Ad hoc

Ad hoc is a Latin phrase meaning "to this". In English, it signifies a solution designed for a specific problem or task, non-generalizable, not intended to be able to be adapted to other purposes. Common examples are ad hoc committees, commissions created at the national or international level for a specific task. In other fields, the term could refer, for example, to a military unit created under special circumstances, a tailor-made suit, a handcrafted network protocol, a temporary banding together of geographically-linked franchise locations to issue advertising coupons, or a purpose-specific equation. Ad hoc can be an adjective describing the temporary, provisional, or improvised methods to deal with a particular problem, the tendency of which has given rise to the noun Adhocism, it could mean shifting contexts to create new meanings or inadequate planning. Style guides disagree on; the trend is to not use italics. For example, The Chicago Manual of Style recommends that familiar Latin phrases that are listed in the Webster's Dictionary, including "ad hoc", not be italicized.

In science and philosophy, ad hoc means the addition of extraneous hypotheses to a theory to save it from being falsified. Ad hoc hypotheses compensate for anomalies not anticipated by the theory in its unmodified form. Scientists are skeptical of scientific theories that rely on frequent, unsupported adjustments to sustain them. Ad hoc hypotheses are characteristic of pseudo-scientific subjects such as homeopathy. In the military, ad hoc units are created during unpredictable situations, when the cooperation between different units is needed for fast action, or from remnants of previous units which have been overrun or otherwise whittled down; the term “ad hoc networking” refers to a system of network elements that combine to form a network requiring little or no planning. Ad hoc testing Ad infinitum Ad libitum Democracy House rule Russell's teapot Inductive reasoning Confirmation bias Cherry picking Howard, R. Smart Mobs: the Next Social Revolution, Perseus The dictionary definition of ad hoc at Wiktionary this can either be temporary or pentameter solutions to the aforementioned


CoCalc is a web-based cloud computing and course management platform for computational mathematics. Part of the Sage project, it supports editing of Sage worksheets, LaTeX documents and Jupyter notebooks. CoCalc runs an Ubuntu Linux environment that can be interacted with through a terminal, additionally giving access to most of the capabilities of Linux. CoCalc offers both free and paid accounts. Subscriptions starting at $14/month provide internet access and more storage and computing resources. One subscription can be used to increase quotas for one project used by multiple accounts. There are subscription plans for courses. Over 200 courses have used CoCalc. CoCalc directly supports Sage worksheets; the worksheets support Markdown and HTML for decoration, R, Cython and others for programming in addition to Sage. CoCalc supports Jupyter notebooks, which are enhanced with real-time synchronization for collaboration and a history recording function. Additionally, there is a full LaTeX editor, with collaboration support, a preview of the resulting document and support for SageTeX.

With its online Linux terminal, CoCalc indirectly supports editing and running many other languages, including Java, C/C++, Perl and other popular languages that can be run on Linux. Other packages can be installed on request. Users can have multiple projects on CoCalc, each project has separate disk space and may be on an different server. Many users can collaborate on a single project, documents are synced so multiple users can edit the same file at once, similar to Google Docs. All the data on projects is automatically backed up about every five minutes with bup, snapshots of previous versions are accessible. Through the terminal, files can be tracked using revision control systems like Git. CoCalc is open; the creator and lead developer of CoCalc is William Stein, a professor of mathematics at the University of Washington who created the Sage software system. Initial development was funded by the University of Washington and grants from the National Science Foundation and Google. Now CoCalc is funded by paying users.

It is intended as a replacement for sagenb, which let users edit and share Sage worksheets online. SageMath CoCalc homepage CoCalc documentation CoCalc FAQ Google Chrome extension Source code used for running CoCalc

Stotesbury, West Virginia

Stotesbury is an unincorporated community and former coal town in Raleigh County in the U. S. state of West Virginia that flourished during the 1930s. The community was named for Edward T. Stotesbury the president of Beaver Coal Company. Stotesbury was the home of the late eight-term U. S. Senator Robert C. Byrd. There are only a handful of houses left from the once bustling town; the Stotesbury mining camp is located in the Winding Gulf Coalfield. It was operated by the E. E. White Coal Co. and named for Edward T. Stotesbury, president of Beaver Coal Co. at the time. Mining was in the Beckley seam. In the late 1930s, the Koppers Coal Company took over coal mining operations in Stotesbury, which ended in 1958. In the mid-1960s, Eastern Associated Coal rebuilt the mine and operated in Stotesbury until the mid-1980s. White Mountain LLC rebuilt the mine in 2001, but closed it down one year in 2002. Stotesbury's St. John's Baptist Church has fallen into total ruin and as of 2013, only the foundation stones remain.

St. John's Baptist Church was listed as an "Endangered Building" by the National Trust for Historic Preservation; the owners of the Stotesbury Coal Camp are still affiliated with Beaver Coal Company in 2006. The Stotesbury Community church is still active The town itself does still have original residential housing