First 100 days of Barack Obama's presidency
The first 100 days of Barack Obama's presidency began on January 20, 2009, the day Barack Obama was inaugurated as the 44th President of the United States. The first 100 days of a presidential term took on symbolic significance during Franklin D. Roosevelt's first term in office, the period is considered a benchmark to measure the early success of a president; the 100th day of his presidency was April 29, 2009. Obama stated that he should not be judged by his first hundred days: "The first hundred days is going to be important, but it’s going to be the first thousand days that makes the difference."Obama began to formally create his presidential footprint during his first 100 days. Obama began attempting to foster support for his economic stimulus package, American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009; the bill passed in the House on January 28, 2009, by a 244–188 vote, it passed in the Senate on February 10 by a 61–37 margin. Obama's accomplishments during the first 100 days included signing the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009 relaxing the statute of limitations for equal-pay lawsuits.
S. troops. He ordered the closure of the Guantanamo Bay detention camp, in Cuba, though it remains open, as well as lifted some travel and money restrictions to the island. At the end of the first 100 days 65% of Americans approved of how Obama was doing and 29% disapproved. According to Gallup's First quarter survey in April, President Obama received a 63% approval rating. Gallup began tracking presidential approval ratings of the first quarters since Eisenhower in 1953. President Kennedy received the highest in April 1961 with a 74% rating. Obama's 63% is the fourth highest and the highest since President Carter with a 69%. President Reagan's first quarter had 60% approval in 1981, President George H. W. Bush with 57% in 1989, President Clinton with 55% in 1993, President George W. Bush with 58% in 2001. During the Great Depression, Roosevelt promised drastic initiatives within his first 100 days; the New Deal legislation he got passed set a standard of action that subsequent presidents have been measured against.
Although it has less significance, some analysts make comparisons of the performances of presidents during their first 100 days of the second term. Obama and previous presidents have made statements that downplayed the significance of their first 100 days. John F. Kennedy once said his mission might never be accomplished: "All this will not be finished in the first hundred days. Nor will it be finished in the first thousand days, nor in the life of this administration, nor perhaps in our lifetime on this planet, but let us begin."Obama's first 100 days were anticipated after he became the apparent presumptive nominee. In his first 60 Minutes post-election interview Obama said that he had been studying Roosevelt's first 100 days. Understanding the significance and symbolism of the first 100 days, Hillary Clinton's campaign strategy included mapping out a first 100 days plan. While Barack Obama began preparation for his first 100 days during the presidential transition following his election, he stated that America only has one president at a time for issues related to international affairs.
During the first hundred days in office presidents are scrutinised and heading into the period Obama's intention was to attempt to execute several plans that are going to be watched closely. Despite his attempt to downplay its significance, Obama's first 100 days were anticipated since he became the presumptive nominee. Several news outlets, such as Fox News and CBS News created special portals dedicated to covering the subject. Commentators weighed in on challenges and priorities within the fields of domestic and foreign policy, on economic issues, on the environment. CNN listed a number of economic issues which "Obama and his team have to tackle in their first 100 days", foremost among, implementing a recovery package to deal with the then-ongoing financial crisis. MSNBC.com, which didn't use portals, acknowledged the notability of Obama's first 100 days by including it in the titles of its stories. On Obama's first day in office, BBC World Service released the results of an opinion poll of more than 17,000 people in 17 countries.
S. relations abroad, 80% of Italians and Germans believed U. S. relations with the rest of the world would improve under Obama. Clive Stafford Smith, a British human rights lawyer, expressed hopes that Obama would close Guantanamo Bay detention camp within the time period. In addition, there were speculations in Jakarta that he might return to his former home city within the first 100 days after presidential aides announced his intention to hold a major foreign policy speech in the capital of an Islamic country; the New York Times devoted a five-day series, spread out over two weeks, to anticipatory analysis of Obama's first hundred days. Each day a political expert's analysis was followed by edited blog postings from readers; the writers compared Obama's prospects with the situations of Franklin D. Roosevelt (January 16 and February
David William Donald Cameron is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2010 to 2016. He was the Member of Parliament for Witney from 2001 to 2016 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 2005 to 2016, he identifies as a one-nation conservative, has been associated with both economically liberal and liberal policies. Born in London to an upper-middle-class family, Cameron was educated at Heatherdown School, Eton College, Brasenose College, Oxford. From 1988 to 1993 he worked at the Conservative Research Department, assisting the Conservative Prime Minister John Major, before leaving politics to work for Carlton Communications in 1994. Becoming an MP in 2001, he served in the opposition shadow cabinet under Conservative leader Michael Howard, succeeded Howard in 2005. Cameron sought to rebrand the Conservatives, embracing an socially liberal position; the 2010 general election led to Cameron becoming Prime Minister as the head of a coalition government with the Liberal Democrats – the youngest holder of the office since the 1810s.
