United Socialist Party of Venezuela
The United Socialist Party of Venezuela is a socialist political party in Venezuela which resulted from the fusion of some of the political and social forces that support the Bolivarian Revolution led by President Hugo Chávez. At the 2015 parliamentary election, PSUV lost its majority in the National Assembly for the first time since the unicameral legislature's creation in 2000 against the Democratic Unity Roundtable, earning 55 out of the National Assembly's 167 seats; the process of merging most of the unidentified parties involved in the pro-Bolivarian Revolution coalition was initiated by Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez after he won the Venezuelan presidential election of 2006. The process was led by Chávez' own party, the Fifth Republic Movement, was supported by a range of smaller parties such as the People's Electoral Movement, Venezuelan Popular Unity, the Tupamaro Movement, the Socialist League and others which all together added up 45.99% of the votes received by Chávez during the 2006 election.
Other pro-Bolivarian parties like the Communist Party of Venezuela, Fatherland for All and For Social Democracy, that cast 14.60% of the votes from that election, declined to join the new party. On 7 March 2007, Chávez presented a phased plan for founding the new party until November 2007. PODEMOS, PPT and PCV stated they would wait until PSUV had been founded and decide their membership in the new party based on its program. On 18 March 2007, Chávez declared on his programme Aló Presidente that he had "opened the doors for the For Social Democracy, the Fatherland for All, the Communist Party of Venezuela if they want to go away from Chávez´s alliance, they may do so and leave us in peace". In his opinion, those parties were near to be on the opposition and they should choose wisely, between going "in silence, hugging us or throwing stones". PPT, at its 2007 congress on 10 and 11 April, decided not to join but re-affirmed its support for Chávez and the Bolivarian Revolution; the party held its founding congress in early 2008, from 12 January to 2 March, with 1681 delegates participating.
Chávez was proclaimed President of the new party on 14 March. As of 2014, the party has been described as "fracturing" and "weakening" due to the loss of Hugo Chávez, the poor state of Venezuela's economy and falling oil prices. Internal issues appeared in the party, with an email address and telephone hotline created to report "internal enemies". In 23 November PSUV elections, it was reported by party dissidents that few individuals participated, with less than 10% of the 7.6 million members casting a vote. Chávez said that "t's a young party" with an average age of 35 among members. Analysts agreed, saying: "The assumption is that the younger people are going to be Chavistas, they are going to be the ones whose families have benefited from Chávez's social programs."With the creation of PSUV, relationships soured with former coalition parties that chose not to join. By the 2008 regional election campaign in October, Chávez declared that "Patria Para Todos and the Communist Party of Venezuela will disappear from the political map because they are liars and manipulators."In April 2010, an Extraordinary Congress of the PSUV resulted in the endorsement of a range of "general principles", including among others socialism and Bolivarianism.
It defined the party as the "political vanguard of the revolutionary process". The party held its 3rd Congress in 2014, which elected Nicolás Maduro as the 2nd party president and honored Hugo Chávez posthumously as the party's eternal president and founder, party policies were updated, it was followed by the 4th Party Congress in 2018. Party builds on cult of personality of the Hugo Chávez, with revolutionary symbols like Chávez eyes sometimes along with the party symbols; the party is headed at the national level by the Eternal President Hugo Chávez, the president, vice-president, a 29-member national board of directors: Adán Chávez Alí Rodríguez Araque Ana Elisa Osorio Antonia Muñoz Aristóbulo Istúriz Carlos Escarrá Darío Vivas Cilia Flores Elías Jaua Érika Farías Freddy Bernal Héctor Navarro Héctor Rodríguez Jacqueline Faría Jorge Rodríguez Luis Reyes Reyes María Cristina Iglesias María León Mario Silva Nicolás Maduro Nohelí Pocaterra Rafael Ramírez Ramón Rodríguez Chacín Rodrigo Cabezas Tarek El Aissami Vanessa Davies Willian Lara Yelitza Santaella The Units of Battle Hugo Chávez is a collection of organizations with multiple members of PSUV involved that has both military and political characteristics.
The UBCh originated as a group to defend the Bolivarian Revolution and support the party through electoral processes in Venezuela, were transformed into their current name in 2013. They form the basic party unit in Venezuelan communities, 4 or more of them form a People's Struggle Circle in the community level; the Unit itself is divided into 10 Unit Patrols serving various functions for party members in various sectors. Other assisting groups include: PSUV National Political Bureau PSUV Regional Departments, led by Regional Vice Presidents PSUV Sectors Organizations, led by Sectoral Vice Presidents United Socialist Party of Venezuela Youth Revolutionary Marxist Current United Socialist Party of Venezuela Youth Facebook Instagram Twitter
Aristóbulo Istúriz Almeida is a Venezuelan politician and academic, Vice President of the Constitutional Assembly of Venezuela since 4 August 2017. He was a professor at the Centro de Estudios del Desarrollo of the Universidad Central de Venezuela, he was elected to Parliament several times for Acción Democrática, representing the Federal District, before joining the Radical Cause in 1986. He was elected as Mayor of the Libertador Municipality of Caracas on December 6, 1992, serving in that post until January 2, 1996. After finishing his term as mayor, he became co-presenter of the Globovisión television show Blanco y Negro. In 1997, together with some other ex-Radical Cause members, he co-founded Homeland for All, which in the 1998 presidential election decided to support Hugo Chávez. Between 2001 and 2007 he served as Minister of Education in Chávez's government. In 2008 Istúriz was the pro-Chávez Patriotic Alliance's candidate for Mayor of Caracas, he was leader of the Venezuelan teachers' association SUMA for a time.
In the 2012 regional elections, he was elected Governor of Anzoátegui. On 6 January 2016, President Nicolas Maduro appointed Istúriz as Vice President of Venezuela, he remained in office for one year, until Tareck El Aissami was appointed to succeed him on 4 January 2017. In 2017, Istúriz ran again for governor of Anzoátegui, he lost to MUD/AD candidate es:Antonio Barreto Sira. On 22 September 2017, Canada sanctioned Isturiz due to rupture of Venezuela's constitutional order. Official website
Government of Canada
The Government of Canada Her Majesty's Government, is the federal administration of Canada. In Canadian English, the term can mean either the collective set of institutions or the Queen-in-Council. In both senses, the current construct was established at Confederation through the Constitution Act, 1867—as a federal constitutional monarchy, wherein the Canadian Crown acts as the core, or "the most basic building block", of its Westminster-style parliamentary democracy; the Crown is thus the foundation of the executive and judicial branches of the Canadian government. Further elements of governance are outlined in the rest of the Canadian Constitution, which includes written statutes, court rulings, unwritten conventions developed over centuries; the monarch is represented by the Governor General of Canada. The Queen's Privy Council for Canada is the body that advises the sovereign or viceroy on the exercise of executive power. However, in practice, that task is performed only by the Cabinet, a committee within the Privy Council composed of ministers of the Crown, who are drawn from and responsible to the elected House of Commons in parliament.
The Cabinet is headed by the prime minister, appointed by the governor general after securing the confidence of the House of Commons. In Canadian English, the word government is used to refer both to the whole set of institutions that govern the country, to the current political leadership. In federal department press releases, the government has sometimes been referred to by the phrase Government. In late 2010, an informal instruction from the Office of the Prime Minister urged government departments to use in all department communications the term in place of Government of Canada; the same cabinet earlier directed its press department to use the phrase Canada's New Government. As per the Constitution Acts of 1867 and 1982, Canada is a constitutional monarchy, wherein the role of the reigning sovereign is both legal and practical, but not political; the Crown is regarded as a corporation sole, with the monarch, vested as she is with all powers of state, at the centre of a construct in which the power of the whole is shared by multiple institutions of government acting under the sovereign's authority.
The executive is thus formally called the Queen-in-Council, the legislature the Queen-in-Parliament, the courts as the Queen on the Bench. Royal Assent is required to enact laws and, as part of the Royal Prerogative, the royal sign-manual gives authority to letters patent and orders in council, though the authority for these acts stems from the Canadian populace and, within the conventional stipulations of constitutional monarchy, the sovereign's direct participation in any of these areas of governance is limited; the Royal Prerogative includes summoning and dissolving parliament in order to call an election, extends to foreign affairs: the negotiation and ratification of treaties, international agreements, declarations of war. The person, monarch of Canada is the monarch of 15 other countries in the Commonwealth of Nations, though, he or she reigns separately as King or Queen of Canada, an office, "truly Canadian" and "totally independent from that of the Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms".
On the advice of the Canadian Prime Minister, the sovereign appoints a federal viceregal representative—the Governor General of Canada —who, since 1947, is permitted to exercise all of the monarch's Royal Prerogative, though there are some duties which must be performed by, or bills that require assent by, the king or queen. The government is defined by the constitution as the Queen acting on the advice of her privy council. However, the Privy Council—consisting of former members of parliament, chief justices of the supreme court, other elder statesmen—rarely meets in full; as the stipulations of responsible government require that those who directly advise the monarch and governor general on how to exercise the Royal Prerogative be accountable to the elected House of Commons, the day-to-day operation of government is guided only by a sub-group of the Privy Council made up of individuals who hold seats in parliament. This body of senior ministers of the Crown is the Cabinet. One of the main duties of the Crown is to ensure that a democratic government is always in place, which means appointing a prime minister to thereafter head the Cabinet.
Thus, the governor general must appoint as prime minister the person who holds the confidence of the House of Commons. Should no party hold a majority in the commons, the leader of one party—either the one with the most seats or one supported by other parties—will be called by the governor general to form a minority government. Once sworn in by the viceroy, the prime minister holds office until he or she resigns or is removed by the governor general, after either a motion of no confidence or his or her party's defeat in a general election; the monarch and governor general follow the near-binding advice of
University of the Andes (Venezuela)
The University of the Andes is the second-oldest university in Venezuela, whose main campus is located in the city of Mérida, Venezuela. ULA is the largest public university in the Venezuelan Andes, having one of the largest student bodies in the country. ULA was established as a Catholic seminary on March 29, 1785 by the Bishop of Mérida, Friar Juan Ramos de Lora. De Lora called the newly founded house of studies "Real Colegio Seminario de San Buenaventura de Mérida", or Royal Seminary College of San Buenaventura of Mérida; the school was elevated to the status of Royal University of San Buenaventura of Mérida de los Caballeros on September 21, 1810, entitling it to confer junior and senior degrees in Philosophy, Medicine and Canonical Law, Theology. Universidad de Los Andes maintained its affiliation with the Catholic Church until 1832, when the president of Venezuela, General José Antonio Páez, passed an act making it a secular institution. Universidad de Los Andes operates two campuses in Mérida, with about a dozen faculties spread throughout the city, as well as two satellite campuses in the other Venezuelan Andean states of Tachira and Trujillo.
Universidad de Los Andes offers undergraduate programs in the arts, sciences and humanities, long and short programs, as well as courses, post-graduate professional and doctoral programs, diplomas, etc. Admission to ULA is competitive and mediated through the Venezuelan Oficina de Planeacion del Sector Universitario, which oversees grades and standardized tests for all Venezuelan students enrolled in secondary education institutions. ULA lists some of the highest high school academic index requirements in Venezuela. ULA is one of the universities most engaged in research in Venezuela ranking among the top two or three universities in Venezuela across all disciplines. In 2009, ULA was ranked 37th out of the 437 Latin American universities and research institutes evaluated by the Ranking Iberoamericano de Instituciones de Investigacion. Active graduate research groups include: Kinetics & Catalysis, Polymer Chemistry, Behavioral Physiology, Enzimology, Cytology, Toxicology and Molecular Spectroscopy, Astrophysics, Condensed Matter Physics and Theoretical Physics, Magnetism of Solids, Urban Environmental Quality, Entrepreneurial Development, Agricultural Management, Comparative Politics, Environmental Geopolitics, International Politics, Linguistics, Phonetics, Gender Studies, Latin American Arts and Literature, Medieval Studies, etc.
ULA houses numerous varsity athletic teams, including soccer, rhythmic gymnastics, basketball and track and field and performing arts companies such as Ballet Estable de la ULA, Teatro Estable de la ULA, Coral Universitaria and Orfeon Universitario. However, ULA's athletic dominance has declined in the past decade; the Orfeon Universitario Choir has toured Colombia, the Netherlands and Germany. ULA hosts annual ballet seasons, a chamber orchestra season and numerous theater and music festivals open to the community. List of colonial universities in Latin America Official website www.saber.ula.ve ULA TV Núcleo Universitario "Alberto Adriani", El Vigía Núcleo Universitario "Rafael Rangel", Trujillo Núcleo Universitario "Pedro Rincón Gutiérrez", Táchira Galería de fotos de la Universidad de Los Andes Portal wiki de la Universidad de Los Andes Portal del Rectorado Laboratorio de Demostraciones de Física Puerta a la mayoría de enlaces de la ULA Proyecto Alma-Mater Agendas del Consejo Universitario de la Universidad de Los Andes Oficina de Prensa ULA Centro de Atención al Usuario
Venezuela the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, is a country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continental landmass and a large number of small islands and islets in the Caribbean Sea. The capital and largest urban agglomeration is the city of Caracas, it has a territorial extension of 916,445 km2. The continental territory is bordered on the north by the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Colombia, Brazil on the south and Tobago to the north-east and on the east by Guyana. With this last country, the Venezuelan government maintains a claim for Guayana Esequiba over an area of 159,542 km2. For its maritime areas, it exercises sovereignty over 71,295 km2 of territorial waters, 22,224 km2 in its contiguous zone, 471,507 km2 of the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean under the concept of exclusive economic zone, 99,889 km2 of continental shelf; this marine area borders those of 13 states. The country has high biodiversity and is ranked seventh in the world's list of nations with the most number of species.
