Future Problem Solving Program International
Future Problem Solving Program International organizes academic competitions in which students apply critical thinking and problem-solving skills to hypothetical future situations. The program looks at current technological and societal trends and projects those trends 20–30 years into the future in order to train students to develop solutions to the challenges they may face as adults. FPSPI was founded by creativity researcher Ellis Paul Torrance in 1974. Today, thousands of students from over a dozen countries participate in the program each year. Most FPSPI components are open to students who are in the equivalent of the U. S. grade level range of 4 through 12. FPSPI was founded to train students to use a specific six-step problem-solving process: Identify challenges that exist in a given situation. Pick a high-impact "Underlying Problem" to focus on, formulated as an attainable goal that addresses the problem. Brainstorm solutions to the Underlying Problem. Develop criteria that measure solutions' positive impact on people affected by the Underlying Problem.
Evaluate and rank the solutions using the criteria. Develop an elaborated Action Plan based on the highest-ranking solution; the original Future Problem Solving competition – now known as Global Issues Problem Solving – evaluates students' competency in using this problem-solving process in the context of a fictional future situation. Students in the GIPS competition are grouped by grade level and may compete as individuals or as teams of four. Prior to each competition event, FPSPI announces the competition topic and provides a list of suggested readings. Students spend 1–2 months researching the topic with an eye to potential future challenges and solutions. At the beginning of the competition, students are given a Future Scene, a one- to two-page document that describes the hypothetical future situation having to do with the pre-announced topic. Competitors proceed according to the six-step process. Students are graded on their correct application of the process and on their use of cited research and creative originality.
After completing the six-step process in two hours, students begin work on a second competition called "Presentation of Action Plan" in which they illustrate their final solution by preparing and performing a skit. FPSPI developed additional programs that make use of the six-step problem-solving process, or that otherwise train students in creative critical thinking. In the Community Problem Solving competition, students are evaluated on how well they apply the process to present-day problems in their own community; the Action-based Problem Solving program adapts the process for classroom use. In the Scenario Writing competition, students write a short story, set at least 20 years in the future, based on one of the GIPS competition topics; the Scenario Performance component is similar but is geared toward students who prefer telling stories through oral communication. FPSPI is a federation of state- or nationwide organizations called affiliates; each affiliate is responsible for conducting the competitions which take place in its own geographic area.
Students begin preparing for competition at the start of each school year. Depending on the affiliate and the type of competition, there may be regional, state, or national levels of competition that take place during the year. Only the winners of any given competition qualify to proceed to the next level; the highest level of competition takes place at the annual International Conference, held in May or June, at the end of the United States school year. The IC is held at the campus of a public university in the United States, with a new location being chosen every two years; each year, FPSPI releases a list of five study topics, one for each of the five GIPS competitions that occur each academic year. Allison Schroeder, Academy Award-nominated screenwriter Future Problem Solving Program International
Adair County, Kentucky
Adair County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 18,656, its county seat is Columbia. The county was founded in 1801 and named for John Adair Speaker of the House in Kentucky and Governor of Kentucky. Adair County has one of the few surviving American Chestnut trees in the United States. Adair County is a wet county as of March 23, 2016. Adair County was formed on December 1801, from sections of Green County. Columbia was chosen as the county seat the following year and the first courthouse was built in 1806; the county was named in honor of John Adair, a veteran of the Revolutionary War and Northwest Indian War. He commanded Kentucky troops in the Battle of New Orleans, he served as the eighth Governor of Kentucky. This was the 44th of Kentucky's 120 counties to be organized. After the American Civil War, a gang of five men, believed to include Frank and Jesse James from Missouri, robbed the Bank of Columbia of $600 on April 29, 1872, they killed the cashier, R.
