The bass guitar is a plucked string instrument similar in appearance and construction to an electric guitar, except with a longer neck and scale length, four to six strings or courses. The four-string bass is tuned the same as the double bass, which corresponds to pitches one octave lower than the four lowest-pitched strings of a guitar, it is played with the fingers or thumb, or striking with a pick. The electric bass guitar has pickups and must be connected to an amplifier and speaker to be loud enough to compete with other instruments. Since the 1960s, the bass guitar has replaced the double bass in popular music as the bass instrument in the rhythm section. While types of basslines vary from one style of music to another, the bassist plays a similar role: anchoring the harmonic framework and establishing the beat. Many styles of music include the bass guitar, it is a soloing instrument. According to the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, an "Electric bass guitar a Guitar with four heavy strings tuned E1'-A1'-D2-G2."
It defines bass as "Bass. A contraction of Double bass or Electric bass guitar." According to some authors the proper term is "electric bass". Common names for the instrument are "bass guitar", "electric bass guitar", "electric bass" and some authors claim that they are accurate; the bass guitar is a transposing instrument, as it is notated in bass clef an octave higher than it sounds. In the 1930s, musician and inventor Paul Tutmarc of Seattle, developed the first electric bass guitar in its modern form, a fretted instrument designed to be played horizontally; the 1935 sales catalog for Tutmarc's electronic musical instrument company, featured his "Model 736 Bass Fiddle", a four-stringed, solid-bodied, fretted electric bass guitar with a 30 1⁄2-inch scale length, a single pick up. The adoption of a guitar's body shape made the instrument easier to hold and transport than any of the existing stringed bass instruments; the addition of frets enabled bassists to play in tune more than on fretless acoustic or electric upright basses.
Around 100 of these instruments were made during this period. Audiovox sold their “Model 236” bass amplifier. Around 1947, Tutmarc's son, began marketing a similar bass under the Serenader brand name, prominently advertised in the nationally distributed L. D. Heater Music Company wholesale jobber catalogue of 1948. However, the Tutmarc family inventions did not achieve market success. In the 1950s, Leo Fender and George Fullerton developed the first mass-produced electric bass guitar; the Fender Electric Instrument Manufacturing Company began producing the Precision Bass in October 1951. The "P-bass" evolved from a simple, un-contoured "slab" body design and a single coil pickup similar to that of a Telecaster, to something more like a Fender Stratocaster, with a contoured body design, edges beveled for comfort, a split single coil pickup; the "Fender Bass" was a revolutionary new instrument for gigging musicians. In comparison with the large, heavy upright bass, the main bass instrument in popular music from the early 1900s to the 1940s, the bass guitar could be transported to shows.
When amplified, the bass guitar was less prone than acoustic basses to unwanted audio feedback. In 1953 Monk Montgomery became the first bassist to tour with the Fender bass guitar, in Lionel Hampton's postwar big band. Montgomery was possibly the first to record with the bass guitar, on July 2, 1953 with The Art Farmer Septet. Roy Johnson, Shifty Henry, were other early Fender bass pioneers. Bill Black, playing with Elvis Presley, switched from upright bass to the Fender Precision Bass around 1957; the bass guitar was intended to appeal to guitarists as well as upright bass players, many early pioneers of the instrument, such as Carol Kaye, Joe Osborn, Paul McCartney were guitarists. In 1953, following Fender's lead, Gibson released the first short-scale violin-shaped electric bass, with an extendable end pin so a bassist could play it upright or horizontally. Gibson renamed the bass the EB-1 in 1958. In 1958, Gibson released the maple arched-top EB-2 described in the Gibson catalogue as a "hollow-body electric bass that features a Bass/Baritone pushbutton for two different tonal characteristics".
