Warsaw National Philharmonic Orchestra
The Warsaw National Philharmonic Orchestra is a Polish orchestra based in Warsaw. Founded in 1901, it is one of Poland's oldest musical institutions; the orchestra was conceived on initiative of an assembly of Polish aristocrats and financiers, as well as musicians. Between 1901 and the outbreak of World War II in 1939, several virtuoso- and conductor-composers performed their works with the orchestra, including Edvard Grieg, Arthur Honegger, Prokofiev, Maurice Ravel, Camille Saint-Saëns, Richard Strauss, Igor Stravinsky. Among the other luminaries who played with the Philharmonic were pianists Ignacy Jan Paderewski and Arthur Rubinstein, violinists Jascha Heifetz and Pablo de Sarasate, cellist Pablo Casals; the Philharmonic has played host to the Chopin International Piano Competition since the contest began in 1927, appeared at the inaugural Wieniawski International Violin Competition and Universal Festival of Polish Art. The orchestra underwent an eclipse during the Second World War, during which it lost half its members to the war, as well as its elegant building, erected and modeled after the Paris Opera around the start of the 20th century by Karol Kozłowski.
In 1947, the orchestra resumed its regular season, but had to wait until 1955 for its home to be rebuilt, albeit in a new style. When the building was dedicated on 21 February, the Philharmonic was proclaimed the National Orchestra of Poland; the conductor Witold Rowicki was responsible for helping modernize the ensemble and ensuring the orchestra cultivated Polish music both old and recent, as represented by the works of Frédéric Chopin, Henryk Górecki, Witold Lutosławski, without failing to refine its mastery of the world repertoire. At home, the orchestra performs in the Warsaw Autumn International Festival of Contemporary Music besides accompanying the final rounds of the Chopin International Piano Competitions, while abroad it has toured the five continents to critical acclaim; the Philharmonic has recorded music for several anime series. Notable shows include Gankutsuou: The Count of Monte Cristo, Cowboy Bebop, Soukyuu no Fafner, Giant Robo: The Animation, Ah! My Goddess: The Movie, Princess Nine, Vision of Escaflowne, Wolf's Rain, Hellsing Ultimate, Genesis of Aquarion, more Fullmetal Alchemist: Brotherhood.
It has recorded music for Namco's Ace Combat 5: The Unsung War, together with the Hollywood Session Orchestra, for the SEGA action-RPG Phantasy Star Universe. The orchestra was involved in a major performance for the film Avalon, composed by Kenji Kawai, part of a performance is shown in the film, it played the soundtrack for the film Battle Royale. Most they have recorded music for the Square Enix role-playing video game Final Fantasy XIII. Emil Młynarski Zygmunt Noskowski Henryk Melcer-Szczawiński Grzegorz Fitelberg Zdzisław Birnbaum Roman Chojnacki Józef Ozimiński Olgierd Straszyński Andrzej Panufnik Jan Maklakiewicz Witold Rudziński Władysław Raczkowski Witold Rowicki Bohdan Wodiczko Kazimierz Kord, now Honorary Director Antoni Wit Jacek Kaspszyk History from the Orchestra's official website Official website Official service of sale of tickets www.warszawa1939.pl The Warsaw Philharmonic edifice before the World War II. Warsaw National Philharmonic Orchestra at Anime News Network's encyclopedia Warsaw National Philharmonic Orchestra discography at MusicBrainz
Hnojník is a village in Frýdek-Místek District, Moravian-Silesian Region, Czech Republic, on the Stonávka River. It has a population of 1,446; the village was first mentioned in a Latin document of Diocese of Wrocław called Liber fundationis episcopatus Vratislaviensis from around 1305 as item in Gnoynik. It meant; the creation of the village was a part of a larger settlement campaign taking place in the late 13th century on the territory of what will be known as Upper Silesia. Politically the village belonged to the Duchy of Teschen, formed in 1290 in the process of feudal fragmentation of Poland and was ruled by a local branch of Piast dynasty. In 1327 the duchy became a fee of the Kingdom of Bohemia, which after 1526 became part of the Habsburg Monarchy; the village became a seat of a Catholic parish prior to the 16th century. After the 1540s Protestant Reformation prevailed in the Duchy of Teschen and a local Catholic church was taken over by Lutherans, it was taken from them in the region by a special commission and given back to the Roman Catholic Church on 23 March 1654.
