François-André Vincent was a French neoclassical painter. He studied under Joseph-Marie Vien. François-André Vincent was a pupil of École Royale des Éleves Protégés. From 1771 to 1775 he studied at the Académie de France, he travelled to Rome, where he won the Prix de Rome in 1768, was when he was installed at the Palais Mancini, where he painted numerous portraits, inspired by Jean-Honoré Fragonard's style, wo was visiting Rome and Naples in the same time. And inspired by the Classical antiquity and the Italian renaissance masters like Raphael. In 1790, Vincent was appointed master of drawings to Louis XVI of France, in 1792 he became a professor at the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture in Paris. In 1800, he married the painter Adélaïde Labille-Guiard, he was a leader of the neoclassical and historical movement in French art, along with his rival Jacques-Louis David, another pupil of Vien. He was influenced by the art of classical antiquity, by the masters of the Italian High Renaissance Raphael, among his contemporaries, Jean-Honoré Fragonard.
François-André Vincent was one of the principal innovators of the subjects and themes in French art of Neoclassical style and his works were of a high standard. He was one of the founder members of the Académie des beaux-arts — part of the Institut de France and the successor to the Académie royale — in 1795. Towards the end of his life he painted less due to ill health, but he continued to receive official honours. Adélaïde Labille-Guiard Portrait of Baron Georges Cuvier, Whitfield Fine Art Book about François-André Vincent's life: The Perfect Foil: FranCois-Andre Vincent and the Revolution in French Painting by Elizabeth C. Mansfield More works
Charles-Amédée-Philippe van Loo
Charles-Amédée-Philippe van Loo was a French painter of allegorical scenes and portraits. He studied under his father, the painter Jean-Baptiste van Loo, at Turin and Rome, where in 1738 he won the Prix de Rome at Aix-en-Provence, before returning to Paris in 1745, he was invited to join the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in 1747, that year he married his cousin Marie-Marguerite Lebrun, daughter of the painter Michel Lebrun. He was the author of the only known real-life portrait of the Marquis de Sade. Among his brothers were the painters François van Loo and Louis-Michel van Loo. More on his works
Self-Portrait with Two Pupils
Self-Portrait with Two Pupils, Marie Gabrielle Capet and Marie Marguerite Carreaux de Rosemond is a 1785 self-portrait painting by Adélaïde Labille-Guiard depicting the artist with two of her pupils, Marie Gabrielle Capet and Marie-Marguerite Carreaux de Rosemond. It is in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Labille-Guiard was born in the youngest of eight children, she grew up in a neighbourhood of artists and, on her own initiative, began painting and receiving training from them. She began to take students of her own in 1780, they were all female, she was an advocate for women's involvement in painting. Labille-Guiard spent time planning this painting and there is a chalk study by Labille-Guiard of the two heads of her students where she investigates the closeness of the students heads and the effect of the light; the figure on the left, Marie-Gabrielle Capet, was one of the most talented students and Labille-Guiard's favourite. She lived with the artist after Labille-Guiard married her first teacher's son, the painter François-André Vincent.
The painting shows Labille-Guiard in a gown and straw hat and she depicts the materials complexity and the reflection of the dress in the parquet floor. The arrangement of the students heads shows her skill in presenting the interplay of light between their faces; the students are less formally dressed, in the background are statues of a vestal virgin and a bust of the artist's father. The finished painting is life-size and it has been speculated that the artist and one of the pupils are looking at a mirror. In this case Labille-Guiard is painting the painting the observer sees; the painting remained the property of the family of the artist until 1905. It was donated in 1953 to The Met by Julia Berwind; the work depicts Adélaïde Labille-Guiard, Marie-Gabrielle Capet and Marie-Marguerite Carreaux de Rosemond. It has been argued. Labille-Guiard aspired to become a member, at the time, the Académie Royale limited female new members to four per year. Illustrating two female students argued that more should be accepted into the Académie Royale.
