History of Pittsburgh
The history of Pittsburgh began with centuries of Native American civilization in the modern Pittsburgh region, known as "Dionde:gâ'" in the Seneca language.' French and British explorers encountered the strategic confluence where the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers meet to form the Ohio, which leads to the Mississippi River. The area became a battleground when Britain fought for control in the 1750s; when the British were victorious, the French ceded control of territories east of the Mississippi. Following American independence in 1783, the village around Fort Pitt continued to grow; the region saw the short-lived Whiskey Rebellion, when farmers rebelled against federal taxes on whiskey. The War of 1812 cut off the supply of British goods. By 1815, Pittsburgh was producing large quantities of iron, brass and glass products. By the 1840s, Pittsburgh had grown to one of the largest cities west of the Allegheny Mountains. Production of steel began in 1875. During the 1877 railway riots it was the site of the most violence and damage in any city affected by the nationwide strikes of that summer.
Workers protested against cuts in wages, burning down buildings at the railyards, including 100 train engines and more than 1,000 cars. Forty men were killed, most of them strikers. By 1911, Pittsburgh was producing half the nation's steel. Pittsburgh was a Republican party stronghold until 1932; the soaring unemployment of the Great Depression, the New Deal relief programs and the rise of powerful labor unions in the 1930s turned the city into a liberal stronghold of the New Deal Coalition under powerful Democratic mayors. In World War II, it was the center of the "Arsenal of Democracy", producing munitions for the Allied war effort as prosperity returned. Following World War II, Pittsburgh launched a clean air and civic revitalization project known as the "Renaissance." The industrial base continued to expand through the 1960s, but after 1970 foreign competition led to the collapse of the steel industry, with massive layoffs and mill closures. Top corporate headquarters moved out in the 1980s.
In 2007 the city lost its status as a major transportation hub. The population of the Pittsburgh metropolitan area is holding steady at 2.4 million. For thousands of years, Native Americans inhabited the region where the Allegheny and the Monongahela join to form the Ohio. Paleo-Indians conducted a hunter-gatherer lifestyle in the region as early as 19,000 years ago. Meadowcroft Rockshelter, an archaeological site west of Pittsburgh, provides evidence that these first Americans lived in the region from that date. During the Adena culture that followed, Mound Builders erected a large Indian Mound at the future site of McKees Rocks, about three miles from the head of the Ohio; the Indian Mound, a burial site, was augmented in years by members of the Hopewell culture. By 1700 the Iroquois Confederacy, the Five Nations-based south of the Great Lakes in present-day New York, held dominion over the upper Ohio valley, reserving it for hunting grounds. Other tribes included the Lenape, displaced from eastern Pennsylvania by European settlement, the Shawnee, who had migrated up from the south.
With the arrival of European explorers, these tribes and others had been devastated by European infectious diseases, such as smallpox, measles and malaria, to which they had no immunity. In 1748, when Conrad Weiser visited Logstown, 18 miles downriver from Pittsburgh, he counted 789 warriors gathered: the Iroquois included 163 Seneca, 74 Mohawk, 35 Onondaga, 20 Cayuga, 15 Oneida. Other tribes were 165 Lenape, 162 Shawnee, 100 Wyandot, 40 Tisagechroami, 15 Mohican. Shannopin's Town, a Seneca tribe village on the east bank of the Allegheny, was the home village of Queen Aliquippa, it was deserted after 1749. Sawcunk, on the mouth of the Beaver River, was a Lenape settlement and the principal residence of Shingas, a chief of theirs. Chartier's Town was a Shawnee town established in 1734 by Peter Chartier. Kittanning was a Shawnee village on the Allegheny, with an estimated 300 -- 400 residents; the first Europeans arrived in the 1710s as traders. Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a manuscript in 1717, that year European traders established posts and settlements in the area.