In 1959 these were followed by the more conventional-looking EB-0 Bass. The EB-0 was similar to a Gibson SG in appearance. Whereas Fender basses had pickups mounted in positions in between the base of the neck and the top of the bridge, many of Gibson's early basses featured one humbucking pickup mounted directly against the neck pocket; the EB-3, introduced in 1961 had a "mini-humbucker" at the bridge position. Gibson basses tended to be smaller, sleeker instruments with a shorter scale length than the Precision. A number of other companies began manufacturing bass guitars during the 1950s: Kay in 1952, Hofner and Danelectro in 1956, Rickenbacker in 1957 and Burns/Supersound in 1958. 1956 saw the appearance at the German trade fair "Musikmesse Frankfurt" of the distinctive Höfner 500/1 violin-shaped bass made using violin construction techniques by Walter Höfner, a second-generation violin luthier. The design was known popularly as the "Beat
Nu metal is a subgenre of alternative metal that combines elements of heavy metal music with elements of other music genres such as hip hop, alternative rock, funk and grunge. Nu metal bands have drawn elements and influences from a variety of musical styles, including multiple genres of heavy metal. Nu metal features guitar solos. Many nu metal guitarists use seven-string guitars. DJs are featured in nu metal to provide instrumentation such as sampling, turntable scratching and electronic backgrounds. Vocal styles in nu metal include singing, rapping and growling. Nu metal is one of the key genres of the new wave of American heavy metal. Nu metal became popular in the late 1990s with bands and artists such as Korn, Limp Bizkit, Kid Rock all releasing albums that sold millions of copies. Nu metal's popularity continued during the early 2000s, with bands such as Papa Roach, P. O. D. all selling multi-platinum albums, came to a peak with Linkin Park's diamond-selling album Hybrid Theory. However, by the mid-2000s, the oversaturation of bands combined with the under-performance of a number of high-profile releases led to nu metal's decline, leading to the rise of metalcore and many nu metal bands disbanding or abandoning their established sound in favor of other genres.
During the 2010s, there has been a minor nu metal revival. Nu metal is known as nü-metal and aggro-metal, it is a subgenre of alternative metal. MTV states that the early nu metal group Korn "arrived in 1993 into the burgeoning alternative metal scene, which would morph into nü-metal the way college rock became alternative rock." Stereogum has claimed that nu metal was a "weird outgrowth of the Lollapalooza-era alt-metal scene". Nu metal merges elements of heavy metal music with elements of other music genres such as grunge, hip hop, alternative rock. Nu metal bands have been influenced by and have used elements of a variety of musical genres, including electronic music, gothic rock, hardcore punk, punk rock, dance music, new wave, post-punk, symphonic rock and synth-pop. Nu metal bands are influenced by and use elements of genres of heavy metal music such as death metal, rap metal, groove metal, funk metal, thrash metal; some nu metal bands, such as Static-X and Dope, made nu metal music with elements of industrial metal.
In contrast with other heavy metal subgenres, nu metal tends to use the same structure of verses and bridges as those in pop music. Nu metal is syncopated and is based on guitar riffs. Mid-song bridges and a general lack of guitar solos contrasts it with other genres of heavy metal. Kory Grow of Revolver wrote, "... N its efforts to tune down and simplify riffs, nu-metal drove a stake through the heart of the guitar solo". Another contrast with other heavy metal genres is nu metal's emphasis on rhythm, rather than on complexity or mood its rhythm sounds like that of groove metal; the wah pedal is featured in nu metal music. Nu metal guitar riffs are similar to those of death metal. Nu metal bassists and drummers are influenced by funk and hip hop adding to nu metal's rhythmic nature. Blast beats, which are common in heavy metal subgenres such as black metal and death metal, are rare in nu metal. Nu metal's similarities with many heavy metal subgenres include its use of common time, distorted guitars, power chords and note structures revolving around Dorian, Aeolian or Phrygian modes.
While loud and distorted electric guitars are a core feature of all metal genres, nu metal guitarists took the sounds of "violence and destruction" to new levels with their overdriven guitar tone, which music journalists Kitts and Tolinski compared to the "...sound a Mack truck being crushed by a collapsing skyscraper."Some nu metal bands use seven-string guitars that are down-tuned, rather than traditional six-string guitars. Some bass guitarists use five-string and six-string instruments. Bass guitar-playing in nu metal features an emphasis on funk elements. In nu metal music, DJs are sometimes featured to provide instrumentation such as sampling, turntable scratching and electronic backgrounds. Nu metal tends to have hip hop rhythms. Vocal styles used in nu metal music include singing, rapping and growling. Vocals in nu metal are rhythmic and influenced by hip hop. Although some nu metal bands, such as Limp Bizkit and Linkin Park have rapping in their music, some nu metal bands, such as Godsmack and Staind, do not feature rapping.
