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Acyl group

An acyl group is a moiety derived by the removal of one or more hydroxyl groups from an oxoacid, including inorganic acids. It contains an alkyl group. In organic chemistry, the acyl group is derived from a carboxylic acid. Therefore, it has the formula RCO–, where R represents an alkyl group, linked to the carbon atom of the group by a single bond. Although the term is always applied to organic compounds, acyl groups can in principle be derived from other types of acids such as sulfonic acids, phosphonic acids. In the most common arrangement, acyl groups are attached to a larger molecular fragment, in which case the carbon and oxygen atoms are linked by a double bond. Well-known acyl compounds are the acyl chlorides, such as benzoyl chloride; these compounds, which are treated as sources of acylium cations, are good reagents for attaching acyl groups to various substrates. Amides and esters are classes of acyl compounds, as are aldehydes. Acylium ions are cations of the formula RCO+; such species are common reactive intermediates, for example, in the Friedel–Crafts acylations in many other organic reactions such as the Hayashi rearrangement.

Salts containing acylium ions can be generated by removal of the halide from acyl halides: RCCl + SbCl5 → +–The carbon–oxygen bond length in these cations is near 1.1 Ångströms shorter than that in carbon monoxide and indicative of triple bond character. The carbon centre of acylium ions have a linear geometry and sp atomic hybridization, are best represented by a resonance structure bearing a formal positive charge on the oxygen:, they are characteristic. Acyl radicals are generated from aldehydes by hydrogen-atom abstraction. However, they undergo rapid decarbonylation to afford the alkyl radical: RC=O → RC•=O → R• + C≡OAcyl anions are always unstable—usually too unstable to be exploited synthetically, they dimerise to form enediols. Hence, synthetic chemists have developed various acyl anion synthetic equivalents, such as dithianes, as surrogates. However, as a partial exception, hindered dialkylformamides can undergo deprotonation at low temperature with lithium diisopropylamide as the base to form a carbamoyl anion stable at these temperatures.

In biochemistry there are many instances of acyl groups, in all major categories of biochemical molecules. Acyl-CoAs are acyl derivatives formed via fatty acid metabolism. Acetyl-CoA, the most common derivative, serves as an acyl donor in many biosynthetic transformations; such acyl compounds are thioesters. Names of acyl groups of amino acids are formed by the replacement of the ending -ine by the ending -yl. For example, the acyl group of glycine is glycyl, of lysine is lysyl. Names of acyl groups of ribonucleoside monophosphates such as AMP, GMP, CMP, UMP are adenylyl, guanylyl and uridylyl respectively. In phospholipids, the acyl group of phosphatidic acid is called phosphatidyl-. Many saccharides are acylated. Acyl ligands are intermediates in many carbonylation reactions, which are important in some catalytic reactions. Metal acyls arise via insertion of carbon monoxide into metal–alkyl bonds. Metal acyls arise from reactions involving acyl chlorides with low-valence metal complexes or by the reaction of organolithium compounds with metal carbonyls.

Metal acyls are described by two resonance structures, one of which emphasizes the basicity of the oxygen center. O-alkylation of metal acyls gives Fischer carbene complexes; the names of acyl groups are derived from the corresponding acid by substituting the acid ending -ic with the ending -yl as shown in the table below. Note that methyl, propyl, etc. that end in -yl are not acyl but alkyl groups derived from alkanes. In acyloxy groups the acyl group is bonded to oxygen: R−C−O−R′ where R−C is the acyl group. Acylium ions are cations of the type R−C+=O ↔ R−C≡O+ and play an important role as intermediates in organic reactions for example the Hayashi rearrangement. Acylation Functional group Media related to Acyl groups at Wikimedia Commons