Europeans first began to settle in the region in 1748, when the first Ohio Company, an English land speculation company, won a grant of 200,000 acres in the upper Ohio Valley. From a post at present-day Cumberland, the company began to construct an 80-mile wagon road to the Monongahela River employing a Delaware Indian chief named Nemacolin and a party of settlers headed by Capt. Michael Cresap to begin widening the track into a road, it followed the same route as an ancient Amerindian trail, now known as Nemacolin's Trail. The river crossing and flats at Redstone creek, was the earliest point and shortest distance for the descent of a wagon road. In the war, the site fortified as Fort Burd was one of several possible destinations. Another alternative was the divergent route that became Braddock's Road a few years through present-day New Stanton. In the event, the colonists did not succeed in improving the Amerindian path to a wagon road much beyond the Cumberland Narrows pass before they were confronted by hostile Native Americans.
The colonists mounted a series of expeditions in order to accomplish piecemeal improvements to the track. The French had built nearby Logstown as a trade and council center for the Native Americans to increase their influence in the Ohio Valley. Between June
Allegheny Cemetery is one of the largest and oldest burial grounds in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. It is a nonsectarian, wooded hillside park located at 4734 Butler Street in the Lawrenceville neighborhood and bounded by the Bloomfield and Stanton Heights areas, it is sited on the north-facing slope of hills above the Allegheny River. In 1973 the cemetery's Butler Street Gatehouse was listed on the National Register of Historic Places and in 1980 the entire cemetery was listed on the National Register. Incorporated in 1844, the Allegheny Cemetery is the sixth oldest rural cemetery in America and has expanded over the years to now encompass 300 acres. Allegheny Cemetery memorializes more than 124,000 people; some of the oldest graves are of soldiers who fought in the French and Indian War, which were moved here from their original burial site at Pittsburgh's Trinity Cathedral downtown. Many notables from the city of Pittsburgh are buried here; the cemetery was amongst those profiled in the PBS documentary A Cemetery Special.
In 1834 three members of the Third Presbyterian Church of Pittsburgh, Dr. J. Ramsey Speer, Stephen Colwell and John Chislett, Sr. tried to establish a rural cemetery near Pittsburgh. Dr. Speer visited several famous rural cemeteries, Mount Auburn Cemetery on Boston, Laurel Hill Cemetery in Philadelphia, Green-Wood Cemetery in New York. In 1842 the 100 acre farm of Colonel Bayard was selected for the site. An Act of Incorporation passed the Pennsylvania Legislature and was signed by Gov. David R. Porter on April 24, 1844."Mt. Barney" was selected as the site of a memorial to naval heroes in 1848 and Commodore Joshua Barney and Lt. James L. Parker were reinterred there. Another memorial was erected on Memorial Day, 1937 to the memory of over 7,000 servicemen buried in the cemetery. Marcus E. Baldwin, Major League Baseball Player Joseph Baker, mayor of Pittsburgh Joshua Barney, Commodore in the United States Navy and American Revolutionary War veteran Richard Biddle, US Congressman Lem Billings and campaigner for John F. Kennedy James Blackmore, Mayor of Pittsburgh from 1872-1875 and 1868-1869.
Francis B. Brewer, US Congressman Don Brockett, motion picture and television actor, "Chef Brockett" on the PBS series Mister Rogers' Neighborhood James W. Brown, US Congressman Eben Byers, wealthy American industrialist and socialite noted for his gruesome death caused by consumption of the radioactive patent medicine Radithor. John Caldwell, Jr. George Westinghouse partner and member of the South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club Louis Semple Clarke, automotive pioneer, founder of the Autocar Company and member of the South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club James Wallace Conant, manager of the Schenley Park Casino and Duquesne Gardens and founder of the Western Pennsylvania Hockey League. Beano Cook, college football commentator John Dalzell, US Congressman Cornelius Darragh, US Congressman Ebenezer Denny, first mayor of Pittsburgh, American Revolutionary War veteran Harmar Denny, U. S. Congressman Harmar D. Denny, Jr. US Congressman William J. Diehl, Pittsburgh Mayor Harry Allison Estep, US Congressman John Baptiste Ford, founder of PPG Industries and Ford City, Pennsylvania Walter Forward, United States Secretary of the Treasury Stephen Foster, songwriter Josh Gibson, baseball great of the Negro Leagues Gus Greenlee, Major League Baseball Team Owner Moses Hampton, US Congressman General Alexander Hays William B.