A. C. Martin, in the course of the robbery; the courthouse on the Columbia town square, completed in 1884, replaced the original 1806 courthouse. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 412 square miles, of which 405 square miles is land and 7.1 square miles is water. It is part of western Appalachia. Over 40% of the county's land is covered with timber; the Green River is the county's major waterway. The river was impounded to form Green River Lake, the major feature of Green River Lake State Park, which lies in Adair and Taylor counties. Taylor County – north Casey County – northeast Russell County – east Cumberland County – south Metcalfe County – southwest Green County – northwest As of the census of 2000, there were 17,244 people, 6,747 households, 4,803 families residing in the county; the population density was 42 per square mile. There were 7,792 housing units at an average density of 19 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.00% White, 2.55% Black or African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.26% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.19% from other races, 0.76% from two or more races.
0.77% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 6,747 households out of which 31.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.60% were married couples living together, 10.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.80% were non-families. 26.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.93. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.50% under the age of 18, 10.70% from 18 to 24, 27.70% from 25 to 44, 23.40% from 45 to 64, 14.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 94.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $24,055, the median income for a family was $29,779. Males had a median income of $23,183 versus $17,009 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,931.
About 18.20% of families and 24.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.60% of those under age 18 and 21.70% of those age 65 or over. Adair County's agrarian economy produces livestock, dairy products and tobacco; the county experienced a minor oil boom in the 1960s. Lack of adequate transportation infrastructure hindered the county's prosperity well into the 20th century; the completion of the Cumberland Parkway in 1973 ameliorated this problem. The county is served by Adair County Schools, its schools are: Adair County Primary Center Adair County Elementary School Adair County Middle School Adair County High School. Columbia Below is partial listing of known unincorporated communities within Adair County. A more complete listing is available here. Breeding Glens Fork Gradyville Knifley Neatsville Pellyton Sparksville Thomas E. Bramlette, Governor of Kentucky Robert Porter Caldwell, United States Congressman, was born in Adair County. E. A. Diddle, men's basketball coach for Western Kentucky University Janice Holt Giles, a writer noted for her regional novels and nonfiction, lived in Adair County from 1949 until her death in 1979.
James R. Hindman, Lieutenant Governor of Kentucky Sergeant Dakota Meyer and educated in Adair County, received the Medal of Honor in 2011 for his actions in Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan in 2009 Pinkney H. Walker, Chief Justice of the Illinois Supreme Court, was born in Adair County. Evelyn West, burlesque actress Frank Lane Wolford, U. S. Representative from Kentucky National Register of Historic Places listings in Adair County, Kentucky Kleber, John E.. "Adair County". In John E. Kleber; the Kentucky Encyclopedia. Associate editors: Thomas D. Clark, Lowell H. Harrison, James C. Klotter. Lexington, Kentucky: The University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0-8131-1772-0. Retrieved 2011-02-11. Flowers, Randy. Adair County, Kentucky: A Pictorial History. Columbia, Kentucky: Adair County Genealogical Society. P. 152. Columbia & Adair Chamber of Commerce Columbia Magazine Burtons of Adair County
Elementary and Secondary Education Act
The Elementary and Secondary Education Act was passed as a part of United States President Lyndon B. Johnson's "War on Poverty" and has been the most far-reaching federal legislation affecting education passed by the United States Congress; the act was an extensive statute that funded secondary education. It emphasizes equal access to education and establishes high standards and accountability. In addition, the bill aimed to shorten the achievement gaps between students by providing each child with fair-equal opportunities to achieve an exceptional education; as mandated in the act, the funds are authorized for professional development, instructional materials, for resources to support educational programs, for parental involvement promotion. The act was authorized through 1965; the reauthorization of ESEA by President George W. Bush was known as the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. ESEA was reauthorized on December 10, 2015 as the Every Student Succeeds Act by President Barack Obama. On January 25, 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson called for congressional efforts to improve education opportunities for America's children.