His premiership was marked by the ongoing effects of the late-2000s financial crisis. His administration introduced large-scale changes to welfare, immigration policy and healthcare, it privatised the Royal Mail and some other state assets, legalised same-sex marriage in Great Britain. Internationally, his government intervened militarily in the Libyan Civil War and authorised the bombing of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant; when the Conservatives secured an unexpected majority in the 2015 general election he remained as Prime Minister, this time leading a Conservative-only government. To fulfil a manifesto pledge, he introduced a referendum on the UK's continuing membership of the EU. Cameron supported continued membership. Cameron has been praised for modernising the Conservative Party and for decreasing the United Kingdom's national deficit. Conversely, he has been criticised by figures on both the left and right, has been accused of elitism and political opportunism. Cameron is the younger son of Ian Donald Cameron a stockbroker, his wife Mary Fleur, a retired Justice of the Peace and a daughter of Sir William Mount, 2nd Baronet.
Cameron's parents were married on 20 October 1962. The journalist Toby Young has described Cameron's background as being "upper-upper-middle class". Cameron was born in Marylebone and raised at Peasemore in Berkshire, he has a brother, Alexander Cameron QC, a barrister, two sisters, Tania Rachel and Clare Louise. His father, was born at Blairmore House near Huntly and died near Toulon, France, on 8 September 2010. Blairmore was built by Cameron's great-great-grandfather, Alexander Geddes, who had made a fortune in the grain trade in Chicago, before returning to Scotland in the 1880s. Blairmore was sold soon after Ian's birth. Cameron has said, "On my mother's side of the family, her mother was a Llewellyn, so Welsh. I'm a real mixture of Scottish and English." He has referenced the German Jewish ancestry of one of his great-grandfathers, Arthur Levita, a descendant of the Yiddish author Elia Levita. From the age of seven, Cameron was educated at two independent schools: at Heatherdown School in Winkfield in Berkshire, which counts Prince Andrew and Prince Edward among its old boys.
Owing to good grades, Cameron entered its top academic class two years early. At the age of thirteen, he went on to Eton College in Berkshire, following his father and elder brother, his early interest was in art. Six weeks before taking his O-Levels he was caught smoking cannabis, he admitted the offence and had not been involved in selling drugs, so he was not expelled. Cameron passed twelve O-Levels and three A-levels: History of art, he obtained three'A' grades and a'1' grade in the Scholarship Level exam in Economics and Politics. The following autumn, he passed the entrance exam for the University of Oxford, was offered an exhibition at Brasenose College. After leaving Eton in 1984, Cameron started a nine-month gap year. For three months he worked as a researcher for his godfather Tim Rathbone Conservative MP for Lewes, during which time he attended debates in the House of Commons. Through his father, he was employed for a further three months in Hong Kong by Jardine Matheson as a'ship jumper', an administrative post.
Returning from Hong Kong, Cameron visited the Soviet Union, where he was approached by two Russian men speaking fluent English. Cameron was told by one of his professors that it was "definitely an attempt" by the KGB to recruit him. In October 1985, Cameron began his Bachelor of Arts course in Philosophy and Economics at Brasenose College, Oxford, his tutor, Professor Vernon Bogdanor, has described him as "one of the ablest" students he has taught, with "moderate and sensible Conservative" political views. Guy Spier, who shared tutorials with him, remembers him as an outstanding student: "We were doing our be
Westminster is an area in central London within the City of Westminster, part of the West End, on the north bank of the River Thames. Westminster's concentration of visitor attractions and historic landmarks, one of the highest in London, includes the Palace of Westminster, Buckingham Palace, Westminster Abbey and Westminster Cathedral; the area lay within St Margaret's parish, City & Liberty of Westminster, Middlesex. The name Westminster originated from the informal description of the abbey church and royal peculiar of St Peter's West of the City of London; the abbey was part of the royal palace, created here by Edward the Confessor. It has been the home of the permanent institutions of England's government continuously since about 1200, from 1707 the British Government — formally titled Her Majesty's Government. In a government context, Westminster refers to the Parliament of the United Kingdom, located in the UNESCO World Heritage Palace of Westminster — also known as the Houses of Parliament.