Since the 15th century, it was owned by several noble families. In 1736, the village was bought by Karl Beess; the Beess family was the last feudal owner of the Hnojník manor. The local population worked as peasants on the properties of the Beess family. Several mills operated in the village; the Beess family established distillery and a brickworks. In 1917, Teschen-based Jewish businessman Ignaz Schmelz established a steam-powered sawmill. After Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire a modern municipal division was introduced in the re-established Austrian Silesia; the village as a municipality was subscribed to the legal district of Cieszyn. According to the censuses conducted in 1880, 1890, 1900 and 1910 the population of the municipality dropped from 599 in 1880 to 569 in 1910 with a dwindling majority being native Polish-speakers accompanied by a German-speaking people and Czech-speaking. In terms of religion in 1910 majority were Protestants, followed by Jews; the village was traditionally inhabited by Cieszyn Vlachs, speaking Cieszyn Silesian dialect.
After World War I, fall of Austria-Hungary, Polish–Czechoslovak War and the division of Cieszyn Silesia in 1920, it became a part of Czechoslovakia as Hnojník. T the beginning of July 1930, the village was visited by Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, President of Czechoslovakia who travelled across the Czechoslovak part of Cieszyn Silesia. Following the Munich Agreement, in October 1938 together with the Zaolzie region it was annexed by Poland, administratively adjoined to Cieszyn County of Silesian Voivodeship, it was annexed by Nazi Germany at the beginning of World War II. After the war it was restored to Czechoslovakia; the Beess family property was confiscated in November 1945. In 1946, Baron Georg Beess, the last nobleman from the Beess family to own properties in Hnojník, was expelled from the country and was deprived of his property according to the Beneš decrees affecting the Germans in Czechoslovakia; the mayor of Hnojník refused to sign the decree to expel Georg Beess he was expelled to Germany where he died in 1955.
The most prominent landmark in Hnojník is a baroque château built in 1736 in the central part of the village by order of Karl Beess. It was rebuilt in an empire style in the first half of the 19th century according to the plans of Viennese architect Joseph Kornhäusel. After World War II, the château was confiscated by the state administration. Part of the furniture and paintings was relocated to the château in Šternberk. However, a significant part of it was stolen by unknown persons; the library was relocated to Potštát. The château became a property since 1966 of the collective farm. Since the 1970s, the château dilapidated. After the fall of communism in 1989, it became a property of a private owner who didn't renovate it and the landmark continued to dilapidate; the state administration sold the landmark in 2008 to a new private owner, after the old one lost his property rights when he was imprisoned. The château in Hnojník remains one of the most endangered cultural landmarks in the country.
Another important landmark is the Roman Catholic Ascension of the Virgin Mary Church. It is not clear when it was built, but the initial wooden church was torn down and a new brick empire style one built in its place in 1808–1812. There is a Catholic cemetery adjacent to the church, it is bordered by a 19th-century stone wall. The Beess family tomb is located there; this rectangular building was built in the second half of the 19th century in an empire style. The first school was built in the 17th century; the language of instruction was Polish and also German. The second school in the village began operating in 1853, it was a private Protestant school. Since 1874, it was a public school, therefore Catholic children could attend it; the language of instruction was Polish. Both schools were joined in 1923 to one Polish school. In June 2008, it was named after the most known personality linked to Hnojník. Kubisz was an educator and writer, author of the poem Płyniesz Olzo po dolinie which became an unofficial anthem of the Zaolzie region, especial
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Polish minority in the Czech Republic
The Polish minority in the Czech Republic is a Polish national minority living in the Zaolzie region of western Cieszyn Silesia. The Polish community is the only national minority in the Czech Republic, linked to a specific geographical area. Zaolzie is located in the north-eastern part of the country, it comprises the eastern part of Frýdek-Místek District. Many Poles living in other regions of the Czech Republic have roots in Zaolzie as well. Poles formed the largest ethnic group in Cieszyn Silesia in the 19th century, but at the beginning of the 20th century the Czech population grew; the Czechs and Poles collaborated on resisting Germanization movements, but this collaboration ceased after World War I. In 1920 the region of Zaolzie was incorporated into Czechoslovakia after the Polish–Czechoslovak War. Since the Polish population demographically decreased. In 1938 it was annexed by Poland in 1939 by Nazi Germany; the region was given back to Czechoslovakia after World War II. Polish organizations were banned by the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia.