Nu metal bands feature hip hop musicians as guests in their songs. The hip hop musician Nas was featured on Korn's song "Play Me", on the band's album Take a Look in the Mirror. Limp Bizkit has recorded with multiple hip hop musicians including Method Man, Lil Wayne, Redman, DMX and Snoop Dogg. Linkin Park collaborated with hip hop musician Jay Z on their 2004 extended play Collision Course. Kid Rock has recorded with hip hop musicians Snoop Dogg. Trevor Baker of The Guardian wrote, "Bands such as Linkin Park and the much reviled Limp Bizkit... did far more to break down the artificial barriers between'urban music' and rock than any of their more critically acceptable counterparts." Lyrics in nu metal songs are angry or nihilistic.
Celtic Frost were a Swiss extreme metal band from Zürich. They are known for their strong influence on the development of extreme metal. Formed in 1981 as Hellhammer, the band became Celtic Frost in 1984 and was active until 1993, it re-formed in 2001 and disbanded following frontman Tom Gabriel Fischer's departure in 2008. The band was inspired by metal bands such as Black Sabbath, Judas Priest and Venom as well as gothic rock groups like Bauhaus and the Banshees and Christian Death and by the hardcore punk of Discharge, their music included elements of various extreme metal styles. Their earlier music was classified as thrash metal and death metal and their work was classified as doom metal; the level of experimentation on albums such as Into the Pandemonium led certain journalists to describe the band's direction as avant-garde metal. Celtic Frost's frontman and singer Tom Gabriel Fischer, adopted the alias Tom Warrior. With Steve Warrior on bass, he formed one of the earliest extreme metal bands, Hellhammer, in 1981.
Steve Warrior was replaced by Martin Eric Ain – a pseudonym. The band attracted a small international fan-base, got signed to Noise Records in Germany and recorded their debut EP Apocalyptic Raids in March 1984, now a rare find on eBay or second-hand record stores around the world. Metal publications were skeptical of Hellhammer's musical endeavor. Metal Forces loathed the group. Rock Power was not fond of Hellhammer either – they considered it "the most terrible and atrocious thing ‘musicians’ were allowed to record". In fact, they were "receiving miserable reviews everywhere", Warrior concluded. Regarding the controversial status of his former band, Thomas said: Way back in 1984 and 85, when Martin Eric Ain and I recorded Celtic Frost's first two albums Morbid Tales and To Mega Therion, Hellhammer lasted on us like a curse. Though Hellhammer was the reason we had thought over our goals and conceived the Frost, HH's left-overs kept being mighty rocks in our way. Many voices saw Frost as the same band with just a name-change.
The lack of musical quality in HH made it impossible for us to get an unbiased reaction for Frost. To make a long story short, it killed all our work and dreams. By May 1984, Hellhammer had disbanded. Fischer and Ain, along with session drummer Stephen Priestly, regrouped as Celtic Frost, their 1984 debut mini-LP, Morbid Tales was a hit in the underground metal scene, the band set out on its first tour, through Germany and Austria. This was followed with an EP Emperor's Return. Both early releases are now available on the one CD. One of their more influential recordings was 1985's To Mega Therion which did not feature Ain on bass, but stand-in Dominic Steiner; the cover artwork is a painting by H. R. Giger entitled Satan I; the album was a major influence on black metal genres. Ain did return. In 1987 followed Into the Pandemonium; the album is more varied than many of Celtic Frost's past LPs, with unlikely covers charged love songs, the album's recurring industrial-influenced rhythmic songs of demons and destruction, traditional Frost styled songs about dreams and fear, a dark, classical piece with female vocals.
The album is vastly different from the band's previous work and cemented its late 80s avant-garde metal term. However, it does have the recurring symphonic elements found on previous albums; the album has a more classic heavy metal style within the songs with elements of industrial and gothic rock, has an industrial/electronic body music -inspired rhythm in "One in Their Pride". It does have a few black metal elements remaining in Warrior's vocals and some thrash-influenced guitar riffs; these albums were some of the pivotal LPs for underground metal and introduced a new and more varied sound. Celtic Frost, along with Venom and Bathory were pioneers in the still underground black metal scene, although Celtic Frost were much more experimental with the addition of classical instruments, operatic female vocals and sampling. Celtic Frost was labeled by critics as avant-garde metal. After a subsequent North American tour, financial trouble, personal tension between the band members and an ill-fated relationship with their record label led to a dissolution of the band.