Hays, Pittsburgh mayor Joseph Horne, founder of Pittsburgh department store Horne's the chain of stores closed in 1994 Thomas Marshall Howe, US Congressman Alfred E. Hunt, co-founder of the company that became Alcoa Thomas Irwin, US Congressman William Wallace Irwin, US Congressman, Pittsburgh Mayor William Freame Johnston, Governor of Pennsylvania Samuel Kier, pioneer oil refiner Andrew W. Loomis, US Congressman F. T. F. Lovejoy, associate of Andrew Carnegie William McClelland, US Congressman Charles McClure, US Congressman James McCord, millionaire owner of the oldest hattery west of the Allegheny Mountains and member of the South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club Henry Sellers McKee, millionaire glass manufacturer, founder of Jeannette and member of the South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club Robert McKnight, US Congressman William McNair, Pittsburgh mayor Thomas Mellon, founder of Mellon Bank Alexander Pollock Moore, publisher of the Pittsburgh Leader and ambassador, married to actress Lillian Russell James Kennedy Moorhead, US Congressman Philip H. Morgan, jurist, diplomat General James S. Negley, Civil War general and U.
S. Congressman John Neville, American Revolutionary War veteran and tax collector during the Whiskey Rebellion George Tener Oliver, publisher of the Pittsburgh Gazette Times and Chronicle Telegraph, US Senator Alfred L. Pearson, United States Army officer Henry Kirke Porter, US Congressman James Hay Reed, founding partner, Knox & Reed, member of the South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club John Buchanan Robinson, US Congressman William Robinson, Jr. politician and militia general Calbraith Perry Rodgers, aviation pioneer James Ross, US Sen
Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, is the county seat of Allegheny County. As of 2018, a population of 308,144 lives within the city limits, making it the 63rd-largest city in the U. S; the metropolitan population of 2,362,453, is the largest in both the Ohio Valley and Appalachia, the second-largest in Pennsylvania, the 26th-largest in the U. S. Pittsburgh is located in the south west of the state, at the confluence of the Allegheny and Ohio rivers. Pittsburgh is known both as "the Steel City" for its more than 300 steel-related businesses and as the "City of Bridges" for its 446 bridges; the city features 30 skyscrapers, two inclined railways, a pre-revolutionary fortification and the Point State Park at the confluence of the rivers. The city developed as a vital link of the Atlantic coast and Midwest, as the mineral-rich Allegheny Mountains made the area coveted by the French and British empires, Whiskey Rebels, Civil War raiders. Aside from steel, Pittsburgh has led in manufacturing of aluminum, shipbuilding, foods, transportation, computing and electronics.
For part of the 20th century, Pittsburgh was behind only New York and Chicago in corporate headquarters employment. S. stockholders per capita. America's 1980s deindustrialization laid off area blue-collar workers and thousands of downtown white-collar workers when the longtime Pittsburgh-based world headquarters moved out; this heritage left the area with renowned museums, medical centers, research centers, a diverse cultural district. Today, Apple Inc. Bosch, Uber, Autodesk, Microsoft and IBM are among 1,600 technology firms generating $20.7 billion in annual Pittsburgh payrolls. The area has served as the long-time federal agency headquarters for cyber defense, software engineering, energy research and the nuclear navy; the area is home to 68 colleges and universities, including research and development leaders Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh. The nation's eighth-largest bank, eight Fortune 500 companies, six of the top 300 U. S. law firms make their global headquarters in the area, while RAND, BNY Mellon, FedEx, Bayer and NIOSH have regional bases that helped Pittsburgh become the sixth-best area for U.
S. job growth. In 2015, Pittsburgh was listed among the "eleven most livable cities in the world"; the region is a hub for Environmental Design and energy extraction. In 2019, Pittsburgh was deemed “Food City of the Year” by the San Francisco-based restaurant and hospitality consulting firm af&co. Many restaurants were mentioned favorable, among them were Superior Motors in Braddock, Driftwood Oven in Lawrenceville, Spork in Bloomfield, Fish nor Fowl in Garfield and Bitter Ends Garden & Luncheonette in Bloomfield. Pittsburgh was named in 1758 by General John Forbes, in honor of British statesman William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham; as Forbes was a Scot, he pronounced the name PITS-bər-ə. Pittsburgh was incorporated as a borough on April 22, 1794, with the following Act: "Be it enacted by the Pennsylvania State Senate and Pennsylvania House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania... by the authority of the same, that the said town of Pittsburgh shall be... erected into a borough, which shall be called the borough of Pittsburgh for ever."