After the Velvet Revolution Polish organizations were re-created again and Zaolzie had adopted bilingual signs. The largest ethnic group inhabiting the Zaolzie area was the Poles. During the 19th century the number of Germans grew. At the beginning of the 20th century and from 1920 to 1938, the Czech population grew and the Poles became a minority, which they are to this day. From 1848, the national consciousness of the local people grew and from 1848 to the end of the 19th century local Poles and Czechs co-operated, uniting against the Germanizing tendencies of the Austrian Empire, of Austria-Hungary. Various Polish clubs were founded. Most schools were Polish, followed by Czech. At the end of the century, ethnic tensions appeared; this growth caused a wave of immigration from Galicia, when about 60,000 people arrived and settled between 1880 and 1910. They settled in the Ostrau region, but in Zaolzie; the new immigrants were Polish and poor, about half of them being illiterate, worked in coal mining and metallurgy.
For these people, the most important factor was material well-being. The social structure of the territory was divided along ethnic lines. Germans were economically strongest owners, Czechs were clerks and other officials, Poles were manual workers and metallurgists; this structure had changed over time but in 1921 it was still similar, with 61.5% of Poles working as labourers. There was a tense climate in 1918–1920, a time of decision, it was decided that a plebiscite would be held in Cieszyn Silesia asking people which country the territory should join. Plebiscite commissioners arrived at the end of January 1920 and after analyzing the situation declared a state of emergency in the territory on 19 May 1920; the situation in the territory remained tense. Mutual intimidation, acts of terror and killings affected the area. A plebiscite could not be held in this atmosphere. On 10 July both sides renounced the idea of a plebiscite and entrusted the Conference of Ambassadors with the decision. 58.1% of the area of Cieszyn Silesia and 67.9% of the population was incorporated into Czechoslovakia on 28 July 1920 by a decision of the Spa Conference.
This division was in practice what gave birth to the concept of the Zaolzie—which means "the land beyond the Olza River". Local Czech militants forced about 5,000 local Poles from the northern part of the region, to flee to Poland before July 1920. 4,000 of these expellees were located in a transitional camps in Oświęcim. About 12,000 Poles in total were forced to leave the region and flee to Poland in the aftermath of the division of Cieszyn Silesia; the local Polish population felt that Warsaw had betrayed them and they were not satisfied with the division. It is not quite clear. Estimates range from 110,000 to 140,000 people in 1921; the 1921 and 1930 census numbers are not accurate since nationality depended on self-declaration and many Poles declared Czech nationality as a result of fear of the new authorities and as compensation for some benefits. Czechoslovak law guaranteed rights for national minorities, but the reality in Zaolzie was quite different; the local Czech authorities made it more difficult for local Poles to obtain citizenship, while the process was expedited when the applicant pledged to declare Czech nationality and send his children to a Czech school.
Newly built Czech schools were better supported and equipped, thus inducing some Poles to send their children there. This and other factors contributed to the assimilation of Poles and to significant emigration to Poland. After a few years, the heightened nationalism typical of the period around 1920 receded and local Poles co-operated with the Czechs. Still, Czechization was supported by Prague, which did not abide by certain laws related to language and organizational issues. Polish deputies in Czechoslovak National Assembly tried to put that issues on agenda. One way or the other local Poles thus assimilated into the Czech population. On 1 October 1938 Zaolz
John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts
The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts is the United States National Cultural Center, located on the Potomac River, adjacent to the Watergate complex in Washington, D. C. named in 1964 as a memorial to President John F. Kennedy. Opened on September 8, 1971, the performing arts center is a multi-dimensional facility: it produces a wide array of performances encompassing the genres of theater, dance and orchestral, jazz and folk music. In addition to the 3,500 performances held annually for audiences totaling nearly two million, the center hosts touring productions and television and radio broadcasts that, are seen by 20 million more. Now in its 45th season, the center presents music and theater and supports artists in the creation of new work. With its artistic affiliate, the National Symphony Orchestra, the center's achievements as a commissioner and nurturer of developing artists have resulted in over 200 theatrical productions, dozens of new ballets and musical works. Authorized by the 1958 National Cultural Center Act of Congress, which requires that its programming be sustained through private funds, the center represents a public–private partnership.