The closest tube stations are Westminster and St James's Park, on the Jubilee and District lines. The area is the centre of Her Majesty's Government, with Parliament in the Palace of Westminster and most of the major Government ministries known as Whitehall, itself the site of the royal palace that replaced that at Westminster. Within the area is Westminster School, a major public school which grew out of the Abbey, the University of Westminster, attended by over 20,000 students. Bounding Westminster to the north is Green Park, a Royal Park of London; the area has a substantial residential population. By the 20th Century Westminster has seen rising residential condominiums with wealthy inhabitants. Hotels, large Victorian homes and barracks exist near to Buckingham Palace. For a list of street name etymologies for Westminster see Street names of Westminster The name describes an area no more than 1 mile from Westminster Abbey and the Palace of Westminster to the west of the River Thames; the settlement grew up as a service area for them.
The need for a parish church, St Margaret's Westminster for the servants of the palace and of the abbey who could not worship there indicates that it had a population as large as that of a small village. It became larger and in the Georgian period became connected through urban ribbon development with the City along the Strand, it did not become a viable local government unit created as a civil parish. Henry VIII's Reformation in the early 16th century abolished the Abbey and established a Cathedral - thus the parish ranked as a "City", although it was only a fraction of the size of the City of London and the Borough of Southwark at that time. Indeed, the Cathedral and diocesan status of the church lasted only from 1539 to 1556, but the "city" status remained for a mere parish within Middlesex; as such it is first known to have had two Members of Parliament in 1545 as a new Parliamentary Borough, centuries after the City of London and Southwark were enfranchised. The former Thorney Island, the site of Westminster Abbey, formed the historic core of Westminster.
The abbey became the traditional venue of the coronations of the kings and queens of England from that of Harold Godwinson onwards. From about 1200 the Palace of Westminster, near the abbey, became the principal royal residence, a transition marked by the transfer of royal treasury and financial records to Westminster from Winchester; the palace housed the developing Parliament and England's law courts. Thus London developed two focal points: the City of Westminster; the monarchs moved their principal residence to the Palace of Whitehall to St James's Palace in 1698, to Buckingham Palace and other palaces after 1762. The main law courts moved to the Royal Courts of Justice in the late-19th century. Charles Booth's poverty map showing Westminster in 1889 recorded the full range of income and capital brackets living in adjacent streets within the area. Westminster has shed the abject poverty with the clearance of this slum and with drainage improvement, but there is a typical Central London property distinction within the area, acute, epitomised by grandiose 21st-century developments, architectural high-point listed buildings and nearby social housing buildings of the Peabody Trust founded by philanthropist George Peabody.
The Westminster area formed part of the Liberty of Westminster in Middlesex. The ancient parish was St Margaret; the area around Westminster Abbey formed the extra-parochial Close of the Collegiate Church of St Peter surrounded by — but not part of — either parish. Until 1900 the local authority was the combined vestry of St Margaret and St John, based at Westminster City Hall in Caxton Street from 1883; the Liberty of Westminster, governed by the Westminster Court of Burgesses included St Martin in the Fields and several other parishes and places. Westminster had its own quarter sessions, but the Middlesex sessions had jurisdiction
Denis Winston Healey, Baron Healey, was a British Labour Party politician who served as Secretary of State for Defence from 1964 to 1970, Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1974 to 1979 and Deputy Leader of the Labour Party from 1980 to 1983. He was a Member of Parliament for 40 years and was the last surviving member of the cabinet formed by Harold Wilson after the Labour Party's victory in the 1964 general election. A major figure in the party, he was twice defeated in bids for the party leadership. To the public at large, Healey became well known for his bushy eyebrows and his creative turns of phrase. Denis Winston Healey was born in Mottingham, but moved with his family to Keighley in the West Riding of Yorkshire at the age of five, his parents were William Healey. His middle name honoured Winston Churchill. Healey had one brother, Terence Blair Healey, known as Terry, his father was an engineering mechanic who worked his way up from humble origins, studying at night school and becoming head of a trade school.