Six months Warrior reformed the band with Stephen Priestly back on drums, Oliver Amberg on guitars and Curt Victor Bryant on bass and recorded the fourth studio album Cold Lake, released on 1 September 1988 by Noise Records. Despite it being marketed to exploit the mass appeal of glam metal, the album has more of a traditional heavy metal sound. Bryant fired Amberg and former live show guitarist Ron Marks returned for the recording of Vanity/Nemesis in 1990; the most significant change, was the return of early bassist Martin Eric Ain, but Celtic Frost's reputation did not recover. The group's next album was a collection of rare recordings called Parched With Thirst Am I and Dying; the compilation's title was inspired by an old Roman prayer. It featured unreleased material, re-recorded versions of older songs and some studio session versions. A final proposed album titled "Under Apollyon's Sun" was never made under that title, although Fischer co-founded a new group called Apollyon Su
Exodus (American band)
Exodus is an American thrash metal band formed in 1979 in Richmond, California. They have gone through numerous lineup changes, two extended hiatuses, the deaths of two former band members, their current lineup consists of guitarists Gary Holt and Lee Altus, bassist Jack Gibson, drummer Tom Hunting, lead vocalist Steve "Zetro" Souza. Hunting is one of the original members, departed from Exodus twice, in 1989 and 2004, but rejoined in 2007. Holt joined the band about two years after its formation, is the only member of Exodus to appear on all their releases. Since its formation, Exodus has released ten studio albums, two live albums, one compilation album, a re-recording of their first album. Along with Metallica, Testament, Death Angel, Vio-Lence, Forbidden and Lȧȧz Rockit, they are credited as pioneers of the Bay Area thrash metal scene, have sold over five million albums worldwide. Exodus had particular success in the mid-to-late 1980s with their first three studio albums: Bonded by Blood, Pleasures of the Flesh and Fabulous Disaster.
The critical praise given to Fabulous Disaster garnered attention from major labels, including Capitol Records, with whom Exodus signed in 1989. The band released two more studio albums before disbanding in 1994. After temporarily reuniting in 1997–1998, Exodus reformed once again in 2001, since they have released five more studio albums, the most recent being Blood In, Blood Out; the band is writing a follow-up album, tentatively due for release in late 2019 or early 2020. The initial lineup of Exodus was formed in the late 1970s by guitarists Kirk Hammett and Tim Agnello, drummer/vocalist Tom Hunting, vocalist Keith Stewart, while they attended high school together; the band added bass guitarist Carlton Melson in 1980, the quintet began making a name for themselves playing backyard parties and various school functions. They played cover songs in the vein of 1970s hard rock and New wave of British heavy metal acts but developed some of their own original songs. Stewart soon left Hunting became the band's sole vocalist for some time.
Carlton Melson was replaced in 1981 by bass guitarist Geoff Andrews. Tim Agnello would leave the group, moving to New York City and staying involved in the music industry as a guitar player and writer; this left Exodus to perform as a power trio until a replacement was found in Hammett's friend and Exodus roadie Gary Holt. In 1981, Hammett met El Cerrito resident Paul Baloff at a North Berkeley house party, a friendship, started – according to Hammett – by their shared admiration for punk rock and 1970s heavy metal music. Baloff became the band's lead vocalist and the quintet recorded a 3-track demo tape in 1982 consisting of the songs "Whipping Queen", "Death and Domination" and "Warlord", a release which would be Hammett's only recording with Exodus; the band's music began to incorporate elements of hardcore punk into their NWOBHM roots, Exodus were considered the pioneers of the Bay Area thrash metal scene. In November 1982, Exodus opened a show at San Francisco's Old Waldorf venue for Metallica, a then-relatively unknown band from Los Angeles.
As the band began playing more shows in Bay Area clubs, they gained a large, fervent fan base known for their violent concert behavior. In early 1983, Hammett left Exodus to join Metallica on the recommendation of manager / producer Mark Whitaker, leaving Gary Holt to take creative control of the band. Hammett was replaced short term by Mike Maung, followed by Evan McCaskey, before the band found a permanent replacement in guitarist Rick Hunolt. Geoff Andrews left to start an early incarnation of pioneering death metal band Possessed, was replaced by bass guitarist Rob McKillop. In the spring of 1984, Exodus entered Turk Street Studios with producer Doug Piercy to record demos of songs that would appear on their debut album; the band was signed to New York-based Torrid Records and Exodus prepared to enter Prairie Sun Recording Studios that summer. The band recorded their first album, Bonded by Blood, in the summer of 1984 with the band's manager Mark Whitaker producing. 1984 concert photos from Exodus shows at Aquatic Park's Eastern Front Metal Festival and Ruthie's Inn were included on the album sleeve inserts.
Titled A Lesson in Violence, the album was not released until April 1985 amidst creative and business setbacks. Whilst Bonded By Blood is considered a influential thrash metal album today, critics have regarded the delay in its release as having hindered the impact the album could have had; as Allmusic reviewer Eduardo Rivadavia would write in his review for the album: "Had it been released after it was recorded in 1984, Exodus' Bonded by Blood might be regarded today alongside Metallica's Kill'Em All as one of the landmark albums responsible for launching the thrash metal wave." Exodus promoted the album by going on tour with Slayer. Four songs from their performance of April 5, 1985 at Studio 54 in New York City were filmed and released on home video as Combat Tour Live: The Ultimate Revenge; the band subsequently toured or played selected shows with bands like Exciter, Anthrax, King Diamond, Possessed, D. R. I. Nuclear Assault and Hirax. Shortly after touring for Bonded by Blood was complete, Paul Baloff was fired from the band due to his behavior related to alcohol and substance abuse, was replaced by Steve "Zetro" Souza, the lead vocalist for Legacy, an early incarnation of
Slayer is an American thrash metal band from Huntington Park, California. The band was formed in 1981 by vocalist and bassist Tom Araya and guitarists Kerry King and Jeff Hanneman. Slayer's fast and aggressive musical style made them one of the founding "big four" bands of thrash metal, alongside Metallica and Anthrax. Slayer's current lineup comprises King, drummer Paul Bostaph and guitarist Gary Holt. Hanneman and drummers Dave Lombardo and Jon Dette are former members of the band. In the original line-up, King and Araya contributed to the band's lyrics, all of the band's music was written by King and Hanneman; the band's lyrics and album art, which cover topics such as murder, serial killers, torture, human experimentation, hate crimes, religion, antireligion and war, have generated album bans, delays and criticism from religious groups and factions of the general public. However, its music has been influential being cited by many bands as an influence musically and lyrically. Slayer has released twelve studio albums, two live albums, a box set, six music videos, two extended plays and a cover album.
Four of the band's studio albums have received gold certification in the United States. The band has received five Grammy Award nominations, winning one in 2007 for the song "Eyes of the Insane" and one in 2008 for the song "Final Six", both of which were from the album Christ Illusion. Between 1991 and 2013, the band sold five million albums in the United States. After 37 years of recording and performing, Slayer announced in January 2018 that they would embark on their final world tour, which began that May and is estimated to wrap up in 2019 or 2020. Slayer was formed in 1981 by Kerry King, Jeff Hanneman, Dave Lombardo, Tom Araya; the group started out playing covers of songs by bands such as Iron Maiden and Judas Priest at parties and clubs in Southern California. The band's early image relied on Satanic themes that featured pentagrams, make-up, inverted crosses. Rumors that the band was known as Dragonslayer, after the 1981 movie of the same name, were denied by King, as he stated: "We never were.
The band was spotted by Brian Slagel, a former music journalist who had founded Metal Blade Records. Impressed with Slayer, he met with the band backstage and asked them to record an original song for his upcoming Metal Massacre III compilation album; the band agreed and their song "Aggressive Perfector" created an underground buzz upon its release in mid 1983, which led to Slagel offering the band a recording contract with Metal Blade. Without any recording budget, the band had to self-finance its debut album. Combining the savings of Araya, employed as a respiratory therapist, money borrowed from King's father, the band entered the studio in November 1983; the album was rushed into stocking shelves three weeks after tracks were completed. Show No Mercy, released in December 1983 by Metal Blade Records, generated by underground popularity for the band; the group began a club tour of California to promote the album. The tour gave the band additional popularity and sales of Show No Mercy reached more than 20,000 in the US and another 20,000 worldwide.