Battle in Heaven

Battle in Heaven is a 2005 Mexican-French-German film. It is the second feature film by director Carlos Reygadas who directed the Mexican film Japón, it was entered into the 2005 Cannes Film Festival. Reygadas has said about this film: "it’s my problem child, therefore the film of mine I love the most." Marcos is a working class man in Mexico, employed by "the general." Marcos learns that the baby that his wife kidnapped for ransom had accidentally died. The remainder of the film follows a despondent Marcos haunted by the moral and/or legal implications of his actions. Marcos stands next to his wife Berta at the subway as she sells sweets at a stand, he travels to the airport to meet the "general's" upper-middle class daughter, Ana whom he has known since she was a child. Ana orders Marcos to take her to the "boutique". While driving, Marcos is distracted, at one point stalls the car. Ana recognizes that something is wrong, but Marcos claims he's distracted only because of his wife's supposed ill health.

Ana invites Marcos into the "boutique" so that he can have sex with one of her "friends." Marcos is not aroused by the "friend." The friend tells Ana. Ana goes to talk to Marcos, reminds him that they have known each other since her childhood. Marcos reveals that he and his wife kidnapped a baby but the baby died before they could collect any ransom. Ana seems to remain composed at hearing this news. Back home, Marcos has sex with Berta, they seem united in their sorrow regarding the dead baby. Marcos tells Berta that he told Ana about the kidnapped baby, indicating that the confession brought him relief. Berta, demands that he make sure that "the princess" does not tell anyone; the next day, Marcos visits Ana. She drives him to her place where they have sex. Ana advises Marcos to turn himself in to the police. Marcos, their son, a few friends go out to the countryside. Marcos tells Berta, she asks him to wait until after an event that Marcos had earlier shown disdain for. Marcos seems to agree with his wife.

Marcos' mental state seems to worsen. Instead of driving back with his party, he treks through the countryside, he reaches a peak with Christian crosses. Marcos buries his face in his hands. Marcos visits Ana at her home, he tells her. She gives him a goodbye kiss. Marcos leaves the apartment, he goes back to the apartment and fatally stabs Ana. The police become aware of both the attack on Ana and the death of the baby, are in search for Marcos. Marcos seems to have joined the pilgrimage to the Basilica, at first on foot, on his knees. Someone places a hood over his face; the hood becomes stained with blood as he makes his way into the Basilica during the church service. The pilgrims are gone, the Basilica is vacant; the police allow Berta to go in to see her husband. She touches him on the head and he collapses. Marcos Hernández - Marcos Anapola Mushkadiz - Ana Bertha Ruiz - Marcos' Wife David Bornstein - Jaime Rosalinda Ramirez - Viky El Abuelo - Chief of Police Brenda Angulo - Madame El Mago - Preacher Francisco'El Gato' Martínez - Gas Station Attendant Diego Martínez Vignatti - Soccer Player Alejandro Mayar - Police Inspector Chavo Nava - Neurotic Conductor Estela Tamariz - Ines Like Robert Bresson, Reygadas prefers to use non-professional actors, while recycling one.

Unlike Bresson, Reygadas puts explicit sex scenes in his films. The sex scene between Hernández and Ruiz was simulated at Ruiz's husband's request, according to Reygadas on an interview included on the DVD. Casually, in a scene when Marcos is masturbating in front of the TV screen, he's watching a football league match between Pachuca CF and Atlante F. C. valid for the Primera División de México Apertura 2003, which ended with a draw & no goals scored. Jonathan Romney says that "To a degree, Battle in Heaven might seem like another warmed-over example of a familiar movie myth: a repellent no-hoper redeemed by hot sex with a quasi-virginal prostitute," but that "it's hard to know whether Reygadas takes his transcendental, religious theme or is deriding it outright - or deriding us for taking it seriously."Lisa Schwarzbaum gives the film a grade of D+. "Between those two attention grabbers on a theme of flagpoles, languorously performed and indifferently observed, Mexican filmmaker/provocateur Carlos Reygadas pitches his own fight for the aesthetic tolerances of viewers, goading us to react to images about which he himself studiously offers no opinion."