Its activities include educational and outreach initiatives entirely funded through ticket sales and gifts from individuals and private foundations. The building, designed by architect Edward Durell Stone, was constructed by Philadelphia contractor John McShain, is administered as a bureau of the Smithsonian Institution. An earlier design proposal called for a more curvy, spaceship-inspired building similar to how the Watergate complex appears today, it receives annual federal funding to pay for its operation. The idea for a national cultural center dates to 1933 when First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt discussed ideas for the Emergency Relief and Civil Works Administration to create employment for unemployed actors during the Great Depression. Congress held hearings in 1935 on plans to establish a Cabinet level Department of Science and Literature, to build a monumental theater and arts building on Capitol Hill near the Supreme Court building. A 1938 congressional resolution called for construction of a "public building which shall be known as the National Cultural Center" near Judiciary Square, but nothing materialized.
The idea for a national theater resurfaced in 1950, when U. S. Representative Arthur George Klein of New York introduced a bill to authorize funds to plan and build a cultural center; the bill included provisions that the center would prohibit any discrimination of audience. In 1955, the Stanford Research Institute was commissioned to select a site and provide design suggestions for the center. From 1955 to 1958, Congress debated the idea amid much controversy. A bill was passed in Congress in the summer of 1958 and on September 4, President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed into law the National Cultural Center Act which provided momentum for the project; this was the first time that the federal government helped finance a structure dedicated to the performing arts. The legislation required a portion of the costs, estimated at $10–25 million, to be raised within five years of the bill's passage. Edward Durell Stone was selected as architect for the project in June 1959, he presented preliminary designs to the President's Music Committee in October 1959, along with estimated costs of $50 million, double the original estimates of $25–30 million.
By November 1959, estimated costs had escalated to $61 million. Despite this, Stone's design was well received in editorials in The Washington Post, Washington Star, approved by the United States Commission of Fine Arts, National Capital Planning Commission, the National Park Service; the National Cultural Center was renamed the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in 1964, following the assassination of President Kennedy; the National Cultural Center Board of Trustees, a group President Eisenhower established January 29, 1959, led fundraising. Fundraising efforts were not successful, with only $13,425 raised in the first three years. President John F. Kennedy was interested in bringing culture to the nation's capital, provided leadership and support for the project. In 1961, President Kennedy asked Roger L. Stevens to help develop the National Cultural Center, serve as chairman of the Board of Trustees. Stevens recruited First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy as Honorary Chairman of the Center, former First Lady Mamie Eisenhower as co-chairman.
The total cost of construction was $70 million. Congress allocated $43 million for construction costs, including $23 million as an outright grant and the other $20 million in bonds. Donations comprised a significant portion of funding, including $5 million from the Ford Foundation, $500,000 from the Kennedy family. Other major donors included J. Willard Marriott, Marjorie Merriweather Post, John D. Rockefeller III, Robert W. Woodruff, as well as many corporate donors. Foreign countries provided gifts to the Kennedy Center, including a gift of 3,700 tons of Carrara marble from Italy from the Italian government, used in the building's construction. President Lyndon B. Johnson dug the ceremonial first-shovel of earth at the groundbreaking for the Kennedy Center December 2, 1964. However, debate continued for another year over the Foggy Bottom site, with some advocating for another location on Pennsylvania Avenue. Excavation of the site got underway on December 11, 1965, the site was c
Frédéric François Chopin was a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist of the Romantic era who wrote for solo piano. He has maintained worldwide renown as a leading musician of his era, one whose "poetic genius was based on a professional technique, without equal in his generation."Chopin was born Fryderyk Franciszek Chopin in the Duchy of Warsaw and grew up in Warsaw, which in 1815 became part of Congress Poland. A child prodigy, he completed his musical education and composed his earlier works in Warsaw before leaving Poland at the age of 20, less than a month before the outbreak of the November 1830 Uprising. At 21, he settled in Paris. Thereafter—in the last 18 years of his life—he gave only 30 public performances, preferring the more intimate atmosphere of the salon, he supported himself by selling his compositions and by giving piano lessons, for which he was in high demand. Chopin formed a friendship with Franz Liszt and was admired by many of his other musical contemporaries. In 1835, Chopin obtained French citizenship.