There are habitats ranging from the Andes Mountains in the west to the Amazon basin rain-forest in the south via extensive llanos plains, the Caribbean coast and the Orinoco River Delta in the east. The territory now known as Venezuela was colonized by Spain in 1522 amid resistance from indigenous peoples. In 1811, it became one of the first Spanish-American territories to declare independence, not securely established until 1821, when Venezuela was a department of the federal republic of Gran Colombia, it gained full independence as a country in 1830. During the 19th century, Venezuela suffered political turmoil and autocracy, remaining dominated by regional caudillos until the mid-20th century. Since 1958, the country has had a series of democratic governments. Economic shocks in the 1980s and 1990s led to several political crises, including the deadly Caracazo riots of 1989, two attempted coups in 1992, the impeachment of President Carlos Andrés Pérez for embezzlement of public funds in 1993.
A collapse in confidence in the existing parties saw the 1998 election of former coup-involved career officer Hugo Chávez and the launch of the Bolivarian Revolution. The revolution began with a 1999 Constituent Assembly, where a new Constitution of Venezuela was written; this new constitution changed the name of the country to Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. The sovereign state is a federal presidential republic consisting of 23 states, the Capital District, federal dependencies. Venezuela claims all Guyanese territory west of the Essequibo River, a 159,500-square-kilometre tract dubbed Guayana Esequiba or the Zona en Reclamación. Venezuela is among the most urbanized countries in Latin America. Oil was discovered in the early 20th century, today, Venezuela has the world's largest known oil reserves and has been one of the world's leading exporters of oil; the country was an underdeveloped exporter of agricultural commodities such as coffee and cocoa, but oil came to dominate exports and government revenues.
The 1980s oil glut led to a long-running economic crisis. Inflation peaked at 100% in 1996 and poverty rates rose to 66% in 1995 as per capita GDP fell to the same level as 1963, down a third from its 1978 peak; the recovery of oil prices in the early 2000s gave. The Venezuelan government under Hugo Chávez established populist social welfare policies that boosted the Venezuelan economy and increased social spending, temporarily reducing economic inequality and poverty in the early years of the regime. However, such populist policies became inadequate, causing the nation's collapse as their excesses—including a uniquely extreme fossil fuel subsidy—are blamed for destabilizing the nation's economy; the destabilized economy led to a crisis in Bolivarian Venezuela, resulting in hyperinflation, an economic depression, shortages of basic goods and drastic increases in unemployment, disease, child mortality and crime. These factors have precipitated the Venezuelan Migrant Crisis where more than three million people have fled the country.
By 2017, Venezuela was declared to be in default regarding debt payments by credit rating agencies. In 2018, the country's economic policies led to extreme hyperinflation, with estimates expecting an inflation rate of 1,370,000% by the end of the year. Venezuela is a charter member of the UN, OAS, UNASUR, ALBA, Mercosur, LAIA and OEI. According to the most popular and accepted version, in 1499, an expedition led by Alonso de Ojeda visited the Venezuelan coast; the stilt houses in the area of Lake Maracaibo reminded the Italian navigator, Amerigo Vespucci, of the city of Venice, Italy, so he named the region Veneziola, or "Little Venice". The Spanish version of Veneziola is Venezuela. Martín Fernández de Enciso, a member of the Vespucci and Ojeda crew, gave a different account. In his work Summa de geografía, he states that the crew found indigenous people who called themselves the Veneciuela. Thus, the name "Venezuela" may have evolved from the native word; the official name was Estado de Venezuela, República de Venezuela, Estados Unidos de Venezuela, a
The Charlotte Observer
The Charlotte Observer is a newspaper serving Charlotte and its metro area. It has the largest circulation in South Carolina, it is owned by The McClatchy Company. The Observer serves Charlotte and Mecklenburg County and the surrounding counties of Iredell, Union, York, Gaston and Lincoln. Home delivery service in outlying counties has declined in recent years, with delivery times growing as the paper has outsourced circulation services outside the primary Charlotte area. Circulation at The Charlotte Observer has been declining for many years; the most recent period showed that Charlotte Observer circulation totaled 155,497 daily and 212,318 Sunday. The newspaper has an online presence and its staff oversees a NASCAR news website, a corresponding syndicated feature, That's Racin'; the paper's television partner is WBTV. The Observer offices include editors and designers that makeup the McClatchy NewsDesk-East, responsible for the production of The Charlotte Observer and McClatchy newspapers from across the region.
