Barvas is a settlement and civil parish on the Isle of Lewis in Scotland. Rev Allan MacArthur was minister of the Free Church in Barvas 1857 to 1887, it developed around a road junction. The A857 and A858 meet at the southern end of Barvas. North is the road to Ness. According to the 2011 Census it still has the highest concentration of Scottish Gaelic speakers in Scotland with 2,037. In the early 2000s, controversy hit the area as one of Europe's largest windfarms was planned for Barvas Moor; the Scottish Government rejected the proposals in early 2008. Panorama of Barvas Bay Canmore - Lewis, Barvas site record Canmore - Lewis, Cladh Mhuire site record Canmore - Barvas, Prehistoric House site record Canmore - Barvas, Prehistoric Cairn site record
Isle of Lewis
Lewis is the northern part of Lewis and Harris, the largest island of the Western Isles or Outer Hebrides archipelago in Scotland. It is known as the Isle of Lewis, as the two parts are referred to as if they were separate islands; the total area of Lewis is 683 square miles. Lewis is, in general, the lower-lying part of the island: the other part, Harris, is more mountainous. Due to its flatter, more fertile land, Lewis contains three-quarters of the population of the Western Isles, the largest settlement, Stornoway; the island's diverse habitats are home to an assortment of flora and fauna, such as the golden eagle, red deer and seal, are recognised in a number of conservation areas. Lewis has a rich history, it was once part of the Norse Kingdom of Mann and the Isles. Today, life is different from elsewhere in Scotland, with Sabbath observance, the Scottish Gaelic language and peat cutting retaining more importance than elsewhere. Lewis has a rich cultural heritage as can be seen from its myths and legends as well as the local literary and musical traditions.
The Scottish Gaelic name Leòdhas may be derived from Norse Ljoðahús, although other origins have been suggested – most notably the Scottish Gaelic leogach. It is the place referred to as Limnu by Ptolemy, which means "marshy", it is known as the "Isle of Lewis". Another name used in a cultural or poetic context is Eilean an Fhraoich. Although this refers to the whole of the island of Lewis and Harris; the earliest evidence of human habitation on Lewis is found in peat samples which indicate that about 8,000 years ago much of the native woodland was torched to make way for grassland to allow deer to graze. The earliest archaeological remains date from about 5,000 years ago. At that time, people began to settle in permanent farms rather than following their herds; the small houses of these people have been found throughout the Western Isles. The more striking great monuments of this period are the temples and communal burial cairns at places like Calanais. About 500 BC, island society moved into the Iron Age.
The buildings became larger and more prominent, culminating in the brochs – circular, dry-stone towers belonging to the local chieftains – testifying to the uncertain nature of life then. The best remaining example of a broch in Lewis is at Dùn Chàrlabhaigh; the Scots arrived during the first centuries AD. As Christianity began to spread through the islands in the 6th and centuries, following Columban missionaries, Lewis was inhabited by the Picts. In the 9th century AD, the Vikings began to settle on Lewis, after years of raiding from the sea; the Norse invaders abandoned their pagan beliefs. At that time, rectangular buildings began to supersede round ones, following the Scandinavian style. Lewis became part of an offshoot of Norway; the Lewis chessmen, found on the island in 1831, date from the time of Viking rule. The people were called the Norse Gaels or Gall-Ghàidheil, reflecting their mixed Scandinavian/Gaelic background, their bilingual speech; the Norse language persists in many island placenames and some personal names to this day, although the latter are evenly spread across the Gàidhealtachd.
Lewis became part of Scotland once more in 1266: under the Treaty of Perth it was ceded by the Kingdom of Norway. Under Scottish rule, the Lordship of the Isles emerged as the most important power in north-western Scotland by the 14th century; the Lords of the Isles controlled all of the Hebrides. They were descended from Somerled Mac Gillibride, a Gall-Ghàidheil lord who had held the Hebrides and West Coast two hundred years earlier. Control of Lewis itself was exercised by the Macleod clan, but after years of feuding and open warfare between and within local clans, the lands of Clan MacLeod were forfeited to the Scottish Crown in 1597 and were awarded by King James VI to a group of Lowland colonists known as the Fife adventurers in an attempt to anglicise the islands; however the adventurers were unsuccessful, possession passed to the Mackenzies of Kintail in 1609, when Coinneach, Lord MacKenzie, bought out the lowlanders. Following the 1745 rebellion, Prince Charles Edward Stewart's flight to France, the use of Scottish Gaelic was discouraged, rents were demanded in cash rather than kind, the wearing of folk dress was made illegal.