Wary of popular fears regarding increased federal involvement in local schools, the Johnson administration advocated giving local districts great leeway to use the new funds, which were to be first distributed as grants to each state. Shortly thereafter, Carl D. Perkins, the chair of the General Education Subcommittee of the House Committee on Education and Labor introduced H. R. 2362. With the Johnson administration's support, after significant wrangling over the structure of the bill's funding formula committee, the full committee voted 23–8 to report it on March 2, 1965. Following a failed attempt to derail the bill by Representative Howard W. Smith, the House passed H. R. 2362 on March 26, 1965 in a 263–153 roll-call vote. As the Senate prepared to consider the education bill, S. 370, Democratic leaders urged their colleagues to pass it without amendment, in hopes of avoiding the bill to be returned to the House to endure further reconsideration. S. 370 was assigned to the Senate Labor and Public Welfare Committee, which subsequently reported the bill to the Senate floor with unanimous support.
During the Senate debates, several amendments were introduced. The Senate passed the bill in a 73–18 vote on April 7, 1965. President Johnson signed the Elementary and Secondary Education Act into law two days on April 9, 1965. Title I – Financial Assistance To Local Educational Agencies For The Education Of Children Of Low-Income Families Title II – School Library Resources and other Instructional Materials Title III – Supplementary Educational Centers and Services Title IV – Educational Research And Training Title V – Grants To Strengthen State Departments Of Education Title VI – General ProvisionsNew Titles Created by Early Amendments to 1965 Law 1966 amendments Title VI – Aid to Handicapped Children 1967 amendments Title VII – Bilingual Education Programs Title I, a provision of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act passed in 1965, is a program created by the U. S. Department of Education to distribute funding to schools and school districts with a high percentage of students from low-income families, with the intension to create programs that will better children who have special needs that without funding could not be properly supported.
Funding is distributed first to state educational agencies which allocate funds to local educational agencies which in turn dispense funds to public schools in need. Title I helps children from families that have migrated to the United States and youth from intervention programs who are neglected or at risk of abuse; the act allocates money for educational purposes for the next five fiscal years until it is reauthorized. In addition, Title I appropriates money to the education system for the persecution of high retention rates of students and the improvement of schools. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, to be an eligible Title I school, at least 40% of a school's students must be from low-income families who qualify under the United States Census's definition of low-income, according to the U. S. Department of Education. Title I mandates services both to eligible public school students and eligible private school students; this is outlined in section 1120 of Title I, Part A of the ESEA as amended by the No Child Left Behind Act.
Title I states that it gives priority to schools that are in obvious need of funds, low-achieving schools, schools that demonstrate a commitment to improving their education standards and test scores. There are two types of assistance; the first is a "schoolwide program". The second is a “targeted assistance program” which allows schools to identify students who are failing or at risk of failing. Assistance for school improvement includes government grants and reallocations based on the school's willingness to commit to improving their standing in the educational system; each educational institution requesting these grants must submit an application that describes how these funds will be used in restructuring their school for academic improvement. Schools receiving Title I funding are regulated by federal legislation. Most this legislation includes the No Child Left
Myrtle Beach, South Carolina
Myrtle Beach is a coastal city on the East Coast of the United States in Horry County, South Carolina. It is in the center of a large and continuous 60-mile stretch of beach known as "The Grand Strand" in northeastern South Carolina. Ranked as the second fastest-growing metropolitan area in the country, Myrtle Beach is one of the major centers of tourism in South Carolina and the United States because of the city's warm subtropical climate and extensive beaches, attracting an estimated 14 million visitors each year; as of the 2010 census, the population of the city was 27,109, in 2016 the estimated population was 32,240. The Myrtle Beach metropolitan area had an estimated population in 2016 of 449,495. Prior to the arrival of Europeans, the Long Bay area was inhabited by the native Waccamaw tribe; the Waccamaw fished along the shore around Little River. Waties Island, the primary barrier island along Long Bay, has evidence of burial and shell mounds, remains of the visiting Waccamaw; the first European settlers along Long Bay arrived in the late 18th century, attempting to extend the plantation system outward towards the ocean.