From 1927 to 2016, The Charlotte Observer was headquartered at 600 South Tryon Street. The facility included editorial offices, management offices, advertising offices, plus a large printing facility with a tunnel and underground railway system to feed paper to the presses. In 2016, the editorial offices moved to the NASCAR building on South Caldwell Street; the old facility was redeveloped into office space. The paper was founded in 1886, it was purchased by Knight Newspapers in 1955. Knight merged with Ridder Publications to form Knight Ridder in 1974; the Observer became the fourth-largest newspaper in the Knight Ridder chain. In 1959, The Observer purchased Charlotte's afternoon newspaper. All operations were merged except editorial content, fused in 1983; the Observer ended circulation of the afternoon News in 1985. The paper has won five Pulitzer Prizes. McClatchy purchased most of Knight Ridder's newspapers, including The Observer, in 2006; this made The Observer a sister publication of the state's second-largest paper, The News and Observer of Raleigh.
As of spring 2008, it is the fifth-largest newspaper in the McClatchy chain. McClatchy's share value has been in decline since the purchase; the stock has lost over 95% of its value, far worse than many remaining newspaper companies. 1968 -- Editorial cartooning, Eugene Payne 1981 -- Meritorious staff. 1988 -- Editorial cartooning, Doug Marlette 1988 -- Meritorious staff. 2014 – Editorial cartooning, Kevin Siers The Charlotte Observer prices are: daily, $1.25 and Sunday/Thanksgiving Day, $3.00 Price is higher outside Mecklenburg and adjacent counties or states. Jack Betts Richard Oppel List of newspapers in North Carolina Official website Charlotte Five That's Racin' Stepp, Carl Sessions. "Caught in the Contradiction". American Journalism Review. Retrieved 2007-04-18; the Charlotte Observer at McClatchy McClatchy's falling stock price since purchasing The Charlotte Observer
Delcy Eloína Rodríguez Gómez is a Venezuelan politician, Vice President of Venezuela since 14 June 2018. She was Minister of Popular Power for Communication and Information of Venezuela from 2013 to 2014, Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2014 to 2017 and President of the Constitutional Assembly of Venezuela from 4 August 2017 to 14 June 2018, she is the target of multiple international sanctions. Rodríguez is the daughter of Jorge Antonio Rodríguez—who was the founder of the leftist party Socialist League—and Delcy Gómez, she has a brother, Jorge Jesús Rodríguez, who served as Mayor of Caracas, served as Vice President. She held several posts during the course of the Chavez administration: as International Affairs Director in the Ministry of Energy and Mines, in 2003, she was the Minister for Presidential Affairs in 2006. She was Vice Minister for Europe at the Venezuelan Ministry of Foreign Relations, she served as the General Coordinator to the Vice President of Venezuela. According to a profile published in the daily Tal Cual, Rodriguez pursued a concentration in labor law in Paris, taught at UCV and was a member of the Venezuelan Association of Labor Lawyers.
Since 2016, Rodriguez has been an outspoken defender of Venezuelan government domestic actions in the face of calls from Luis Almagro, Secretary General of the Organization of American States, to suspend Venezuelan membership in the organization for violating the OAS Democratic Charter. On 21 June 2017, Rodriguez left her post to run for the Constituent National Assembly. President Maduro accepted her resignation from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, she was succeeded by Samuel Moncada. On 14 June 2018, President Maduro named Rodríguez to be Vice President of Venezuela, she became the head official of the Bolivarian Intelligence Service, Venezuela's intelligence agency, as it is dependent on the office of the vice presidency. On 22 September 2017, Canada sanctioned Rodríguez due to rupture of Venezuela's constitutional order. Shortly after being named Vice President of Venezuela, Rodríguez was one of eleven officials sanctioned by the European Union on 25 June 2018, with her assets frozen and a travel ban issued against her after she "undermined democracy and the rule of law in Venezuela".
Switzerland sanctioned Rodríguez on 10 July 2018, freezing her assets and imposing a travel ban while citing the same reasons of the European Union. The United States sanctioned Rodríguez on 25 September 2018 for her efforts in solidifying President Maduro's power in Venezuela. Rodríguez was in a relationship with Smartmatic co-founder Alfredo José Anzola Jaumotte prior to his death in April 2008. List of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Venezuela List of current foreign ministers List of foreign ministers in 2017 List of female foreign ministers