In February 1984, King joined Dave Mustaine's new band Megadeth. Hanneman was worried about King's decision, stating in an interview, "I guess we're gonna get a new guitar player." While Mustaine wanted King to stay on a permanent basis, King left after five shows, stating Mustaine's band was "taking too much of my time." The split caused a rift between King and Mustaine, which evolved into a long running feud between the two bands. In June 1984, Slayer released; the EP featured a darker, more thrash-oriented style than Show No Mercy, laid the groundwork for the future direction of the band. The opening track, "Chemical Warfare", has become a live staple, played at nearly every show since 1984. Slayer began their first national club tour that year traveling in Tom Araya's Camaro towing a U-Haul trailer; the band recorded the live album Live Undead in November 1984 while in New York City. In March 1985, Slayer began a national tour with Venom and Exodus, resulting in their first live home video dubbed Combat Tour: The Ultimate Revenge.
The video featured live footage filmed at the Studio 54 club. The band made its live European debut at the Heavy Sound Festival in Belgium opening for UFO,By 1985, Show No Mercy had sold over 40,000 copies, which led to the band returning to the studio to record their second full-length album. Metal Blade financed a recording budget. Released in September 1985, Slayer's second full-length album, Hell Awaits, expanded on the darkness of Haunting the Chapel, with hell and Satan as common song subjects; the album was the band's most progressive offering, featuring longer and more complex song structures. The intro of the title track is a backwards recording of a demonic-sounding voice repeating "Join us", ending with "Welcome back" before the track begins; the album was a hit, with fans choosing Slayer for best band, best live band, Hell Awaits, as 1985's best album, Dave Lombardo as best drummer in the British magazine Metal Forces' 1985 Readers Poll. Following the success of Hell Awaits, Slayer was offered a recording contract with Russell Simmons and Rick Rubin's newly founded Def Jam Records, a larg
The Burning Red
The Burning Red is the third studio album by the American groove metal band Machine Head. It's the band's second best selling album in the US, selling as many copies in three years as Burn My Eyes sold in eight years; the album has sold over 134,000 copies in the US and it was certified silver in 2011 by the BPI for sales of 60,000 in the UK. Machine Head guitarist Logan Mader quit the band in 1998 following the recording of their album The More Things Change.... With the recording of The Burning Red, the band added new elements to its music, including a small amount of rapping vocals, a move which some believe to have been influenced by Luster himself; the album shows the band experimenting musically, using a disco drum line in "The Blood, The Sweat, The Tears", putting some rapping vocals in "Desire To Fire", a layer of crooning vocals on "Silver". Citing the need for a few B-side tracks, producer Ross Robinson encouraged the band to record a smooth-sounding cover of the Police song "Message in a Bottle" after hearing Robb Flynn experiment with it during rehearsal.
The song ended up on the album, but not used as a B-side. Joel McIver said that anyone dismissing the album as nu metal has not listened to it, or is not a fan of the "atmospheric, impassioned groove-metal that Machine Head were focusing on at this stage." Rick Anderson of AllMusic called the album "aggro-metal". Responding to critics, McClain stated. Flynn said that the band had been pigeonholed by those who complained that the two prior albums were too similar to each other, so the band had determined to reach for different influences on this project. Amy Sciaretto of CMJ said that, despite the presence of Robinson who had produced Limp Bizkit and Korn, The Burning Red shows the progression of Machine Head's own "visceral, gut-grinding" sound rather than an imitation of Korn; the song "Five" is about a sexual abuse incident Flynn suffered as a five-year-old child. Flynn said, he would never perform it on stage. The album was added to US radio playlists on July 12, 1999, it was released for retail sale on July 27.
The Burning Red was well received by critics, it sold well, but the band's change in image and musical direction was criticized, with critics and fans alike accusing the band of "selling out". However, Rick Anderson of AllMusic was among those who praised the album, stating Machine Head was "sounding a bit looser and less constricted musically than they have in the past". David Jarman wrote for CMJ that the album was "pretty much aggro business-as-usual" for fans who were familiar with the "aggression and alienation" of late-1990s metal musical trends, but that listeners could expect to revel in the album's "thunderous visceral crunch." The Burning Red became Machine Head's top selling album for a number of years, debuted at number 88 on the Billboard 200. All lyrics written by Robb Flynn.