Emigration to the New World became an escape for those who could afford it during the latter half of the century. In 1844 Lewis was bought by Sir James Matheson, co-founder of Jardine Matheson, but subsequent famine and changing land use forced vast numbers off their lands, increased again the flood of emigrants. Paradoxically, those who remained became more congested and impoverished, as large tracts of arable land were set aside for sheep, deer-stalking or grouse shooting. Agitation for land resettlement became acute on Lewis during the economic slump of the 1880s, with several land raids. During the First World War, thousands of islanders served in the forces, many losing their lives, including 208 naval reservists from the island who were returning home after the war when the Admiralty yacht HMY Iolaire sank within sight of Stornoway harbour. Many servicemen from Lewis served in the Royal Navy and the Merchant Navy during the Second World War, again ma
Great Bernera known just as Bernera, is an island and community in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland. With an area of just over 21 km2, it is the thirty-fourth largest Scottish island. Great Bernera lies in Loch Roag on the north-west coast of Lewis and is linked to it by a road bridge. Built in 1953, the bridge was the first pre-stressed concrete bridge in Europe; the main settlement on the island is Breaclete. The island, under the name of "Borva", was the setting for A Princess of Thule by the Scottish novelist William Black; the novel is notable for its descriptions of the local scenery. The island's name is Norse in origin and is derived in honour of Bjarnar, father of the Norse Chieftain of Lewis Ketil Bjarnarson; the vast majority of placenames in the district are Norse, implying extensive Viking settlement. The most common name on Great Bernera is MacDonald, these are said to be descended from a watchman of the Macaulays of Uig, who gave him the island in return for his services. Since 1962, the island has been owned by Robin de la Lanne-Mirrlees, a former Queen's Herald, recognised as Laird of Bernera.
He inherited the title Prince of Coronata and died in 2012. His home Bernera Lodge was at Kirkibost. In the south east of the island is the first planned crofting township in the Outer Hebrides, it was created in 1805 by the regular allotting of individual crofts by the Earl of Seaforth's land surveyor, James Chapman. The tenants of this planned village were all evicted in 1823 and the publication of the first edition of the Ordnance Survey rather poignantly showed the deserted village and the original parallel croft boundaries; the village was re-settled in 1878 and the original boundaries are still in use today. Callanish VIII is a unique standing stone arrangement near the bridge between Lewis and Bernera, set out in a semicircle, it is known locally as Tursachan, which means "Standing Stones". The ruins of Dun Barraglom broch are nearby. Bernera is known for its Iron Age settlement at Bostadh, discovered in 1992 and now covered by sand so that it is preserved. A replica Iron Age house matching those now buried is sited nearby.
Bostadh Beach is the location of a Time and Tide Bell, one of a series of installations by Marcus Vergette. The island was the location of the Bernera Riot of 1874, when crofters resisted the Highland clearances; this was a peasant revolt and subsequent legal case which resulted in a victory for oppressed small-tenants against the heavy-handed evictions and treatment by Donald Munro, the factor of Sir James Matheson. The islanders refused to agree to an ever-increasing diminishing grazings allowance in favour of expanding sporting estates, were in turn threatened with a military visit; this did not occur, but more eviction notices were handed out, the visitors were pelted with clods of earth. The legal case was the first recorded victory for small-tenants at will and the evidence, heard at the eleven-hour trial paved the way for land reform in Scotland; the island is 8 kilometres long by 3 kilometres wide, the length being oriented from north west to south east. The coast is much indented and there are numerous fresh water bodies such as Loch Barabhat, Loch Breacleit and Loch Niocsabhat.
The highest point is the eminence of Sealabhal Bhiorach south of Bostadh and north of Tobson that reaches 87 metres. There are deposits of tremolite asbestos. An example of a rock of tremolite on muscovite from Great Bernera is shown in the photograph to the right; the western side of the island is included in the South Lewis and North Uist National Scenic Area. There are many islands in Loch Roag. To the west, from north to south are Pabaigh Mòr, Fuaigh Mòr, Fuaigh Beag. To the north, the island of Bearnaraigh Beag, a number of islets. To the east, there are not so many islands. Sea life is rich where there is tidal run between the Caolas Bhalasaigh and the inner sea-loch of Tòb Bhalasaigh. There are numerous molluscs, sponges and sea stars, the latter growing noticeably larger in size than normal. Cup coral, snakelocks anemone and dead man's fingers coral, may be found here. Common fish include shanny and butterfish and Atlantic and common seals are regular off-shore visitors. Great Bernera hosts numerous seabird species, including gulls and ducks such as goldeneye.
More unusually, a jack snipe was observed on the island in 2007. Great Bernera's population is dependent on lobster fishing and tourism. There is a Primary school located in Breacleit. Fertile machair pasture permits sheep and cattle grazing. A processing plant was built at Kirkibost in 1972. There are still some weavers but this is no longer one of the main industries. Breacleit is home to a small museum, mini-mart & off licence, school, a post office, community centre with café, petrol station, fire station and doctor's surgery. Communications were much improved during the 20th century; the first telephone was installed on Lewis in 1897 and outlying villages were connected. Great Bernera was the last exchange to link to Lewis with an earth return; the bridge to the island from Lewis was built in 1953. It is said to be the first one of pre-stressed concrete in Europe, it was constructed after the islanders threatened to dynamite the hillside to create a causeway of their own making.. The bridge is sometimes referred to
Scottish Ambulance Service
The Scottish Ambulance Service is the NHS Ambulance Services Trust, part of NHS Scotland, which serves all of Scotland's population. Uniquely, the Scottish Ambulance Service is considered a special health board and is funded directly by the Health and Social Care Directorates of the Scottish Government, it is the sole public emergency medical service covering Scotland's mainland and islands. In 1948, the newly formed National Health Service contracted two voluntary organisations, the St Andrew's Ambulance Association and the British Red Cross, to jointly provide a national ambulance provision for Scotland, known as the St Andrew's and Red Cross Scottish Ambulance Service; the British Red Cross withdrew from the service in 1967. In 1974, with the reorganisation of the National Health Service, ambulance provision in Scotland was taken over by the NHS, with the organisational title being shortened to the now-current Scottish Ambulance Service. St. Andrew's First Aid, the trading name of St. Andrew's Ambulance Association, continues as a voluntary organisation and provides first aid training and provision in a private capacity.