Records are sparse from this period, with most of the recorded history pieced together from old land grant documents. These settlers were met with mixed results, producing unremarkable quantities of indigo and tobacco, as the coast's soil was sandy and most of the crop yields were of an inferior quality. Prior to the American Revolution, the area along the future Grand Strand was uninhabited. Several families received land grants along the coast, including the Witherses: John, Richard and Mary; this family received an area around present-day Wither's Swash known as Myrtle Swash or the Eight-Mile Swash. A separate grant was granted to James Minor, including a barrier island named Minor Island, now Waties Island, off the coast near Little River. Mary Withers' gravestone at Prince George Winyah Episcopal Church speaks to the remoteness of the former Strand: "She gave up the pleasures of Society and retired to Long Bay, where she resided a great part of her life devoted to the welfare of her children."As the American colonies gained independence, the area remained unchanged, the coast remained barren.
George Washington scouted out the Southern states during his term, traveling down the King's Highway. He was led across Wither's Swash to Georgetown by Jeremiah Vereen; the Withers family remained one of the few settlers around Myrtle Beach for the next half-century. In 1822, a strong hurricane swept the house of R. F. Withers into the ocean, drowning 18 people inside; the tragedy made. Left unattended, the area began to return to forest; the Burroughs and Collins Company of Conway, predecessor of modern-day Burroughs & Chapin, purchased much of the Withers family's land in 1881, the growing community was called "New Town" around the start of the 20th century. A post office named "Withers" was established to serve the site of the old Swash in 1888. On February 28, 1899, Burroughs and Collins received a charter to build the Conway & Seashore Railroad to transport timber from the coast to inland customers; the railroad began daily service on May 1900, with two wood-burning locomotives. One of the engines was dubbed The Black Maria and came second-hand from a North Carolina logging operation.
After the railroad was finished, employees of the lumber and railroad company would take train flatcars down to the beach area on their free weekends, becoming the first Grand Strand tourists. The railroad terminus was nicknamed contrasting it with the "Old Town", or Conway. Around the start of the 20th century, Franklin Burroughs envisioned turning New Town into a tourist destination rivaling the Florida and northeastern beaches. Burroughs died in 1897, but his sons completed the railroad's expansion to the beach and opened the Seaside Inn in 1901. Around 1900, a contest was held to name the area, Burroughs' wife suggested honoring the locally abundant shrub, the southern wax myrtle; the Withers post office changed its name to "Myrtle Beach" soon afterward. It incorporated as a town in 1938 and as a city in 1957. In 1937, Myrtle Beach Municipal Airport was built, it was converted into a military base. Commercial flights began in 1976 and shared the runway for over 15 years until the air base closed in 1993.
Since the airport has been named Myrtle Beach International Airport. In 2010 plans to build a new terminal were approved. In 1940, Kings Highway was paved, giving Myrtle Beach its first primary highway; the Myrtle Heights-Oak Park Historic District, Myrtle Beach Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Station, Ocean Forest Country Club, Pleasant Inn, Rainbow Court are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Listed were the Chesterfield Inn and the Myrtle Beach Pavilion, both now demolished; the Gay Dolphin Gift Cove on the Boardwalk was built in 1946, sells seashells and Myrtle Beach souvenirs. It claims to be the "nation's largest gift shop". Myrtle Beach has been separated from the continental United States since 1936 by the Intracoastal Waterway, forcing the city and area in general to develop within a small distance from the coast. In part due to this separation, the area directly northwest of Myrtle Beach, across the waterway, remained rural for a while, whereas its northeastern and southwestern ends were bordered by other developed tourist towns, North Myrtle Beach and Surfside Beach.