After a failed engagement to Maria Wodzińska from 1836 to 1837, he maintained an troubled relationship with the French writer Amantine Dupin. A brief and unhappy visit to Majorca with Sand in 1838–39 would prove one of his most productive periods of composition. In his final years, he was supported financially by his admirer Jane Stirling, who arranged for him to visit Scotland in 1848. For most of his life, Chopin was in poor health, he died in Paris in 1849 at the age of 39 of pericarditis aggravated by tuberculosis. All of Chopin's compositions include the piano. Most are for solo piano, though he wrote two piano concertos, a few chamber pieces, some 19 songs set to Polish lyrics, his piano writing was technically demanding and expanded the limits of the instrument: his own performances were noted for their nuance and sensitivity. Chopin invented the concept of the instrumental ballade, his major piano works include mazurkas, nocturnes, polonaises, études, scherzos and sonatas, some published only posthumously.
Among the influences on his style of composition were Polish folk music, the classical tradition of J. S. Bach and Schubert, the atmosphere of the Paris salons of which he was a frequent guest, his innovations in style and musical form, his association of music with nationalism, were influential throughout and after the late Romantic period. Chopin's music, his status as one of music's earliest superstars, his association with political insurrection, his high-profile love-life, his early death have made him a leading symbol of the Romantic era, his works remain popular, he has been the subject of numerous films and biographies of varying historical fidelity. Fryderyk Chopin was born in Żelazowa Wola, 46 kilometres west of Warsaw, in what was the Duchy of Warsaw, a Polish state established by Napoleon; the parish baptismal record gives his birthday as 22 February 1810, cites his given names in the Latin form Fridericus Franciscus. However, the composer and his family used the birthdate 1 March, now accepted as the correct date.
Fryderyk's father, Nicolas Chopin, was a Frenchman from Lorraine who had emigrated to Poland in 1787 at the age of sixteen. Nicolas tutored children of the Polish aristocracy, in 1806 married Tekla Justyna Krzyżanowska, a poor relative of the Skarbeks, one of the families for whom he worked. Fryderyk was baptized on Easter Sunday, 23 April 1810, in the same church where his parents had married, in Brochów, his eighteen-year-old godfather, for whom he was named, was Fryderyk Skarbek, a pupil of Nicolas Chopin. Fryderyk was only son. Nicolas was devoted to his adopted homeland, insisted on the use of the Polish language in the household. In October 1810, six months after Fryderyk's birth, the family moved to Warsaw, where his father acquired a post teaching French at the Warsaw Lyceum housed in the Saxon Palace. Fryderyk lived with his family in the Palace grounds; the father played the violin. Chopin was of slight build, in early childhood was prone to illnesses. Fryderyk may have had some piano instruction from his mother, but his first professional music tutor, from 1816 to 1821, was the Czech pianist Wojciech Żywny.
His elder sister Ludwika took lessons from Żywny, played duets with her brother. It became apparent that he was a child prodigy. By the age of seven Fryderyk had begun giving public concerts, in 1817 he composed two polonaises, in G minor and B-flat major, his next work, a polonaise in A-flat major of 1821, dedicated to Żywny, is his earliest surviving musical manuscript. In 1817 the Saxon Palace was requisitioned by Warsaw's Russian governor for military use, the Warsaw Lyceum was reestablished in the Kazimierz Palace. Fryderyk and his family moved to a building. During this period, Fryderyk was sometimes invited to the Belweder Palace as playmate to the son of the ruler of Russian Poland, Grand Duke Constantine Pavlovich of Russia. Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz, in his dramatic eclogue, "Nasze Przebiegi", attested to "little Chopin's" popularity. From September 1823 to 1826, Chopin
Solidarity (Polish trade union)
Solidarity is a Polish labour union, founded on 17 September 1980 at the Lenin Shipyard in Gdańsk under the leadership of Lech Wałęsa. It was the first trade union in a Warsaw Pact country, not controlled by a communist party, its membership peaked at 10 million members at its September 1981 Congress, which constituted one third of the total working-age population of Poland. In the 1980s, Solidarity was a broad anti-bureaucratic social movement, using the methods of civil resistance to advance the causes of workers' rights and social change; the government attempted to destroy the union by imposing martial law in Poland, which lasted from December 1981 to July 1983 and was followed by several years of political repression from 8 October 1982, but in the end it was forced to negotiate with Solidarity. In the union's clandestine years, Pope John Paul II and the United States provided significant financial support, estimated to be as much as 50 million US dollars; the round table talks between the government and the Solidarity-led opposition led to semi-free elections in 1989.