The Scottish Ambulance Service now continues in its current form as one of the largest emergency medical providers in the UK, employing more than 4,000 staff in a variety of roles and responding to 740,631 emergency incidents in 2015/2016 alone. The service, like the rest of the National Health Service is free at point of access and is utilised by the public and healthcare professionals alike. Employing 1,300 paramedic staff, a further 1,200 technicians, the accident and emergency service is accessed through the public 999 system. Ambulance responses are now prioritised on patient requirement; the Scottish Ambulance Service maintains three command and control centres in Scotland, which facilitate handling of 999 calls and dispatch of ambulances. These three centres have handle over 800,000 calls per year; the AMPDS system is used for call prioritisation, provides post-dispatch instructions to callers allowing for medical advice to be given over the phone, prior to ambulance arrival. Clinical staff are present to provide tertiary triage.
Co-located with the Ambulance Control Centres are patient transport booking and control services, which handle 1 million patient journeys per year. The Scottish Ambulance Service maintains a varied fleet of around 1,500 vehicles; this includes Accident and Emergency ambulances single-response vehicles such as cars and small vans for paramedics, patient-transport ambulances which come in the form of adapted minibuses and support vehicles for major incidents and events, specialist vehicles such as 4x4s and tracked vehicles for difficult access. The unique geography of Scotland, which includes urban centres such as Edinburgh and Glasgow, areas of low-population such as Grampian and the Highlands, the Island communities mean that fleet provision has to be flexible and include different approaches to vehicle construction. In the past, 4x4-build ambulances on van chassis have been used in more rural areas, traditional van-conversions in more urban. With a large fleet upgrade project being commissioned in 2016, the business case was made to move to a box-body on chassis build, to provide some flexibility and more resilient parts procurement.
Most of these replacement ambulances have been based on either Mercedes or Volkswagen chassis, with a mixture of automatic or manual transmissions. The equipment used on board Scottish Ambulance Service vehicles broadly falls in line with NHS Scotland and allows for intraoperability in most cases. Equipment is replaced at regular service intervals; the uniform falls in line with the NHS Scotland National Uniform standard, in keeping with the uniform standard described by the National Ambulance Uniform Procurement group in 2016. Amongst cost and comfort considerations, all Scottish Ambulance Service Staff now wear the national uniform which comprises a dark green trouser / shirt combination. Personal Protective Equipment are issued to all staff and denote rank / clinical rank by way of epaulette and helmet markings; the national headquarters are in west side of Edinburgh and there are five divisions within the Service, namely: The Patient Transport Service carries over 1.3 million patients every year.
This service is provided to patients who are physically or medically unfit to travel to hospital out-patient appointments by any other means can still make their appointments. The service handles non-emergency admissions, transport of palliative care patients and a variety of other specialised roles. Patient Transport Vehicles come in a variety of forms and are staffed by Ambulance Care Assistants, whom work
Lionel is a village in the Ness area of Lewis. Lionel is within the parish of Barvas. Lionel is situated near the northern end of the A857, at the junctions with the B8013 to Eoropie and the B8015 to Eorodale and Skigersta. Visitor's guide for the Island of Lewis Website of the Western Isles Council with links to other resources Disabled access to Lewis for residents and visitors "Lewis-with-Harris". Encyclopædia Britannica. 16. 1911. Pp. 525–526. A Guide to living in the Outer Hebrides, with most information pertaining to Lewis
Eorodale is a settlement in the community of Ness, on Lewis, in the Outer Hebrides, Scotland. Eorodale is within the parish of Barvas, is situated on the B8015 between Lionel and Skigersta. Canmore - Lewis, Dun Eorradail site record Canmore - Lewis, Chain Home Low Radar Station site record
Eilean Chaluim Chille
Eilean Chaluim Chille is an unpopulated island in the Outer Hebrides. It lies off the east coast of Lewis at the mouth of Loch Erisort. At low tide Eilean Chaluim Chille is connected by a causeway to the mainland of Lewis at Crobeag. At the southern end of the island lie the ruins of St Columba's Church; this was once an important centre of religion, being cited in a report of 1549 as the main place of worship for the parish of Lochs. There was a church there from about 800 AD, built by St Columba's followers. St Columba died on Iona in 597 AD; the cemetery was in use until 1878. Eilean Chaluim Chille is protected by Historic Scotland as an ancient monument