Since the inland portion of the Myrtle Beach area has developed dramatically. Myrtle Beach is 67 miles (108 k
Columbia is a home rule-class city just above Russell Creek in Adair County, Kentucky, in the United States. The population was 4,452 at the 2010 census. Columbia is the seat of its county; the area was settled c. 1802 by Daniel Trabue. The post office was opened on April 1, 1806, by John Field, who ran the local store. Columbia is located at 37°6′2″N 85°18′22″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.4 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,014 people, 1,554 households, 893 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,167.9 per square mile. There were 1,789 housing units at an average density of 520.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 90.38% White, 7.37% African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.60% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.20% from other races, 1.20% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.02% of the population. There were 1,554 households out of which 24.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.9% were married couples living together, 14.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.5% were non-families.
40.3% of all households were made up of individuals living alone and 22.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.12 and the average family size was 2.84. In the city, the population was spread out with 18.0% under the age of 18, 19.1% from 20 to 24, 23.1% from 25 to 44, 19.1% from 45 to 64, 20.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 83.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $22,861, the median income for a family was $31,344. Males had a median income of $23,906 versus $21,000 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,836. About 19.9% of families and 26.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 39.4% of those under age 18 and 17.9% of those age 65 or over. Events held in Columbia, Kentucky: Downtown Days, two-day festival on the streets of downtown Columbia; the event includes a parade, a beauty pageant, reenactment of the James/Younger Bank of Columbia robbery, 5-K run, pet show, train rides for the kids, kids carnival, face painting, live entertainment, fun, clowns and more.
Columbia Public Schools are part of the Adair County Schools School District. Schools in the district include: Adair County Elementary School Adair County Primary School Adair County Middle School Adair County High School Lindsey Wilson College, a private four-year college. Media in Columbia include: The Adair Progress, a local 2x weekly newspaper WHVE, a contemporary radio station WAIN, a country radio station Adair County Community Voice, a local once weekly newspaper complete with Public Records information Columbia Magazine, an online-only magazine updated daily with local news and history; the Louie B. Nunn Cumberland Parkway runs through Columbia; this parkway is a future corridor of Interstate 66. The addition of an interchange with a 2006 reconstruction of Highway 61 South, Columbia now has two exits on the Parkway. Exit 49, the original exit on the parkway, merges onto Highway 55 South bringing drivers through the middle of Columbia. Exit 47, the new exit, merges onto Highway 61 South and drivers can choose to go north or go to Burkesville to the south.
The Highway 55 Bypass was opened on October 7, 2008, for more information see below. After years of promises by various governors and other Kentucky officials, construction began early in May 2007, which culminated in an official ground-breaking ceremony by the former Governor himself on May 15, 2007 near the front of the newly constructed Adair County Elementary School, which faces the direction of the bypass; the Columbia Bypass was opened to the public on October 7, 2008 featuring a traffic light at the intersection of the bypass and North 55 as well as a traffic light at the intersection of South 61. The bypass has relieved a majority of the downtown traffic. Damon E. Allen – Columbia optometrist who led the move to permit optometrists to prescribe medication to their patients Walter Arnold Baker – state legislator and Kentucky Supreme Court justice Steve Hamilton- Major League Baseball pitcher Vernie McGaha – Kentucky state senator from Adair County since 1997 Marine Sergeant Dakota Meyer – In September 2011, he received the Medal of Honor from President Barack Obama at age 23.
S. Congressman James Alexander Williamson – American Civil War Brevet Major General and Medal of Honor recipient. Lance Burton – American stage magician Columbia, Kentucky was depicted in the film Resurrection Mary starring Wilford Brimley in 2002; the film was directed by another Columbia native, Matthew Eric Arnold as part of the USC School of Cinematic Arts graduate thesis program and won awards at the Big Bear Lake International Film Festival. The filming was featured in USA Today. Columbia Magazine County Map from Kentucky Gazetteer Resurrection Mary at IMDB Adair County Schools
Kentucky the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Although styled as the "State of Kentucky" in the law creating it, Kentucky is one of four U. S. states constituted as a commonwealth. A part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 26th most populous of the 50 United States. Kentucky is known as the "Bluegrass State", a nickname based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due to the fertile soil. One of the major regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky, which houses two of its major cities and Lexington, it is a land with diverse environments and abundant resources, including the world's longest cave system, Mammoth Cave National Park, the greatest length of navigable waterways and streams in the contiguous United States, the two largest man-made lakes east of the Mississippi River. Kentucky is known for horse racing, bourbon distilleries, coal, the "My Old Kentucky Home" historic state park, automobile manufacturing, bluegrass music, college basketball, Kentucky Fried Chicken.