His paternal grandfather was a tailor from Enniskillen in Northern Ireland. Healey's family summered in Scotland throughout his youth. Healey received early education at Bradford Grammar School. In 1936 he won an exhibition scholarship to Oxford, to read Greats, he there became involved in Labour politics. While at Oxford, Healey joined the Communist Party in 1937 during the Great Purge, but left in 1940 after the Fall of France. At Oxford, Healey met future Prime Minister Edward Heath, whom he succeeded as president of Balliol College Junior Common Room, who became a lifelong friend and political rival. Healey achieved a double first degree, awarded in 1940. After graduation, Healey served in the Second World War as a gunner in the Royal Artillery before being commissioned as a second lieutenant in April 1941. Serving with the Royal Engineers, he saw action in the North African campaign, the Allied invasion of Sicily and the Italian campaign, was the military landing officer for the British assault brigade at Anzio in 1944.
Healey became an MBE in 1945. He left the service with the rank of Major, he declined an offer to remain in the army, with the rank of Lieutenant colonel, as part of the team researching the history of the Italian campaign under Colonel David Hunt. He decided against taking up a senior scholarship at Balliol, which would have led to an academic career. Healey joined the Labour Party. Still in uniform, he gave a left-wing speech to the Labour Party conference in 1945, declaring, "the upper classes in every country are selfish, depraved and decadent" shortly before the general election in which he narrowly failed to win the Conservative-held seat of Pudsey and Otley, doubling the Labour vote but losing by 1,651 votes, he became secretary of the international department of the Labour Party, becoming a foreign policy adviser to Labour leaders and establishing contacts with socialists across Europe. He was a strong opponent of the Communist Party at the Soviet Union internationally. From 1948 to 1960 he was a councillor for the Royal Institute of International Affairs and the International Institute for Strategic Studies from 1958 until 1961.
He was a member of the Fabian Society executive from 1954 until 1961. Healey was one of the leading players in the Königswinter conference, organised by Lilo Milchsack, credited with helping to heal the bad memories after the end of the Second World War. Healey met Hans von Herwarth, the ex soldier Fridolin von Senger und Etterlin and future German President Richard von Weizsäcker and other leading German decision makers; the conference included other leading British decisionmakers like Richard Crossman and the journalist Robin Day. Healey was elected to the House of Commons as MP for Leeds South East at a by-election in February 1952, with a majority of 7,000 votes. Following constituency boundary changes, he was elected for Leeds East at the 1955 general election, holding that seat until he retired as an MP in 1992, he was a moderate on the right during the series of splits in the Labour Party in the 1950s. He was a friend of Hugh Gaitskell, he persuaded Gaitskell to temper his initial support for British military action in 1956 when the Suez Canal was seized by the Nasser regime in Egypt, resulting in the Suez Crisis.
When Gaitskell died in 1963, he was horrified at the idea of Gaitskell's volatile deputy, George Brown, leading Labour, saying "He was like immortal Jemima. He voted for James Callaghan in Harold Wilson in the second. Healey thought Wilson would unite the Labour Party and lead it to victory in the next general election, he didn't think. He was appointed Shadow Secretary of State for Defence after the creation of the position in 1964. Following Labour's victory in the 1964 general election, Healey served as Secretary of State for Defence under Prime Minister Harold Wilson, he was responsible for 450,000 uniformed servicemen and women, for 406,000 civil servants stationed around the globe. He was best known for his economising, liquidating most of Britain's military role outside of Europe, cancelling expensive projects; the cause was not a fiscal crisis but rather a decision to shift money and priorities to the domestic budget and maintain a commitment to NATO. He cut defence expenditure, scrapping the carrier HMS Centaur and the reconstructed HMS Victorious in 1967, cancelling the proposed CVA-01 fleet
The New Statesman is a British political and cultural magazine published in London. Founded as a weekly review of politics and literature on 12 April 1913, it was connected with Sidney and Beatrice Webb and other leading members of the socialist Fabian Society, such as George Bernard Shaw, a founding director, they had supported The New Age, a journal edited by A. R. Orage, but by 1912 that journal moved away editorially from supporting Fabian politics and women's suffrage. Today, the magazine is a print-digital hybrid. According to its present self-description, it has a liberal, political position; the magazine was founded in 1913 by members of the Fabian Society as a weekly review of politics and literature. The longest-serving editor was Kingsley Martin, the current editor is Jason Cowley, who assumed the post in 2008; the magazine has notably recognized and published new writers and critics, as well as encouraged major careers. Its contributors have included John Maynard Keynes, Bertrand Russell, Virginia Woolf, Christopher Hitchens, Paul Johnson.