From 1891 to 1911, the city's name was federally recognized as "Pittsburg", though use of the final h was retained during this period by the city government and other local organizations. After a public campaign, the federal decision to drop the h was reversed; the area of the Ohio headwaters was long inhabited by the Shawnee and several other settled groups of Native Americans. The first known European to enter the region was the French explorer/trader Robert de La Salle from Quebec during his 1669 expedition down the Ohio River. European pioneers Dutch, followed in the early 18th century. Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a 1717 manuscript, that year European fur traders established area posts and settlements. In 1749, French soldiers from Quebec launched an expedition to the forks to unite Canada with French Louisiana via the rivers. During 1753–54, the British hastily built Fort Prince George before a larger French force drove them off; the French built Fort Duquesne based on LaSalle's 1669 claims.
The French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War, began with the future Pittsburgh as its center. British General Edward Braddock was dispatched with Major George Washington as his aide to take Fort Duquesne; the British and colonial force were defeated at Braddock's Field. General John Forbes took the forks in 1758. Forbes began construction on Fort Pitt, named after William Pitt the Elder while the settlement was named "Pittsborough". During Pontiac's Rebellion, native tribes conducted a siege of Fort Pitt for two months until Colonel Henry Bouquet relieved it after the Battle of Bushy Run. Fort Pitt is notable as the site of an early use of smallpox for biological warfare. Lord Jeffery Amherst ordered blankets contaminated from smallpox victims to be distributed in 1763 to the tribes surrounding the fort; the disease spread into other areas, infected other tribes, killed hundreds of thousands. During this period, the powerful nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, based in New York, had maintained control of much of the Ohio Valley as hunting grounds by right of conquest after defeating other tribes.
By the terms of the 1768 Treaty of
Joseph Barker (mayor)
Joseph "Joe" Barker was an American public and political figure of the 1800s remembered to this day for his rash, uncompromising temper, violent tirades against corruption drawing large crowds, landing him in prison, paving way for his term in office as the 17th mayor of Pittsburgh. The origins of Joe Barker are shrouded in mystery: nothing is known of his early years, background, or his date of birth, as evident by its absence on his epitaph. Barker's appearance, in contrast to what was common of the era, was described as always cleanly shaven and well-dressed in nearly all black attire, it was said he was never to be seen without a neckcloth, black stovepipe hat, long black cape. Important, although sparse, details are provided in the information collected by the Census of 1850. Barker is listed therein as 44 years old and living in Pittsburgh's Fifth Ward with his Irish-born wife Jane Holmes and three children, Charles Augustus and David, his birthplace is described as being in "Pennsylvania", his occupation is given as "Mayor".
Contrary to propaganda spread by his enemies, incorrectly referenced in articles to this day, Barker was far from illiterate, as indicated on the 1850 census. As a sardonic nod to his opposition, Barker chose to leave the "sane" category on the census unchecked. Joe Barker gained vast public attention and notoriety as a street preacher of the violent class, vehemently attacking political corruption. In November 1849, a riot broke out following one of Barker's more extreme tirades in Market Square, Mayor John Herron had him arrested on three counts: Inciting a riot Obstructing traffic Using lewd and indecent language in the delivery of incendiary threatsOn November 19 the charges resulted in a fine and 12-month jail sentence, but Barker did not display remorse, stating, "Judge Patton made a threat two weeks ago of what he would do if I was thrown into his power. Now let him touch me if he dares. I'll hang him to a lamppost if he lays a finger on me." The next mayoral election was fast approaching, Barker's nativist supporters circulated a write-in petition during his imprisonment which resulted in his election as mayor to succeed Herron.