The structure of the painting with the easel at left suggests that she may have based her composition on Antoine Coypel's Portrait of the Artist with his Young Son, Charles Antoine. This was an important painting in establishing the artists reputation, she was given an allowance by the King but because of her students she was not given a studio. This painting is thought to have been the basis for Jean-Laurent Mosnier's painting of himself with his young daughters, it is thought. The painting has been used for book covers and it is a standard image for many histories of art, it is said to be earliest known picture of a woman painter with female pupils. Auricchio, Laura. "Self-Promotion in Adélaïde Labille-Guiard's 1785 "Self-Portrait with Two Students"". The Art Bulletin. 89: 45–62. Doi:10.1080/00043079.2007.10786329. JSTOR 25067300. Archived from the original on 9 August 2017. Auricchio, Laura. Adélaïde Labille-Guiard: Artist in the Age of Revolution. Getty Publications. ISBN 978-0-89236-954-6
National Gallery of Art
The National Gallery of Art, its attached Sculpture Garden, is a national art museum in Washington, D. C. located on the National Mall, between 3rd and 9th Streets, at Constitution Avenue NW. Open to the public and free of charge, the museum was established in 1937 for the American people by a joint resolution of the United States Congress. Andrew W. Mellon donated funds for construction; the core collection includes major works of art donated by Paul Mellon, Ailsa Mellon Bruce, Lessing J. Rosenwald, Samuel Henry Kress, Rush Harrison Kress, Peter Arrell Browne Widener, Joseph E. Widener, Chester Dale; the Gallery's collection of paintings, prints, sculpture and decorative arts traces the development of Western Art from the Middle Ages to the present, including the only painting by Leonardo da Vinci in the Americas and the largest mobile created by Alexander Calder. The Gallery's campus includes the original neoclassical West Building designed by John Russell Pope, linked underground to the modern East Building, designed by I. M. Pei, the 6.1-acre Sculpture Garden.
The Gallery presents temporary special exhibitions spanning the world and the history of art. It is one of the largest museums in North America. Pittsburgh banker Andrew W. Mellon began gathering a private collection of old master paintings and sculptures during World War I. During the late 1920s, Mellon decided to direct his collecting efforts towards the establishment of a new national gallery for the United States. In 1930 for tax reasons, Mellon formed the A. W. Mellon Educational and Charitable Trust, to be the legal owner of works intended for the gallery. In 1930–1931, the Trust made its first major acquisition, 21 paintings from the Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg as part of the Soviet sale of Hermitage paintings, including such masterpieces as Raphael's Alba Madonna, Titian's Venus with a Mirror, Jan van Eyck's Annunciation. In 1929 Mellon had initiated contact with the appointed Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Charles Greeley Abbot. Mellon was appointed in 1931 as a Commissioner of the Institution's National Gallery of Art.
When the director of the Gallery retired, Mellon asked Abbot not to appoint a successor, as he proposed to endow a new building with funds for expansion of the collections. However, Mellon's trial for tax evasion, centering on the Trust and the Hermitage paintings, caused the plan to be modified. In 1935, Mellon announced in The Washington Star, his intention to establish a new gallery for old masters, separate from the Smithsonian; when asked by Abbot, he explained that the project was in the hands of the Trust and that its decisions were dependent on "the attitude of the Government towards the gift". In January 1937, Mellon formally offered to create the new Gallery. On his birthday, 24 March 1937, an Act of Congress accepted the collection and building funds, approved the construction of a museum on the National Mall; the new gallery was to be self-governing, not controlled by the Smithsonian, but took the old name "National Gallery of Art" while the Smithsonian's gallery would be renamed the "National Collection of Fine Arts".
Designed by architect John Russell Pope, the new structure was completed and accepted by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on behalf of the American people on March 17, 1941. Neither Mellon nor Pope lived to see the museum completed. At the time of its inception it was the largest marble structure in the world; the museum stands on the former site of the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad station, where in 1881 a disgruntled office seeker, Charles Guiteau, shot President James Garfield. As anticipated by Mellon, the creation of the National Gallery encouraged the donation of other substantial art collections by a number of private donors. Founding benefactors included such individuals as Paul Mellon, Samuel H. Kress, Rush H. Kress, Ailsa Mellon Bruce, Chester Dale, Joseph Widener, Lessing J. Rosenwald and Edgar William and Bernice Chrysler Garbisch; the Gallery's East Building was constructed in the 1970s on much of the remaining land left over from the original congressional action. Andrew Mellon's children, Paul Mellon and Ailsa Mellon Bruce, funded the building.
Designed by architect I. M. Pei, the contemporary structure was completed in 1978 and was opened on June 1 of that year by President Jimmy Carter; the new building was built to house the Museum's collection of modern paintings, drawings and prints, as well as study and research centers and offices. The design received a National Honor Award from the American Institute of Architects in 1981; the final addition to the complex is the National Gallery of Art Sculpture Garden. Completed and opened to the public on May 23, 1999, the location provides an outdoor setting for exhibiting a number of pieces from the Museum's contemporary sculpture collection; the National Gallery of Art is supported through a private-public partnership. The United States federal government provides funds, through annual appropriations, to support the museum's operations and maintenance. All artwork, as well as special programs, are provided through private funds; the museum is not part of the Smithsonian Institution. Noted directors of the National Gallery have included David E. Finley, Jr. John Walker, J. Carter Brown.
Earl A. "Rusty" Powell III was named director in 1993. In March 2019 he was be succeeded by Kaywin Feldman, past director and president of the Minneapolis In
Lodging refers to the renting of a short-term dwelling. People who travel and stay away from home for more than a day need lodging for sleep, food, shelter from cold temperatures or rain, storage of luggage and access to common household functions. Lodging is a form of the sharing economy. Lodging is done in a hotel, hostel, inn or hostal, a private home, in a tent, caravan/campervan. Lodgings may be self-catering, whereby no food is provided. Lodging is offered by an owner of real property or a leasehold estate, including the hotel industry, hospitality industry, real estate investment trusts, owner-occupancy houses. Lodging can be facilitated by an intermediary such as a travel website. Airbnb is the largest facilitator of lodging. Commercial lodging is affected by regulations in many jurisdictions. Requirements can include acquiring business licenses, payment of transient occupancy tax and complying with building and zoning standards; the hotel industry has lobbied governments to increase regulations on commercial lodging in owner-occupancy houses.
Examples of lodging regulation affecting individual owners include: In New York, hosts cannot rent their property for less than 30 consecutive days unless they are living in the property. In Berlin, lawmakers have banned owners from short term real property rental without first requesting permission from authorities. Hosts can be required to pay a fine of up to €100,000 if they rent more than 50% of their property space. Landlords can still rent individual rooms with the condition. In 2018, to combat the local housing crisis, the government of Tasmania offered AU$10,000-13,000 to landlords to rent out their spaces for longer terms at lower costs instead of listing them as short term lodging. London passed an amendment to its housing legislation in March 2015 allowing short-term lodging rentals of up to three months a year. In May 2018, Madrid announced proposals to reduce the number of lodging rentals in owner-occupied houses to help tackle "over-tourism" in the city; the plan aims to preserve residential home rentals in the central areas of the city, preventing them from becoming accommodations for tourists.
In July 2018, Palma de Mallorca, Spain banned home-sharing sites, such as Airbnb. Arizona prevents municipalities from interfering in private property rights, therefore has minimal restrictions on lodging. Proposed 2017 legislation sought to ban municipalities from introducing zoning laws lacing restrictions on private property owners. In January 2017, West New York, New Jersey, a suburb of New York City, passed the same ban. Portland, Oregon created a new zoning code in 2016 to regulate short-term lodging rentals and it includes several limitations, such as capping the number of bedrooms in a single unit that may be listed. Additionally, Portland pledged in 2015 to dedicate a portion of collected occupancy taxes to affordable housing uses. In 2017, San Francisco passed a law requiring renters of lodging to register with the city before they can rent units. Units cannot be rented for more than 90 days a year. Santa Monica implemented regulations in 2016 that include prohibition of rent-controlled units from being listed as short-term rentals.
In December 2017, the City of Toronto, under John Tory banned homeowners from leasing basement suites with separate entries and other unlicensed residential dwellings for short-term rentals, stating intention to protect the long-term rental market. Government-issued licensing and fees would be required of hosts to continue with short-term rentals; the new restrictions were criticized by some owners who had relied on lodging rental as a source of income. Application of the new rules has been suspended following complaints by four renters to the Ontario Municipal Board; the complaints will be heard by the Local Planning Appeal Tribunal, which will hear the case on August 26, 2019. In November 2017, the Vancouver City Council adopted regulations and restrictions against owner-occupied rentals to protect the long-term rental market, which it stated was just above zero availability; the regulations allow owners to rent only their principal residence and require them to obtain a paid license, with acquisition and maintenance fees, with a number to be displayed when listing any space for rent.
A voluntary transaction fee of 3% was to be implemented per reservation. The opposing Non-Partisan Association criticized the new regulations, as did some owners, claiming they deprived them of personal property income. Councillor George Affleck argued that the city was creating more bureaucracy and taxation, not solving the problem, arguing that it made Vancouver more costly place to live giving the opinion that more long-term rental housing should be built. Travel accommodation travel guide from Wikivoyage The dictionary definition of lodging at Wiktionary
Élisabeth of France (1764–1794)
Élisabeth of France, known as Madame Élisabeth, was a French princess and the youngest sibling of King Louis XVI. She remained beside the king and his family during the French Revolution and was executed at Place de la Révolution in Paris during the Terror, she is regarded by the Roman Catholic Church as a Servant of God. Élisabeth was born on 3 May 1764 in the Palace of Versailles, the youngest child of Louis, Dauphin of France and Marie-Josèphe of Saxony. Her paternal grandparents were King Louis XV of Queen Maria Leszczyńska; as the granddaughter of the king, she was a Petite-Fille de France. At the sudden death of her father in 1765, Élisabeth's oldest surviving brother, Louis Auguste became the new Dauphin, their mother Marie Josèphe-died in March 1767 from tuberculosis. This left Élisabeth an orphan at just two years old, along with her older siblings: Louis Auguste, Louis Stanislas, Count of Provence, Charles Philippe, Count of Artois and Clotilde. Élisabeth and her elder sister Clothilde were raised by Madame de Marsan, Governess to the Children of France.