Schwarzbaum finds that "for all the shock of the movie's clinical carnality, this battle is lost."Battle in Heaven was voted one of the 30 best films of its decade in a poll for Sight & Sound. It was ranked by Michael Atkinson of The Village Voice as the fifth greatest film since 2000 in BBC's 2016 poll. Rio de Janeiro International Film Festival, FIPRESCI Prize Unsimulated sex in film Official Site Official site with different pictures Battle in Heaven on IMDb Interview with Anapola Mushkadiz by Peter Fraser, Close-Up Film Interview with Anapola Mushkadiz by Chris Neumer, Stumped Magazine

Jah Hut people

Jah Hut people are one of the Orang Asli tribes living in Pahang, Malaysia. As of 2000, the population of the Jah Hut people are 2,442 and by 2005, it is estimated that there are 4,000 people living in 11 kampungs that are located along the west bank of the Pahang River from the north in Jerantut to the south in Temerloh, Pahang; these 11 kampungs includes Kampung Pos Penderas and Kampung Keboi which are situated in the tropical jungles of Jerantut, Pahang. Kampung Keboi is one of the smallest kampungs among the Jah Hut settlements with only about 100 people; the Jah Hut people live in houses built on stilts, similar to Malay Houses. The population dynamics of the Jah Hut people are as the following:- The language spoken by the Jah Hut people is known as Jah Hut language and it is recognized as part of the Mon-Khmer languages. In the Jah Hut language, Jah means "people" and Hut means "not"; however this literal translation does not bring any meaning to its name as the word "not people" is not the actual meaning of their name.

According to the Jah Hut people, Jah means "people" and Hut means "different". The Jah Hut language itself have absorbed a lot of words from the Malay language into its vocabulary. Among the Jah Hut dialects includes Kerdau, Ketiar Krau, Kuala Tembeling, Pulau Guai, Ulu Ceres, Ulu Tembeling; the main agricultural activities of the Jah Hut people are such as rubber tapping, rice cultivation, hunting and poultry. Wood carving activity is still being practiced and it is not only regarded as a source of income but seen as a part of keeping their traditional faith alive. Although the Jah Hut people reside in the jungles, they are not isolated to themselves but they have been trading with other nearby groups of people for hundreds of years. Traditional herbal knowledge are passed down from one generation to another in a form of oral narrative by the bomoh that specializes in traditional medicine; the Indian Journal of Medical Sciences have documented at least 16 Jah Hut medicines. Among the medicines that have been verified by scientific researchers includes the Hedyotis capitellata, Melastoma malabathricum, Lycopodiella cernua, the following:- Eurycoma longifolia: Used as an aphrodisiac to boost orgasm, this herb is a popular herb among many races in Malaysia and can be obtained from the market.

Morinda citrifolia: The Jah Hut people use this herb to treat boils through the topical formation of its leaves and fruits. This coincides with the verification of pharmacology that ulcers are caused by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Since Morinda citrifolia has antibacterial properties to combat it, this treatment is not an unfounded treatment. Vernonia cinerea: Used by Jah Hut people to relieve asthma, as recent research shows that Vernonia cinerea has anti-inflammatory properties and therefore, this treatment is effective. Vernonia arborea: Used for treating tumors. Other medicines that have not been verified are such as:- Alstonia angustiloba and Homalanthus populneus: Jah Hut people use this herb to treat headaches. Physalis minima, Pyrrosia piloselloides and Smilax lanceifolia: These herbs are used by the Jah Hut people to relieve pain. In recent years, most of this people's medicines are no longer attractive to younger generation who relies more on western medicine; the current generation of Jah Hut people do no longer recognize herbs and does not have much knowledge of traditional herbs.

