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Ad gentes

Ad gentes is the Second Vatican Council's decree on missionary activity. The title is Latin for "To the Nations," and is from the first line of the decree, as is customary with Roman Catholic documents, it establishes evangelization as one of the fundamental missions of the Catholic Church and reaffirms the tie between evangelization and charity for the poor. Ad Gentes calls for the formation of strong Christian communities as well as strong relations with other Christians, it lays out guidelines for the training and actions of the missionaries. Passed by assembled bishops by a vote of 2,394 to 5, it was promulgated by Pope Paul VI on 7 December 1965. Ad gentes focused on the factors involved in mission work, it called for the continued development of missionary acculturation. It encourages missionaries to live with the people they are attempting to convert, to absorb their ways and culture, it encourages the coordination of mission work through agencies and the cooperation with other groups and organizations within the Catholic Church and other denominations.

The numbers given correspond to the section numbers within the text. "Divinely sent to the nations of the world to be unto them “a universal sacrament of salvation,” the Church, driven by the inner necessity of her own catholicity, obeying the mandate of her Founder, strives to proclaim the Gospel to all men. The Apostles themselves, on whom the Church was founded, following in the footsteps of Christ, “preached the word of truth and begot churches.” It is the duty of their successors to make this task endure “so that the word of God may run and be glorified and the kingdom of God be proclaimed and established throughout the world." "The pilgrim Church is missionary by her nature, since it is from the mission of the Son and the mission of the Holy Spirit that she draws her origin, in accordance with the decree of God the Father." "The chief means of the planting referred to is the preaching of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. To preach this Gospel the Lord sent forth His disciples into the whole world, that being reborn by the word of God, men might be joined to the Church through baptism—that Church which, as the body of the Word Incarnate, is nourished and lives by the word of God and by the eucharistic bread" "And so the time for missionary activity extends between the first coming of the Lord and the second, in which latter the Church will be gathered from the four winds like a harvest into the kingdom of God.

For the Gospel must be preached to all nations before the Lord shall come." "The Church, sent by Christ to reveal and to communicate the love of God to all men and nations, is aware that there still remains a gigantic missionary task for her to accomplish." The Holy Spirit gathers the people of God to be "a chose race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a purchased people" ). Christian community is a sign of God's presence in the world. Nourished by the Word of God and the Eucharist, Christian community bears witness to Christ, walks in charity and is fervent with apostolic spirit. Christian community exists in the context of family and diocese as well as in the religious life. "The church has not been founded, is not yet alive, nor is it a perfect sign of Christ among men, unless there is a laity worthy of the name working along with the hierarchy." The church is not first the clergy. Believers share a oneness and a baptismal equality that precedes the distinctions among different roles in the community.

This chapter's asserts that every member of the Body of Christ has an obligation to help the body grow. Bishops, priests and laity all play a role. Since the time of the Council, there have been concerns of the part of Church authorities that the missional spirit of the Church has been fading away because of the acceptance of anonymous Christianity, a teaching of Karl Rahner that all human beings have an implicit knowledge of Jesus Christ; as a result, several Church documents have been written in order to encourage more evangelism. Evangelii nuntiandi is an apostolic exhortation issued on 8 December 1975 by Pope Paul VI following the work of the synod on the theme, it deals with evangelism, affirms the role of every Christian in spreading the Catholic religion. Redemptoris Missio, subtitled "On the permanent validity of the Church's missionary mandate", is a papal encyclical by Pope John Paul II published on 7 December 1990, devoted to the subject of "the urgency of missionary activity" and in which he wished "to invite the Church to renew her missionary commitment.

In 2007, the Holy See reaffirmed the duty of Catholics to evangelize members of other religions, this was interpreted as a clarification of Lumen gentium, against the statements of liberals and others claiming that Christian proselytism had become and politically outmoded. In 2013, Pope Francis published Evangelii gaudium as an apostolic exhortation and challenged the faithful to live in accordance with "missionary impulse"; the legacy of Lumen Gentium, Ad Gentes and documents has been the Church initiative for New Evangelization in the Third Millennium. Catholic charities Evangelii gaudium Lumen gentium Redemptoris missio Ad gentes: English translation at the Vatican website Teaching the Spirit of Mission Ad Gentes: Continuing Pentecost Today: A Statement of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, 2005

Annika Bruna

Annika Bruna is a French politician. She was elected as a National Rally Member of the European Parliament in the 2019 European parliamentary election. Annika Bruna was born on 26 November 1956 in France. Bruna was elected to the regional council of Île-de-France from 1998 to 2010, she is a former parliamentary assistant of the former president of the National Front Jean-Marie Le Pen. Bruna stood as a candidate for National Rally in the 2019 European parliamentary election, she was eighteenth on her party's list, elected as one of its 22 MEPs in France. She is part of the Democracy group. In the European Parliament, Bruna is a member of the Committee on Women's Rights and Gender Equality, is part of the delegation for relations with Belarus