In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County, named for the Kentucky River. The precise etymology of the name is uncertain, but based on an Iroquoian name meaning " the meadow" or " the prairie". Others have put forth the possibility of Kenta Aki, which would come from Algonquian language and, would have derived from the Shawnees. Folk etymology states that this translates as "Land of Our Fathers." The closest approximation in another Algonquian language, Ojibwe translates it more-so to "Land of Our In-Laws", thus making a fairer English translation "The Land of Those Who Became Our Fathers." In any case, the word aki comes out as land in all Algonquian languages. Kentucky is situated in the Upland South. A significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia. Kentucky borders seven states, from the Southeast. West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west and Indiana to the northwest, Ohio to the north and northeast.
Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more. Kentucky's northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River. However, the official border is based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792. For instance, northbound travelers on U. S. 41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River, will be in Kentucky for about two miles. Ellis Park, a thoroughbred racetrack, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the only land border between Kentucky. Kentucky has a non-contiguous part known at the far west corner of the state, it exists as an exclave surrounded by Missouri and Tennessee, is included in the boundaries of Fulton County. Road access to this small part of Kentucky on the Mississippi River requires a trip through Tennessee; the epicenter of the powerful 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes was near this area causing the river to flow backwards in some places. Though the series of quakes did change the area geologically and affect the inhabitants of the area at the time, the Kentucky Bend was formed because of a surveying error, not the New Madrid earthquake.
Kentucky can be divided into five primary regions: the Cumberland Plateau in the east, the north-central Bluegrass region, the south-central and western Pennyroyal Plateau, the Western Coal Fields and the far-west Jackson Purchase. The Bluegrass region is divided into two regions, the Inner Bluegrass—the encircling 90 miles around Lexington—and the Outer Bluegrass—the region that contains most of the northern portion of the state, above the Knobs. Much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short and narrow hills; the Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to several bald cypress/tupelo swamps. Located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate, only small higher areas of the southeast of the state has an oceanic climate influenced by the Appalachians. Temperatures in Kentucky range from daytime summer highs of 87 °F to the winter low of 23 °F; the average precipitation is 46 inches a year.
Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter. The highest recorded temperature was 114 °F at Greensburg on July 28, 1930 while the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F at Shelbyville on January 19, 1994, it has four distinct seasons, but experiences the extreme cold as far northern states, nor the high heat of the states in the Deep South. Temperatures seldom drop below 0 degrees or rise above 100 degrees. Rain and snowfall totals about 45 inches per year. There are big variations in climate within the state; the northern parts tend to be about 5 degrees cooler than those in western parts of the state. Somerset in the south-central part receives 10 more inches of rain per year than, for instance, Covington to the north. Average temperatures for the entire Commonwe
Cheerleading is an activity wherein the participants cheer for their team as a form of encouragement. It can range from chanting slogans to intense physical activity, it can be for competition. Competitive routines range anywhere from one to three minutes, contain components of tumbling, jumps and stunting. Cheerleading originated in the United States, remains predominantly in America, with an estimated 1.5 million participants in all-star cheerleading. The global presentation of cheerleading was led by the 1997 broadcast of ESPN's International cheerleading competition, the worldwide release of the 2000 film Bring It On. Due in part to this recent exposure, there are now an estimated 100,000 participants scattered around the globe in Australia, China, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the United Kingdom. Cheerleading began during the late 18th century with the rebellion of male students. After the American Revolutionary War, students experienced harsh treatment from teachers. In response to faculty's abuse, college students violently acted out.