The magazine was affectionately referred to as "The Staggers" because of crises in funding and circulation. The nickname is now used as the title of its politics blog. Circulation has surged again in recent years. In 2016, the certified average circulation was 34,025. Traffic to the magazine's website that year reached a new high with 27 million page views and four million unique users. Associated websites are CityMetric and NewStatesman Tech. In 2018, New Statesman America was launched; the New Statesman was founded in 1913 by Sidney and Beatrice Webb with the support of George Bernard Shaw and other prominent members of the Fabian Society. The Fabians had supported The New Age but that journal by 1912 had moved away from supporting Fabian politics and issues such as women's suffrage; the first editor of the New Statesman was Clifford Sharp, who remained editor until 1928. Desmond MacCarthy joined the paper in 1913 and became literary editor, recruiting Cyril Connolly to the staff in 1928. J. C. Squire edited the magazine.
In November 1914, three months after the beginning of the war, the New Statesmen published a lengthy anti-war supplement by Shaw, "Common Sense About The War", a scathing dissection of its causes, which castigated all nations involved but savaged the British. It created an international sensation; the New York Times reprinted it as America began its lengthy debate on entering what was called "the European War". During Sharp's last two years in the post, from around 1926, he was debilitated by chronic alcoholism and the paper was edited by his deputy Charles Mostyn Lloyd. Although the Webbs and most Fabians were associated with the Labour Party, Sharp was drawn to the Asquith Liberals. Lloyd stood in after Sharp's departure until the appointment of Kingsley Martin as editor in 1930 – a position Martin was to hold for 30 years. In 1931 the New Statesman merged with the Liberal weekly The Nation and Athenaeum and changed its name to the New Statesman and Nation, which it kept until 1964; the chairman of The Nation and Athenaeum's board was the economist John Maynard Keynes, who came to be an important influence on the newly merged paper, which started with a circulation of just under 13,000.
It absorbed The Week-end Review in 1934. The Competition feature, in which readers submitted jokes and parodies and pastiches of the work of famous authors, became one of the most famous parts of the magazine. Most famously, Graham Greene won second prize in a challenge to parody his own work. During the 1930s, Martin's New Statesman moved markedly to the left politically, it became anti-fascist and pacifist, opposing British rearmament. After the 1938 Anschluss, Martin wrote: "Today if Mr. Chamberlain would come forward and tell us that his policy was one not only of isolation but of Little Englandism in which the Empire was to be given up because it could not be defended and in which military defence was to be abandoned because war would end civilization, we for our part would wholeheartedly support him."The magazine provoked further controversy with its coverage of Joseph Stalin's Soviet Union. In 1932, Keynes reviewed Martin's book on the Soviet Union, Low's Russian Sketchbook. Keynes argued that Martin was'a little too full of good will' towards Stalin, that any doubts about Stalin's rule had'been swallowed down if possible'.
Martin still allowed it to be printed. In a 17 September 1932 editorial, the magazine accused the British Conservative press of misrepresenting the Soviet Union's agricultural policy but added that "the serious nature of the food situation is no secret and no invention"; the magazine defended the Soviet collectivization policy, but said the policy had'proceeded far too and lost the cooperation of farmers'. In 1934 it ran an interview with Stalin by H. G. Wells. Although sympathetic to aspects of the Soviet Union, Wells disagreed with Stalin on several issues; the debate resulted in several more articles in the magazine. In 1938 came Martin's refusal to publish George Orwell's celebrated dispatches from Barcelona during the Spanish civil war because they criticised the communists for suppressing the anarchists and the left-wing Workers' Party of Marxist Unification.'It is an unfortunat
Peter Benjamin Mandelson, Baron Mandelson, is a British Labour politician, president of international think tank Policy Network, Chairman of strategic advisory firm Global Counsel. He served as Member of Parliament for Hartlepool from 1992 to 2004 and held a number of Cabinet positions under Prime Ministers Tony Blair and Gordon Brown, he was the European Commissioner for Trade between 2004 and 2008. Mandelson was one of several key individuals responsible for the rebranding of the Labour Party as New Labour before its subsequent victory in the 1997 election, he was twice forced to resign from the Cabinet before leaving Parliament to take up an appointment as a European Commissioner. He rejoined the Cabinet for a third time after being created a Life Peer, sitting on the Labour benches in the House of Lords. Peter Mandelson was born in Hampstead Garden Suburb, Middlesex, on 21 October 1953, the son of Mary Joyce and George Norman Mandelson, his father's family were Jewish. His father was the advertising manager of The Jewish Chronicle, commissioned as an officer in the Royal Dragoons in World War II.