1891 in Belgium

Events in the year 1891 in Belgium. Monarch: Leopold II Prime Minister: Auguste Marie François Beernaert 29 January – Funeral of Prince Baudouin of Belgium. 2-20 May – Miners' strike in Liège, spreading to other parts of Wallonia. 10 May – Dock strikes in Antwerp and Ghent in support of coalminers in Wallonia. 16-22 August – International Socialist Labor Congress of Brussels 31 August – Brussels Conference Act of 1890 enters into force. 30 September – French politician Georges Ernest Boulanger commits suicide at the tomb of his mistress in Ixelles Cemetery. 27 November – New law against tramps and beggars PeriodicalsGazet van Antwerpen begins publication Het Volk begins publication Annales de la Société d'archéologie de Bruxelles, vol. 5. La Jeune Belgique, vol. 10. LiteratureJules Destrée, L'oeuvre lithographique de Odilon Redon Maurice Maeterlinck, Les Sept Princesses Stephane Mallarmé, Pages John of Ruusbroec, L'Ornement des noces spirituelles, translated by Maurice Maeterlinck Émile Verhaeren, Les flambeaux noirs L'Essor disbands Fernand Khnopff, I lock my door upon myself James Ensor, The Man of Sorrows 19 January – Joseph De Craecker, fencer 29 January – Henri Van Lerberghe, cyclist 18 February – Henry George, cyclist 25 March – Filip De Pillecyn, writer 3 May – Henri Rolin, politician 20 June – Jeanne Hebbelynck, artist 24 June – René Pinchart, gymnast 10 August – Andries Mac Leod, mathematician 7 September – Georges Cuisenaire, educator 12 September – Jean-François Martial, actor 23 November – Pierre Ryckmans, governor of Belgian Congo 9 December Léon Bekaert and politician John Langenus, football referee 29 December – Alphonse Van Mele, gymnast 4 January – Pierre de Decker, politician 23 January – Prince Baudouin of Belgium 4 March – Camille Coquilhat, colonial officer 20 May – Paul Émile de Puydt, writer 31 July – Jean-Baptiste Capronnier, glass painter 2 December – Caroline Boussart, feminist 13 December – Jean Stas, analytical chemist 20 December – Victor Jacobs, politician

Jan-Philip Glania

Jan-Philip Glania is a German swimmer who specialises in the backstroke. At the 2012 Summer Olympics he finished 12th overall in the heats in the Men's 100 metre backstroke and 6th in the semi final, but failed to reach the final, he reached the semi-finals in the 200 m backstroke. At the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, he competed in the 100 m backstroke, he did not qualify for the final. He competed in the 200 m backstroke where he finished 9th in the semifinals and did not qualify for the final. Glania was a member of the 4 x 100 medley relay team. Jan-Philip Glania at the International Olympic Committee Jan-Philip Glania at the Olympic Channel Jan-Philip Glania at the Deutscher Olympischer Sportbund

Corvara, South Tyrol

Corvara in Badia is a comune in South Tyrol in northern Italy, located about 40 kilometres east of Bolzano. As of 30 November 2010, it had an area of 42.2 square kilometres. Corvara in Badia borders the following municipalities: Badia, Livinallongo del Col di Lana, San Martin de Tor, Sëlva. Corvara in Badia is the main center of Alta Badia, a prestigious tourist area located at the top end of the Val Badia, surrounded by the peaks of the Dolomites mountains; because of its geographic position in the heart of the Dolomites, Alta Badia transformed itself into an avantgarde tourist area keeping intact its alpine character. The municipality of Corvara in Badia contains the frazioni Pescosta; the emblem represents three vert mountains, dominated by three gules peaks with the inclined top on an argent background. The three peaks represent the Sassongher mountain overlooking the village; the emblem was granted in 1969. According to the 2011 census, 89.70% of the population speak Ladin, 6.84% Italian and 3.46% German as first language.

The finish of the annual single-day seven mountain passes crossing Maratona dles Dolomites bicycle race is in Corvara. Alta Badia Dolomites Alta Badia Touristic Information Media related to Corvara, South Tyrol at Wikimedia Commons

Chewing Gum (song)

"Chewing Gum" is a song by Norwegian singer Annie from her debut studio album, Anniemal. Written by Richard X and Hannah Robinson, the song is based on metaphor which likens men to chewing gum; the song was released as the album's lead single on 30 August 2004. It received positive reviews from music critics. "Chewing Gum" was the album's most commercially successful single, reaching number eight on the Norwegian Singles Chart and number 25 on the UK Singles Chart. The song has been featured on the online game Audition Online and an update trailer for the online game Blockland as well as in television programmes such as Glee and Grey's Anatomy; the song was featured in the film Big Momma's House 2. Producer Richard X was impressed with Annie's debut single "The Greatest Hit", he asked Annie to record vocals for his debut album Richard X Presents His X-Factor Vol. 1. In exchange, he contributed "Chewing Gum", co-written with Hannah Robinson, to Anniemal. Richard X's songwriting was inspired by a put-down that his girlfriend devised to describe self-important, vain people.

The song's lyrics compare being in a relationship with chewing gum, "chewing for fun" and moving on to the next relationship "when all the flavor has gone." Annie compared the song's sound to the work of new wave group the Tom Tom Club. Reviewers compared "Chewing Gum" to the group's 1981 single "Genius of Love". "Chewing Gum" received positive reviews from music critics. Pitchfork ranked the track at number 11 on its list of the "Top 50 Singles of 2004". Stylus Magazine listed it tenth on its list of the top 40 singles of 2004; the song was listed 31st on the 2004 Pazz & Jop list, a survey of several hundred music critics conducted by Robert Christgau. The music video for "Chewing Gum" was directed by Barnaby Roper. In it, two versions of Annie sing the lyrics to each other as part of a dialogue; the video includes body doubles of her dancing in a sound stage. The video was filmed in less than a day. UK CD 1 "Chewing Gum" – 3:30 "Kiss Me"UK CD 2 "Chewing Gum" – 3:30 "Chewing Gum" – 5:54 "Chewing Gum" - 6:29 "Chewing Gum" – 6:31 "Chewing Gum" 12" single "Chewing Gum" "Chewing Gum" "Chewing Gum" Annie – lead vocals Big Active – art direction Henrik Bülow – photography Pete Hofmann – engineering, mixing Hannah Robinson – backing vocals Richard X – production Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics