British colonies to come to Florida as a refuge, promising freedom in exchange for conversion to Catholicism. King Charles II of Spain issued a royal proclamation freeing all slaves who fled to Spanish Florida and accepted conversion and baptism.
Most went to the area around St. Augustine, but escaped slaves reached Pensacola. St. Augustine had mustered an all-black militia unit defending Spain as early as 1683. One of the Dutch African arrivals, Anthony Johnson, would own one of the first black "slaves", John Casor, resulting from the court ruling of a civil case; the popular conception of a race-based slave system did not develop until the 18th century. The Dutch West India Company introduced slavery in 1625 with the importation of eleven black slaves into New Amsterdam. All the colony's slaves, were freed upon its surrender to the British. Massachusetts was the first British colony to recognize slavery in 1641. In 1662, Virginia passed a law that children of enslaved women took the status of the mother, rather than that of the father, as under English common law; this principle was called partus sequitur ventrum. By an act of 1699, the colony ordered all free blacks deported defining as slaves all people of African descent who remained in the c
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
Western and Atlantic Railroad
The Western & Atlantic Railroad of the State of Georgia is a government-owned railroad and is leased by CSX, which CSX operates in the Southeastern United States from Atlanta, Georgia, to Chattanooga, Tennessee. It was founded on December 21, 1836; the city of Atlanta was founded as the terminus of the W&A, with the terminus marked with the Atlanta Zero Mile Post. The line is still owned by the State of Georgia from Atlanta to CT Tower in Chattanooga; the W&A Subdivision is a railroad line leased by CSX Transportation in the U. S. states of Georgia. The line runs from Chattanooga to Georgia for a total of 119.1 miles. At its north end, it continues south from the Chattanooga Subdivision of the Nashville Division and at its south end it continues south as the Atlanta Terminal Subdivision; this line built to 5 ft gauge, is famous because of the Andrews Raid, which took place on the W&A during the American Civil War on the morning of April 12, 1862. In 1836, the Georgia General Assembly voted to build the Western & Atlantic Railroad of the State of Georgia to provide a link between the port of Savannah and the Midwest.
The initial route of that state-sponsored project was to run from Chattanooga to a spot east of the Chattahoochee River, in present-day Fulton County. The plan was to link up with the Georgia Railroad from Augusta and the Macon and Western Railroad, which ran from Macon to Savannah. An engineer was chosen to recommend the location where the Atlantic line would terminate. Once he surveyed various possible routes, he drove a stake into the ground near what is now Forsyth and Magnolia Streets; the zero milepost was placed at that spot. In 1842, the zero milepost was moved to a spot adjacent to the current southern entrance to Underground Atlanta; the area developed into a settlement, known as "Terminus" meaning "end of the line". In 1843, the small settlement of Terminus was incorporated as the city of Marthasville. Two years by act of Georgia's General Assembly, the city was renamed "Atlanta"; the railroad made significant contributions to the development of north Georgia. Through 1870, it was called the State Road, was operated directly by the state under a superintendent appointed by and reporting to the governor of Georgia.
On December 27 of that year, operations were transferred to the Western & Atlantic Railroad Company, a group of 23 investors including Georgia's wartime governor Joseph E. Brown, who leased it from the state for $25,000 per month; this expired 20 years when the Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis leased it for 29 years; the railroad, handed over to the NC&StL was in poor condition. The locomotives that were transferred consisted only of those listed on the 1870 lease as property of the State, with all of the more modern engines purchased under Gov. Brown's Western & Atlantic Railroad Company having been sold to other railroads. While most of the passenger equipment was usable all of the locomotives were condemnable and all of the freight cars were scrapped; the value of the locomotives was disputed for some 20 years. A major change in the new lease in 1890 stipulated that all improvements made to the road by the lessee would become property of the state at the termination of the lease. Included in the definition of improvements were modifications to the facilities, right of way and new equipment purchased for use over that line, including passenger cars, freight cars, locomotives.
As it turned out, the NC&StL continued to hold the lease to the Western & Atlantic Railroad until it was absorbed by its parent company, the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, itself owned by the Atlantic Coast Line-one of the principal railroads in the Family Lines System and CSX Transportation, which continues to operate the line as the Western & Atlantic Subdivision. CSXT signed the current lease on the W&A from the State of Georgia in May 1986, set to expire on December 31, 2019. On Sept 7th, 2018, the owner and CSX announced they had reached an agreement to renew the lease for 50 more years, starting in 2020 at $1 million a month, rising annually thereafter. After being captured by the Union in mid-1864 and until the end of the war in 1865, the line was operated by the United States Military Railroad. Trains arrived there at 1:35 a.m. and 1:15 p.m.. Not much has happened in between 1867 and now, track realingments in some areas resulted in height clearances and track improvements. On the morning of April 12, 1862, the locomotive General was stopped at Big Shanty, Georgia so that the crew and passengers could have breakfast.
During this time, James J. Andrews and his Union raiders, stole the General; the only damage the raiders did involved cutting telegraph lines and raising rails, although an attempt to burn a covered bridge failed. The train's conductor, William A. Fuller, chased the General by handcar. At Emerson, Fuller commandeered the Yonah and rode it north to Kingston, Georgia. At Kingston, conductor Fuller headed north to Adairsville; the tracks were broken by the raiders two miles south of Adairsville and Fuller had to run the two miles on foot. At Adairsville, Fuller chased the General. While all of this was happening, Andrews' Raiders were cutting the telegraph wires so no transmissions could go through to Chattanooga. With the Texas chasing the General in reverse, the chase went through Dalton and Tunnel Hill, Georgia. At milepost 116.3 (north o