At present, most of the younger generation had migrate to urban areas for employment. Therefore, only the older generation have the knowledge of herbs and it is estimated that only a few people are able to use traditional medicine to treat diseases

Spirou (comics)

Spirou is a Belgian comic strip character and protagonist in the comic strip series Spirou et Fantasio and Le Petit Spirou. He serves as the mascot of the Belgian comic strip magazine Spirou; the character was created by Robert Velter for the launch of Le journal de Spirou in 1938. Spirou was an elevator operator and bell-boy at the fictional Moustique Hotel. At some point he became a reporter for the eponymous magazine, though he remained dressed in his trademark red uniform. Spirou's design was changed through the years by the various writers and artists who created his adventures but he has kept his spiky red-hair and clothes of the same colour after ditching his hotel uniform. In contrast to Tintin, Spirou is more shown doing some reporting in several of his adventures. While he and reporter colleague Fantasio pursue stories, in most cases they find themselves in the centre of adventures. An honest and brave young man of indeterminate age, he tries to fight injustice around him and help people.

He is more level-headed than Fantasio, who always accompanies him, along with the pet squirrel Spip, during the period of Franquin authorship, the Marsupilami. A six-year-old version of Spirou is the star of the spin-off series Le Petit Spirou, concerned with his tribulations at school and the anatomy of girls; this series and its star are acknowledged to have little in common with the old one. Spirou is part of the Comic Book Route and can be found at Place Sainctelette in Brussels

Phoenix Art Institute

Phoenix Art Institute located at 350 Madison Avenue in New York, New York, was an educational institution co-founded in 1925 by Franklin Booth with Lauros M. Phoenix. In 1944, it merged with the New York School of Applied Design for Women, becoming the New York Phoenix School of Design. In 1974, the New York Phoenix School of Design merged with the Pratt Institute to form the Pratt-Phoenix School of Design Phoenix Art Institute taught traditional fine art and commercial art. Phoenix was an instructor. Booth taught at the school for 21 years and remained affiliated with the organization until his death in 1948. At some point he was a trustee of the organization. Other teachers were Norman Rockwell, Walter Beach Humphrey, Thomas Fogarty. In 1944, The Phoenix Art Institute merged with the New York School of Applied Design for Women, which reincorporated as the co-educational New York Phoenix School of Design. In 1974, the New York Phoenix School of Design merged with the Pratt Institute to form the Pratt-Phoenix School of Design

Moriah van Norman

Moriah van Norman is an American water polo player for the University of Southern California, who won the Peter J. Cutino Award in 2004, recognized as the best female collegiate player in the nation, her position is two-meter offense. Van Norman was born in California, she earned four-time high school All-American honors at University of San Diego High School in San Diego. She was named California Interscholastic Federation player of the year and league most valuable player in her senior season. Van Norman earned All-America honors in her 2003 freshman season after leading her USC Trojans team in scoring with 65 goals, she scored three or more goals in five matches including five against UC Berkeley and three against UCLA. As a 2004 sophomore, van Norman finished second on the team in scoring with 58 goals, leading her team to win the NCAA Women's Water Polo Championship, she became the third player in USC women's water polo history to win the Peter J. Cutino Award as the nation's top collegiate women's player and the last person to receive the award from legendary former Cal coach Pete Cutino, who died in September 2004.

In 2005, van Norman was third on the team in scoring with 40 goals in her junior season. In her final season, USC, with a season record of 27-3, was top-seeded at the NCAA championships, but van Norman's six goals in the 3 tournament matches were not enough, she picked up her third ejection with 5:15 left in the final game, sat out the remainder of the game on the bench as UCLA won, 9-8. Van Norman racked up 215 goals in her four years with third all-time in Trojan history. Van Norman was a member of the U. S. Junior National Team, won gold at the 2005 FINA Junior World Championships and silver at the 2003 FINA Junior World Championships, she played with the 2002 Pan-American Games championship team. Van Norman is a member of the U. S. national team, which won silver at the 2005 FINA World Water Polo Championships. At the 2008 China Summer Olympic games and the American team lost 8-9 in the Championship game to the Netherlands and took home the silver medal. In June 2009, van Norman was named to the USA water polo women's senior national team for the 2009 FINA World Championships.

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