By the end of August, a Solidarity-led coalition government was formed. In December 1990, Wałęsa was elected President of Poland. Since Solidarity has become a more traditional liberal trade union, its membership had dropped to 680,000 by 2010 and 400,000 by 2011. In the 1970s Poland's government raised food prices; this and other stresses led to a subsequent government crackdown on dissent. The KOR, the ROPCIO and other groups began to form underground networks to monitor and oppose the government's behavior. Labour unions formed an important part of this network. In 1979, the Polish economy shrank for the first time by 2 percent. Foreign debt reached around $18 billion by 1980. Anna Walentynowicz was fired from the Gdańsk Shipyard on 7 August 1980, five months before she was due to retire, for participation in the illegal trade union; this management decision enraged the workers of the shipyard, who staged a strike action on 14 August defending Anna Walentynowicz and demanding her return. She and Alina Pienkowska transformed a strike over bread and butter issues into a solidarity strike in sympathy with strikes on other establishments.
Solidarity emerged on 31 August 1980 at the Gdańsk Shipyard when the communist government of Poland signed the agreement allowing for its existence. On 17 September 1980, over twenty Inter-factory Founding Committees of free trade unions merged at the congress into one national organization NSZZ Solidarity, it registered on 10 November 1980. Lech Wałęsa and others formed a broad anti-Soviet social movement ranging from people associated with the Catholic Church to members of the anti-Soviet left. Solidarity advocated non-violence in its members' activities. In September 1981 Solidarity's first national congress elected Wałęsa as a president and adopted a republican program, the "Self-governing Republic"; the government attempted to destroy the union with the martial law of 1981 and several years of repression, but in the end it had to start negotiating with the union. Roundtable Talks between the government and Solidarity-led opposition led to semi-free elections in 1989. By the end of August a Solidarity-led coalition government was formed, in December Tadeusz Mazowiecki was elected Prime Minister.
Since 1989 Solidarity has become a more traditional trade union, had little impact on the political scene of Poland in the early 1990s. A political arm founded in 1996 as Solidarity Electoral Action won the parliamentary election in 1997, but lost the following 2001 election; as a political party Solidarity has little influence on modern Polish politics. Unlike the Carter Administration, the Reagan policies supported the Solidarity movement in Poland, and—based on CIA intelligence—waged a public relations campaign to deter what the Carter administration felt was "an imminent move by large Soviet military forces into Poland." Michael Reisman from Yale Law School named operations in Poland as one of the covert actions of CIA during Cold War. Colonel Ryszard Kukliński, a senior officer on the Polish General Staff was secretly sending reports to CIA officer David Forden; the CIA transferred around $2 million yearly in cash to Solidarity, for a total of $10 million over five years. There were no direct links between the CIA and Solidarnosc, all money was channeled through third parties.
CIA officers were barred from meeting Solidarity leaders, the CIA's contacts with Solidarnosc activists were weaker than those of the AFL-CIO, which raised $300,000 from its members, which were used to provide material and cash directly to Solidarity, with no control of Solidarity's use of it. The U. S. Congress authorized the National Endowment for Democracy to promote democracy, the NED allocated $10 million to Solidarity; when the Polish government launched martial law in December 1981, Solidarity was not alerted. Potential explanations for this vary. CIA support for Solidarity included money and training, coordinated by Special Operations. Henry Hyde, U. S. House intelligence committee member, stated that the USA provided "supplies and technical assistance in terms of clandestine newspapers, propaganda, organizational help and advice". Initial funds for covert actions by CIA were $2 million, but soon after aut