On his mother's side Peter is the grandson of Herbert Morrison, the London County Council Leader and Labour Cabinet Minister in the Attlee ministry. He says of his childhood - "my whole upbringing was framed around the Suburb - my friendships and values". Mandelson attended Garden Suburb School and between 1965 and 1972 Hendon County Grammar School. In 1966 he appeared on stage with the local amateur theatre group, the Hampstead Garden Suburb Dramatic Society, as the eponymous lead in The Winslow Boy. From 1973 to 1976 he read Philosophy and Economics at St Catherine's College, Oxford. In his teenage years, he was a member of the Young Communist League, but became a member of the Oxford University Labour Club. In the late 1970s he became Chairman of the British Youth Council; as Chair of the BYC, he was a delegate in 1978 to the Soviet-organised World Festival of Youth and Students in Havana, where with several future Labour Cabinet colleagues, he – together with future IUSY President Hilary Barnard, Charles Clarke, Richard Corbett and Trevor Phillips – frustrated agreement on a distorted Soviet text on youth in the capitalist countries.
He was elected to Lambeth Borough Council in September 1979 but stood down in 1982, disillusioned with the state of Labour politics. Mandelson worked for some time as a television producer at London Weekend Television on Weekend World, where he formed a friendship with his superior John Birt. In 1985, Labour leader Neil Kinnock appointed him as Labour's Director of Communications; as Director, he was one of the first people in Britain. In 1986 Mandelson ran the campaign at the Fulham by-election in which Labour defeated the Conservative Party. For the 1987 election campaign, Mandelson commissioned film director Hugh Hudson, whose Chariots of Fire had won an Oscar as Best Picture, to make a party political broadcast promoting Neil Kinnock as a potential prime minister. Tagged "Kinnock – the Movie", it led to the party leader's approval rating being raised by 16% or 19% in polls and was repeated in another PPB slot; the election, held on 11 June 1987, returned Margaret Thatcher's Conservatives for the third time, although Labour gained 20 seats, this time, convincingly pushed the SDP-Liberal Alliance into third place.
Opponents termed the Labour Party's election campaign "a brilliantly successful election defeat". He ceased being a Labour Party official in 1991 when he was selected as Labour candidate for the safe seat of Hartlepool. Mandelson was first elected to the House of Commons at the 1992 general election, made several speeches outlining his strong support for the European Union. Although sidelined during the brief period when John Smith led the party, Mandelson was by now close to two Shadow Cabinet members – Gordon Brown and Tony Blair – each regarded as potential future leaders of the party. Following Smith's sudden death on 12 May 1994, Mandelson chose to back Blair for the leadership, believing him to be a superior communicator to Brown and played a leading role in the leadership campaign; this created antagonism between Mandelson and Brown, though they were considered allies in the Labour Party. In 1994 Kate Garvey suggested that Mandelson, should adopt a "nom de guerre" throughout Blair's leadership bid, so that he might conceal his considerable role within the campaign team.