Accounts of Barker's one-year 1850 -- 51 term describe it as a period of nativist strife. Barker lived for eleven years after leaving the mayoralty and despite a number of additional attempts, never again held public office, he was in his mid-fifties at the time of his decapitation in a train accident in the neighboring town of Manchester. Interment was in Allegheny Cemetery
Samuel Pettigrew served as Mayor of Pittsburgh from 1832 to 1836, his administration was marked by the industrialization of the city. Pittsburgh celebrated its newfound might by christening the first steam locomotive in the mid-west aptly named "The Pittsburgh". Mayor Pettigrew contended with one of the city's first major disasters when a flood crested at 38.2 feet in February 1832. He was both the last Pittsburgh mayor appointed by City Council and the first Pittsburgh mayor to win a general election outright by all the city's citizens. Pettigrew married Martha Barclay in 1814, she died in 1823, he married Charlotte Clayland in 1824. He died in 1841. List of mayors of Pittsburgh
Henry I. Gourley
Henry I. Gourley was Mayor of Pittsburgh from 1890 to 1893. Henry Irvin Gourley was born in Pennsylvania in 1838 to a peasant family; because of his families inability to support themselves he was sent early in life to a farm in Pine Township, Pennsylvania in Allegheny County, where he displayed a great work ethic and became a school teacher. In 1876 he was elected to the City Council. Mayor Gourley took office in 1890 and his reputation for hard and honest work served him well in city hall, his term was noted for the trust. After he left office he served as city controller before his death in 1899, he is buried in Homewood Cemetery
George W. Guthrie
George Wilkins Guthrie, served as Mayor of Pittsburgh from 1906 to 1909 and was United States Ambassador to Japan from 1913 to 1917. George Wilkins Guthrie was born in Pittsburgh on September 5, 1848 to John B. Guthrie and Catherine Murray Guthrie. Guthrie attended public school in Pittsburgh the Western University of Pennsylvania, where he graduated in 1866. Next, he studied law at the Columbian College for three years, at which point he was admitted to the bar, he became an attorney and started an involvement in reform issues during an era of increasing government corruption and largess. On December 2, 1886, he married Florence Julia Howe Guthrie, daughter of General Thomas Marshall Howe of Pittsburgh. Guthrie, a Democrat, was defeated narrowly by Henry P. Ford. Guthrie was elected mayor in 1906 and started instituting city policies to stem local corruption, while working locally he pushed for statewide reforms. Guthrie is best remembered for two accomplishments. First, for the success of the legislation he and D.
T. Watson, the famous corporate lawyer, created which led to the merger between Pittsburgh and Allegheny City in 1906; this consolidation controversial and unpopular among Allegheny residents withstood challenges in the Pennsylvania and United States Supreme Courts, made the new Greater Pittsburgh the sixth largest city in the United States. Second, the implementation of a water filtration system during Guthrie's term reduced the incidence of typhoid in Pittsburgh; the first filtered water, cleaned in a slow sand filter, was delivered on December 18, 1907, by October 3, 1908, the entire water supply of Pittsburgh was being filtered. Guthrie's term was noted for a significant decline in the city's death rate due to improvement in public health; the rate had been among the highest in America's northern cities, around 20 per 1,000 inhabitants, a level at which it had been stuck for 20 years. By the end of his term, the rate had fallen to 16 per 1,000, the lowest in Pittsburgh's history to that point.
Notable declines were seen in incidences of typhoid fever. After leaving office, Guthrie was appointed United States Ambassador to Japan on May 20, 1913, he was accredited as special Ambassador and represented the President and the people of the United States at the funeral of Empress Shōken, the Dowager Empress of Japan, on April 7, 1914, was the personal representative of President Wilson at the coronation of Emperor Taishō of Japan on September 30, 1915. He died while at that post in Tokyo in 1917, after collapsing while playing golf with an American reporter; the Japanese government sent the armored cruiser Azuma to return his body to San Francisco as a mark of respect. He was Vice President and Trustee of the Dollar Savings Bank of Pittsburgh, a Trustee of the University of Pittsburgh, a member of the Board of Managers of St. Margaret's Memorial Hospital and the Kingsley House Association, a member of the Greater Pittsburgh Chamber of Commerce, the Pittsburgh and Duquesne Golf Clubs, he was internationally known for his activities in Masonic bodies and served as Past Grand Master of Pennsylvania Masons.
He is buried in Allegheny Cemetery in Lawrenceville, PA. Guthrie Street in the Pittsburgh neighborhood of Regent Square was constructed in 1910 and named in the Mayor's honor