The sisters were considered dissimilar in personality. While Elisabeth was described as "proud and passionate", Clothilde was in contrast estimated to be "endowed with the most happy disposition, which only needed guiding and developing", they were given the usual education of contemporary royal princesses, focusing upon accomplishments and virtue, an education to which Clothilde willingly subjected herself. They were tutored in botany by M. Lemonnier, in history and geography by M. Leblond, in religion by Abbé de Montigat, Canon of Chartres, they followed the court among the royal palaces, with their days divided between studies, walks in the Park, drives in the forest. Madame de Marsan would take her to visit the students at St. Cyr, where select young ladies were presented to be introduced to the princess. While Clothilde was described as a docile pupil "who made herself loved by all who approached her", Élisabeth long refused to study, saying that "there were always people at hand whose duty it was to think for Princes", treated her staff with impatience.
Madame de Marsan, unable to handle Élisabeth, preferred Clothilde, which made Elisabeth jealous and created a rift between the sisters. Their relationship improved when Élisabeth fell ill and Clothilde insisted upon nursing her, during which time she taught Élisabeth the alphabet and gave her an interest in religion, which prompted a great change in the girl's personality. After this, Elisabeth was given Marie Angélique de Mackau as her tutor, who had "the firmness which bends resistance, the affectionate kindness which inspires attachment", under whose tuition Elisabeth made progress in her education, as well as developing a softer personality, with her strong will directed toward religious principles. In 1770, her eldest brother, the Dauphin, married Marie Antoinette of Austria. Marie Antoinette found Élisabeth delightful, demonstrated too that she preferred her to her sister Clothilde, which caused some offence at court. On 10 May 1774, her grandfather Louis XV died, her elder brother Louis Auguste ascended the throne as Louis XVI.
In August 1775, her sister Clothilde left France for her marriage to the crown prince of Sardinia. The farewell between the sisters was described as intense, with Élisabeth hardly able to tear herself from Clothilde's arms. Queen Marie Antoinette commented: "My sister Elisabeth is a charming child, who has intelligence and much grace; the poor little girl was in despair, as her health is delicate, she was taken ill and had a severe nervous attack. I own to my dear mamma that I fear I am getting too attached to her, from the example of my aunts, how essential it is for her happiness not to remain an old maid in this country." "She shows on the occasion of her sister's departure and in several other circumstances a charming good sense and sensibility. When one has such right feeling at eleven years of age, it is delightful.... The poor little dear will leave us in two years' time. I am sorry she should go as far as Portugal, but it will be happier for her to go so young as she will feel the difference between the two countries less.
May God grant that her sensibility does not render her unhappy." On 17 May 1778, after the visit of the court to Marly, Madame Élisabeth formally left the children's chamber and became an adult when she, upon the wish of the king her brother, was turned over to the king by her governess and given her own household, with Diane de Polignac as maid of honour and the Bonne Marie Félicité de Sérent as lady-in-waiting. The ceremony was described: "Mme Elizabeth accompanied by the Princesse de Guéménée, the under governesses, the ladies in attendance, went to the King's apartments, there Mme de Guéménée formally handed over her charge to His Majesty, who sent for Mme la Comtesse Diane de Polignac, maid of honour to the Princess and Mme la Marquise de Sereat, her lady-in-waiting, into whose care he gave Mme Elizabeth." Several attempts were made to arrange a marriage for her. The first suggested partner was Prince of Brazil, she made no objections to the match, but was relieved when the negotiations were discontinued.