The undergraduates began to riot, burn down buildings located on their college campuses, assault faculty members. As a more subtle way to gain independence, students invented and organized their own extracurricular activities outside their professors' control; this brought about American sports. In the 1860s, students from Great Britain began to cheer and chant in unison for their favorite athletes at sporting events. Soon, that gesture of support crossed overseas to America. On November 6, 1869, the United States witnessed its first intercollegiate football game, it took place between Princeton and Rutgers University, marked the day the original "Sis Boom Rah!" Cheer was shouted out by student fans. Organized cheerleading started as an all-male activity; as early as 1877, Princeton University had a "Princeton Cheer", documented in the February 22, 1877, March 12, 1880, November 4, 1881, issues of The Daily Princetonian. This cheer was yelled from the stands by students attending games, as well as by the athletes themselves.
The cheer, "Hurrah! Hurrah! Hurrah! Tiger! S-s-s-t! Boom! A-h-h-h!" remains in use with slight modifications today, where it is now referred to as the "Locomotive". Princeton class of 1882 graduate Thomas Peebles moved to Minnesota in 1884, he transplanted the idea of organized crowds cheering at football games to the University of Minnesota. The term "Cheer Leader" had been used as early as 1897, with Princeton's football officials having named three students as Cheer Leaders: Thomas and Guerin from Princeton's classes of 1897, 1898, 1899 on October 26, 1897; these students would cheer for the team at football practices, special cheering sections were designated in the stands for the games themselves for both the home and visiting teams. It was not until 1898 that University of Minnesota student Johnny Campbell directed a crowd in cheering "Rah, Rah! Ski-u-mah, Hoo-Rah! Hoo-Rah! Varsity! Varsity! Varsity, Minn-e-So-Tah!", making Campbell the first cheerleader. November 2, 1898 is the official birth date of organized cheerleading.
Soon after, the University of Minnesota organized a "yell leader" squad of six male students, who still use Campbell's original cheer today. In 1903, the first cheerleading fraternity, Gamma Sigma, was founded. In 1923, at the University of Minnesota, women were permitted to participate in cheerleading. However, it took time for other schools to follow. In the late 1920s, many school manuals and newspapers that were published still referred to cheerleaders as "chap," "fellow," and "man". Women cheerleaders were overlooked until the 1940s. In the 1940s, collegiate men were drafted for World War II, creating the opportunity for more women to make their way onto sporting event sidelines; as noted by Kieran Scott in Ultimate Cheerleading: "Girls took over for the first time." An overview written on behalf of cheerleading in 1955 explained that in larger schools, "occasionally boys as well as girls are included,", in smaller schools, "boys can find their place in the athletic program, cheerleading is to remain a feminine occupation."
During the 1950s, cheerleading in America increased in popularity. By the 1960s, some began to consider cheerleading a feminine extracurricular for boys, by the 1970s, girls cheered at public school games. However, this did not stop its growth. Cheerleading could be found at every school level across the country pee wee and youth leagues began to appear. In 1975, it was estimated by a man named Randy Neil that over 500,000 students participated in American cheerleading from grade school to the collegiate level, he approximated that ninety-five percent of cheerleaders within America were female. Since 1973, cheerleaders have started to attend female basketball and other all-female sports as well; as of 2005, overall statistics show around 97% of all modern cheerleading participants are female, although at the collegiate level, cheerleading is co-ed with about 50% of participants being male. In 1948, Lawrence "Herkie" Herkimer, of Dallas, Texas, a former cheerleader at Southern Methodist University, formed the National Cheerleaders Association in order to hold clinics for cheerleading.
In 1949, The NCA held its first clinic in Huntsville, with 52 girls in attendance. Herkimer contributed many firsts to cheerleading: the founding of the Cheerleader & Danz Team cheerleading uniform supply company, inventing the herkie jump (where one leg is bent towards the ground as if kneeling and the other is o