Mandelson agreed to be called "Bobby" for the duration and was thanked by Blair using this name in his victory speech. After becoming a close ally and trusted adviser to Tony Blair, Mandelson was Labour's election campaign director for the 1997 general election, which Labour won decisively, he was appointed as a Minister without Portfolio in the Cabinet Office, where his job was to co-ordinate within government. A few months he acquired responsibility for the Millennium Dome, after Blair decided to go ahead with the project despite the opposition of most of the cabinet. Jennie Page, the Dome project's chief executive, was abruptly sacked after a farcical opening night, she gave evidence to a House of Commons Select Committee for Culture and Heritage in June 2000. In what was seen as a reference to the close interest in the Dome from Mandelson, known at the time as so-called "Dome Secretary" and his successor Lord Falconer of Thoroton, Page told the committee: "I made several attempts to persuade ministers that sta
Christ Church, Oxford
Christ Church is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England. Christ Church is a joint foundation of the college and the cathedral of the Oxford diocese, which serves as the college chapel and whose dean is ex officio the college head. Founded in 1546 by King Henry VIII, it is one of the larger colleges of the University of Oxford with 629 students in 2016, it is the second wealthiest college with an endowment of £550m as of 2018. Christ Church has a number of architecturally significant buildings including Tom Tower, Tom Quad, the Great Dining Hall, the seat of the parliament assembled by King Charles I during the English Civil War; the buildings have inspired replicas throughout the world in addition to being featured in films such as Harry Potter and The Golden Compass. This has helped Christ Church become the most popular Oxford college for tourists with half a million visitors annually. Christ Church has many notable alumni including thirteen British prime ministers, King Edward VII, King William II of the Netherlands, seventeen Archbishops, writers Lewis Carroll and W.
H. Auden, philosopher John Locke, scientist Robert Hooke. Christ Church is partly responsible for the creation of University College Reading, which gained its own Royal Charter and became the University of Reading; the first female undergraduates matriculated at Christ Church in 1980. In 1525, at the height of his power, Thomas Wolsey, Lord Chancellor of England and Cardinal Archbishop of York, suppressed the Priory of St Frideswide in Oxford and founded Cardinal College on its lands, using funds from the dissolution of Wallingford Priory and other minor priories, he planned the establishment on a magnificent scale, but fell from grace in 1529, with the buildings only three-quarters complete, as they were to remain for 140 years. In 1531 the college was itself suppressed, but it was refounded in 1532 as King Henry VIII's College by Henry VIII, to whom Wolsey's property had escheated. In 1546 the King, who had broken from the Church of Rome and acquired great wealth through the dissolution of the monasteries in England, refounded the college as Christ Church as part of the reorganisation of the Church of England, making the demolished priory church the cathedral of the created Diocese of Oxford.
Christ Church's sister college in the University of Cambridge is Trinity College, founded the same year by Henry VIII. Since the time of Queen Elizabeth I the college has been associated with Westminster School; the dean remains to ex officio member of the school's governing body. Major additions have been made to the buildings through the centuries, Wolsey's Great Quadrangle was crowned with the famous gate-tower designed by Sir Christopher Wren. To this day the bell in the tower, Great Tom, is rung 101 times at 9 pm at the former Oxford time every night, for the 100 original scholars of the college. In former times this was done at midnight, signalling the close of all college gates throughout Oxford. Since it took 20 minutes to ring the 101, Christ Church gates, unlike those of other colleges, did not close until 12:20; when the ringing was moved back to 9:00 pm, Christ Church gates still remained open until 12.20, 20 minutes than any other college. Although the clock itself now shows GMT/BST, Christ Church still follows Oxford time in the timings of services in the cathedral.
King Charles I made the Deanery his palace and held his Parliament in the Great Hall during the English Civil War. In the evening of 29 May 1645, during the second siege of Oxford, a "bullet of IX lb. weight" shot from the Parliamentarians warning-piece at Marston fell against the wall of the north side of the Hall. Several of Christ Church's deans achieved high academic distinction, notably Owen under the Commonwealth and Fell in the Restoration period and Gaisford in the early 19th century and Liddell in the high Victorian era. For over four centuries Christ Church admitted men only. Christ Church, formally titled "The Dean and Students of the Cathedral Church of Christ in Oxford of the Foundation of King Henry the Eighth", is the only academic institution in the world, a cathedral, the seat of the Bishop of Oxford; the Visitor of Christ Church is the reigning British sovereign, the Bishop of Oxford is unique among English bishops in not being the Visitor of his own cathedral. The head of the college is the Dean of Christ Church, an Anglican cleric appointed by the crown as dean of the cathedral church.
There are a senior and a junior censor the former of whom is responsible for academic matters, the latter for undergraduate discipline. A censor theologiae is appointed to act as the dean's deputy; the form "Christ Church College" is considered incorrect, in part because it ignores the cathedral, an integral part of the unique dual foundation. The governing body of Christ Church consists of the dean and chapter of the cathedral, together with the "Students of Christ Church", who are not junior members but rather the equivalent of the fellows of the other colleges; until the 19th century, the students differed from fellows in that they had no governing powers in their own college, these residing with the dean and chapter. Christ Church si