Next, she was offered a proposal by the Duke of Aosta, brother of the crown prince of Savoy and brother-in-law of her sister Clothilde. The court of
Adrienne de La Fayette
Marie Adrienne Françoise de Noailles, Marquise de La Fayette, was a French marchioness. She was the daughter of Jean de Noailles and Henriette Anne Louise d'Aguesseau, married Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette, they had four children: Henriette, Anastasie Louise Pauline du Motier, Georges Washington Louis Gilbert du Motier, Marie Antoinette Virginie du Motier She was a great-granddaughter of Françoise Charlotte d'Aubigné, niece of Madame de Maintenon. Adrienne was born and bred in the Hôtel de Noailles, the family residence in Paris, where was celebrated, on 11 April 1774, her arranged marriage with Gilbert du Motier, marquis de Lafayette; the orphan Lafayette had inherited large estates. Her mother, concerned with their youth, kept them apart for a year while she managed their courtship. In 1776, the young couple had Henriette. Lafayette went to visit Emmanuel Marie Louis de Noailles, Ambassador to England. During a ball at Lord George Germain's, he met Lord Rawdon, met Sir Henry Clinton at the Opera, met Lord Shelburne for breakfast.
He left to return to France, America. Adrienne was pregnant with Anastasie; the duc de Noailles got Lafayette orders to report to Italy. But, Lafayette left for Spain and America on 26 April 1777. In a letter to Adrienne, Lafayette wrote: 7 June You will admit, dear heart, that the occupation and the life I am to have are different from those which were in store for me in the futile journey to Italy. Defender of that liberty that I idolize, coming myself freer than anyone else to offer the services of a friend to that interesting republic, I bear with me only my sincerity and my good will. In laboring for my own glory, I labor for the prosperous issue of their efforts. I hope on my account you will become a good American, it is a sentiment suited to virtuous hearts. The welfare of America is bound to the welfare of all humanity, she is to become the honored and safe asylum of liberty! Adieu! Darkness does not suffer me to continue longer, but if my fingers were to follow my heart, I should need no daylight to tell you how I suffer far away from you, how I love you.
Adrienne was to have four children in total, amongst whom Georges Washington de La Fayette was eldest son. The eldest child, Henriette died aged 22 months. In 1778, Adrienne is reported to have met Voltaire at the home of the duc de Choiseul: I wish, to make my obeisance to the wife of the hero of the New World. May I live long enough to salute in him the liberator of the Old. From July 1779 to March 1780, Lafayette returned to France to present a plan for French support of the Americans. An army was dispatched under the comte de Rochambeau. Lafayette drew 120,000 livres, gave Adrienne power of attorney. On 6 March 1780, Lafayette left for America. After the victory at the Siege of Yorktown, Lafayette returned to France. On 22 January 1782, he was received at Versailles. In 1783, Lafayette bought a townhouse, for 200,000 livres, he and Adrienne were active in their salon, at the Hôtel de La Fayette, the headquarters of Americans in Paris, such as Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Abigail Adams, Mr. and Mrs. John Jay who met every Monday, dined in company with family, the liberal nobility, such as Clermont-Tonnerre, Madame de Staël, Marmontel.
Adrienne took a dislike to the pessimistic Gouverneur Morris, calling him an'aristocrat'. Lafayette joined the French abolitionist group Society of the Friends of the Blacks, which advocated the end of the slave trade and equal rights for free Blacks. In 1783, in correspondence with Washington, he urged the emancipation of slaves. Although Washington demurred, Lafayette purchased land in the French colony of Cayenne to "experiment" with education, emancipation, at his plantation La Belle Gabrielle. On 15 July 1789, he was acclaimed commander-in-chief of the National Guard, his moderate views were rejected by the Royalists, he became marginalized, with the rise of the Girondists, Jacobin radicals, the increasing polarisation of politics. Adrienne went with Lafayette in October 1791, after he lost the mayoral election. After war was declared on Austria on 20 April 1792, Lafayette left for command of the army at Metz. After returning to Paris to defend the King, he was accused of treason, sought to escape to the Dutch Republic, but was arrested on 19 August by the Prussians at Rochefort and imprisoned at Wesel, Magdeburg, Prussia.
He was transferred to the Austrians, held at Olmutz. An escape attempt was unsuccessful. On 10 September 1792, she was held under house arrest at Chavaniac. On 12 September 1792, she wrote M. Jacques Pierre Brissot: Monsieur: I believe you to be sincerely fanatic for liberty, it is a compliment I pay to few people at this moment. I shall not examine whether that fanaticism, like religious fanaticism, does not defeat its own object, but I cannot persuade myself that one who has done so much for the emancipation of the negroes can be an agent of tyranny. I believe that if you are impassioned by the ends which your party seeks, at least you will abhor the means it employs. I am sure that you esteem, I might say that you respect, M. de Lafayette as a sincere and courageous friend of liberty when you persecute him because his opinions are different from your own as to the means of establishing freedom in France, supported by courage like his and by faithful adherence